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viii Preface from the river Raisin, where the enemy had blockaded them, by sending an inadequate force, which was defeated. He then sent a larger force, which after defeating the enemy were withdrawn without getting the much-needed supplies. While these unmilitary acts were progressing and a third party had been sent to the river Raisin for the supplies, General Brock marched his army to Sand- wich, planted cannon so as to command Detroit, without any interference on the part of Hull, and when ready for bombarding demanded and secured the surrender of Hull, August i 6, 1812, without the American general accom- plishing anything but to cover himself with everlasting disgrace. The fortress of Detroit and the territory of Michigan, with a population of five thousand souls and one thousand four hundred soldiers, with arms, ammuni- tion, and supplies went from Hull to Brock by the surrender. Previous to the surrender of Detroit, Fort Mackinac had been taken by the British, on the 17th of July, 1812. Lieutenant Hanks was in command of the fort, but had not been advised of the declaration of war until the enemy were upon him. The garrison, consisting of only fifty- seven effective men, could do nothing but surrender when taken by surprise, as they were, by an overwhelming enemy.