442 HIGHWAYS AND BYWAYS
This route winds through an agricultural region as diversified in
topography as in the types and occupations of the people. Its farms
vary widely in size and methods of cultivation. Subsistence farming
predominates, but the region also contains some very fertile tracts on
which the modern methods of cultivation and equipment contrast
sharply with those on the neighboring submarginal farms where oxen
still pull plows. _
The remoteness of the area and the sparseness of population have
allowed a profusion of wild flowers to survive. Evergreens abound and
ferns of many varieties grow close to the roadside.
BURNSIDE, 0 m. (705 alt., 914 pop.) (see Tour 3), is at the junc-
tion with US 27 (see Tour 3). _
Between a bridge (toll 45¢) over the Cumberland River and Burn-
side Hill the scenery is particularly fine, including an extensive view of
the Cumberland River Valley below hills covered with pine, oak, and
laurel. The road winds through rolling farms for several miles south
of the river. »
MILL SPRINGS, 11.5 m. (844 alt., 75 pop.), a few cabins at the
mouth of a cove, owes its place in history to the fact that the battle of
]anuary 19 and 20, 1862, fought some 10 miles to the north of this
place, is often called the Battle of Mill Springs (see Tour 18). This
engagement is also known as the Battle of Logan’s Cross Roads, Fish-
ing Creek, Somerset, and Beech Grove. Visible from the highway (R)
are the remains of the Confederate entrenched camp, established by
General Zollicoffer in November 1861 to hold the right flank of the
Confederate forces in Kentucky.
Prior to the Battle of Logan’s Cross Roads, General Zollicoffer had
made his headquarters in the LANIER House (L). Back of the house
is a WATER—POWER Giusrmru. built about 1818 and still in operation.
Its original overshot water wheel, 31 feet in diameter, is said to have
been the largest ever used in Kentucky.
Right from Mill Springs on the River Rd. (graveled) to a junction with a foot-
path 0.5 m.; L. on this path about 300 yards to Hocc CAVE, a small stalagmitic
formation that has yielded a large quantity of human and animal bones. Because
many of the human bones bore traces of gnawing, it is believed that the burials
had been shallow, and since most of them were found beneath a stalagmite nearly
eight feet in diameter, the skeletons are considered very ancient. Exploration of
the cave was made in 1922 when the stalagmite was removed.
At 0.8 m., on River Rd., is a path leading (R) about 100 yards to COOPER CAVE
in which extensive clay deposits were mined, either by early white settlers, by In-
dians, or by prehistoric people. Marks of tools were still plainly visible when the
cave was explored. Further evidence of aboriginal occupation was the presence of
ash beds, potsherds, flint chips, and kitchen middens. No graves were found m '
At 1 m. on the River Rd. is the junction with a trail; L. here a short distance
to HINES CAVE (L). An entrance 20 feet high leads to an outer chamber 145 feet
long and 60 feet wide. The ceiling is proportionately high. Thousands of animal
bones and numerous artifacts were uncovered here; they represent at least three
distinct cultures. A number of the objects found are ir1 the Museum of Archeology
of the University of Kentucky.