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Page 7 of Transportation systems, together with a review of transportation problems and opportunities to be developed : papers read at the State Indusrial and Commercial Conference, held in Louisville, Oct. 4, 1887.

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7 culation upon the rate of construction in the year 1881, and allowing for "at least one commercial crisis and a railway panic," in the two decades. He places Kentucky in class second of this division, which he thinks will require one linear mile of railway to eight square miles of territory. He, there- fore, estimates that, in 1900, Kentucky will require 4,710 miles of railroad, as against 1,598 miles in operation in 1881. But this computation is made on the estimate, so long received, of the area of Kentucky as being only a little over 37,000 square miles. Computed on an area of 42,600 square miles, which more recent, and, we have reason to believe, more accurate sur- veys have assigned her, the railway mileage in Kentucky, according to this formula of Mr. Atkinson's, should be, in the year 1900, 5,325 miles, an increase over the mileage of 1881 of 3,727, and over her present mileage of 3,190; larger, too, than that of Massachusetts in 1881 by 3,375. There are peculiar reasons, however, why Massachusetts should require an amount of railroad service, in proportion to her territory, much beyond other wealthy and prosperous States; reasons which make all comparison, of the kind at- tempted, difficult, and may cause the most careful deductions to prove fallacious. Massachusetts has a much larger popula- tion, in proportion to extent of territory, than any other State, with the exception of Rhode Island. In 1880 her population, per square mile, was more than double that of New York, and nearly treble that of Pennsylvania. While, notwithstanding the sterility of her soil, nearly every available acre is in culti- vation, the great bulk of this population lives in the towns and cities, is engaged in manufacturing, and must be fed with breadstuffs and meats largely drawn from distant sources of supply. I confess to some surprise at the extent of the urban population of Massachusetts, compared with that of the agri- cultural States, upon an examination of the list of towns and the multitude of their inhabitants, as furnished by the census of 1880. Beside a vast number of villages of a population less than one thousand, Massachusetts counted, then, one hundred and sixty-nine (169) towns with a population of more than one thousand, of which forty-seven (47) had a population of more than five thousand. At the same date Kentucky had forty-