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Image 1 of Kentucky fruit notes, vol. 3, No. 4, March 1947

Part of Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station

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num· _ *’. ¤ that . , _ · rmt R. H. New " """‘*'*' ’_4 [ ~01‘ am , “?`; i' ‘*· "` ml in Vol.3—_·_V~_“—gg>g>g’_1~__l\’i¤r¤h. 1947 i,&,t_q;.4r N0. 4 ;e and . e a ..,.,.3351 . KENTUCKY FRUIT NOTES W. D. Armstrong, Horticulturist, Editor ’urduc con- 1 "_"m· ORCHARD SOIL MANAGE- Seems to be corrected by the use of 1 _“ - _D_ MENT pound of borax, broadcast uniformly >i>cciz;. around a mature apple tree. The S btw A· J· OLNEY use of boron is not recommended ‘l15<·¤.> . Soil is of course one of the chief generally because it is toxic if too ¤1`<·¤¤f1 {actors in fruit production. lt must much is used or if it is not carefully W SFF- provide not only the water and applied. ‘~*$‘l‘·¥1 ' soil nutrients needed by plants, but l?*`lm· also the soil environment in which NITROGEN FERTILIZERS FOR glu lt roots can thrive. Soils containing ORCHARDS mil? the same mineral elements may dif- The only fertilizer element besides fer widely in fertility. This is due boron that has been found to pro- owtre to variations in size of soil particles; duce a direct effect on either trees makt in proportion of sand, clay and the or fruit in Kentucky is nitrogen. The attend more or less inert minerals; in ab- nitrogen fertilizers include sodium vme ci sorption of rain; retention of capil- nitrate_ ammonium sulfate, am- t and lary water; drainage of free water; monium nitrate, and calcium cyan- and penetration of air. Thus, soils amide. All of these are good. but may vary considerably from farm to calcium cyanamide should not be farm and even from field to field on used on sandy soils while the trees DICE the same farm. The best index of are in leaf. The percent of nitrogen soil fertility is the growth of plants. should be noted. Sodium nitrate tat the Most soils in Kentucky contain an carries about 16 percent nitrogen; *ms t·· abundance of the elements essen- ammonium sulfate 20 percent; am- ut the tial for fruit production, except monium nitrate 33 percent: and ·rs of nitrogen and, in some areas, boron. calcium cyanamide 20 percent. centljv Nitrogen in the soil comes chiefly Long-continued use of nitrate of Ken- ‘ from the decomposition of organic soda and calcium cyanamide tends age tt matter and the work of micro- to make the soil alkaline, while am- quicle organisms on the roots of legumes. monium sulfate increases acidity. ;— con— . Even on Kentucky soils that are low For this reason it is desirable to al- peaclz in phosphorus for satisfactory ternate these fertilizers after a few earl: growth of some crops. there is years’ use. ground ` usually enough soluble phosphorus Most orchards need nitrogen fer- .1ld be for satisfactory fruit production. tilizers every year. The rate varies found. Likewise with potash, though the from 2 to 10 pounds or even more senin: major part is insoluble, the soluble per tree on mature trees. depending · Ken- portion usually is enough for fruit on the amount of growth. Trees that 2. production. make a good medium growth tend to Ken- Calcium is low in some soils, but be more productive than those with ehead. fruit trees do best on slightly acid either excessive growth or poor or todent soils and caution should be taken spindling growth. _ terior. not to over-lime. Sometimes, liming At one year of age, trees may re- lcQ¤’· is necessary to obtain satisfactory ceive about 14 pound of sodium ni— cover-crop growth. trate or its equivalent. The appli- ‘ The only minor element so far cation per tree may be increased found to be deficient for fruit pro- each year by about ¥4 pound until duction in some areas of Kentucky is bearing age. _ _ boron. A deficiency is indicated There is considerable latitude in when corky spots are found in the the time to use these fertilizers. flesh of the apple. This deficiency Split applications (that 1s. part used CIRCULAR OF THE KENTUCKY AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION, LEXINGTON_ KENTUCKY