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Page 6 of Address to the people of Kentucky on the subject of emancipation

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las good as any in the world. Massachusetts has 7,800 square milesof surface-Virginia has t66,- )00 square miles of horizontal area." From this statement of familiar facts, as c in- cer that if Virginia has not equalled New Eng- :aud in progress, the fault is in her people and institutions, and not in her physical condiiion. The area of the New England States is thus Eiven by the best authorities, viz: Maine, Newi -am.shire, Vermont, Massaclhuselts, Rhode T1land, Connecticut, Square Miles. 30,000 9,280 10,212 7,500 l ,206 4,674 Acres. 19,200,000 6,939,200 6,535,680 4,890,000 870,400 2,991,360 Total, 63,026 40,336,640 The relative condition of New England and Virginia, at the present time, is shown by the following statements. They present a compar- ative view of the substantial elements of pros- perity, as well as of moral and intellectual im- provement, in these two sections of the United States-the one a population of diversified in- lustrial employments, and improving all their advantages-the other a population chiefly agri- ,ultural, its manufacturing, mining, and com- inercial advantages but partially developed, im- porting from abroad a large portion of the mn an- ufactures necessary for the supply of its inhabi- tants, most of whichecould readily and advan- tageowsly be made within its own borders. COMPARATIVE VIEW OF TIlE PRESENT CONDITION OF NEw ENGLAND AND VIRGINIA. White population, Free col'd do Slaves, New England. 1840, 2,212,165 do. 22,633 do. 23 Total pop. in 1840, 2,234,821 Persons employed In Agriculture, 414,138 In Manufactures, 187,258 In Mining, 811 In Commerce, 17,757 In Navigation, 44,068 In Learned Profes- sions, 11,050 X Whites over 20 years of age who cannot read and write, 13,041 Students in Colleges, 2,857 Do in Academies, 43,664 -Scholars in Primary Schools, 574,277 Capital employed in Manufactures, 86,824,229 In Foreign Commerce, 19,467,793 In Fisheries, 14,691,294 In L-imber Business, 2,096,041 Bankingeapital in '40, 62,134,850 Virginia. 740,968 49,872 448,987 1,239,827 318,771 54,147 1,995 6,361 3,534 3,866 58,787 1,097 11,083 35,331 11,360,861 4,299,500 28,383 113,210 3,637,400 ESTIMATES OF THE ANNUAL PRObucrs, BY PROF. TUCKER, OF VIRGINIA, ON THE BASIS OF THE CENSUS OF 1840. Innual products of Agriculturc, )f Manufactures, Of Commerce, Xf Mining, 74,749,889 82,784, t85 13,528,740 3,803,638 59,085,821 8,349,211 5,299,451 3,321,629 POPULATION, ACCORDING TO THE CENSUS OF 1830 AN D 1840. White persons in 1830 Colored do 1830 White do 1840 Colored do 1840 Increase of whites in fifty years, Increase of colored persons in fifty yr's, Increase of total pop- ulation, 1,933,338 21,378 2,212,165 22,657 1,219,384 694,300 617,105 740,908 498,829 298,853 5,613 192,636 1,224,997 494,189 The percentage of increase on the total pop- ulation in fifty years, in New England, 121 3-10; in Virginia, 65 6-10. We have given above, the estimates of the comparative products of New Eiigland and Vir- ginia, made by Prof. Tucker. We subjoin those of Dr. Ruffner, whois also a Virginian, because we believe them more correct. He says: "By estimating the value of the yearly plo- ducts of each State, and dividing the same by the number ofpersons employed in makingthose products, we find the average value produced by each person: and by comparing the results of the calculation for the several States, we discov- er the comparative productiveness of Agricultur- al labor in the States. This is what we want for our argument. Professor Tucker, la'e of the University of Virginia, in his useful book, on the Progress of Popuilation, c., has given in detail a calcula- tion of this sorL He was certainly not partial to the North in his estimates. We have care- fully examined them; and think that his valua- tions of products are in some particulars errone- ous. We think, also, that he has omitted tome elements necassary to an accurate result. We have therefore In our own calculations arrived at results somewhat different from his; yet so far as our argument is concerned, the difference is immaterial. We can therefore assure you, fel- low-citizens, that no sort of calculation founded on any thing like truth or reason, can bring out a result materially different from ours. We have not room here for the particulars that enter into the calculations: we can only give the results themselves. The general results, according to both Mr. Tucker and ourselves are as follows: In New England, agricultural industry yields an annual value, averaging about one hundred and eighty dollars to the hand, that is, for each person employed. In the middle States of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, the average is about two lI