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5 > Image 5 of Kentucky farm and home science, vol. 6 No. 1 winter 1960

Part of Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station

V Raising sheep and calves in cages to provide a wor1n-free t _ L env1ronment helps workers to deter1n1ne more precisely Th Eff t f P 't' s , B BC S 0 &I2lS1 1S]]1 ,-te`? BY STANLEY E- LELAND, ]R. Figure 2 shows the results of a typical experi- ~*3 D. A.1Prh1 A. A A A cpmmmt mm"` lt sy I`HCl11t.l Originally, this experiment included four _?~ ln eddltlon tv evaluating Worm rrSiti- calves. Three of the calves, numbers 932, 934, and A _ J Slsts ln the Depettment ot Annnel PetnologY have 933, were given one, one-half, and oneefourth million J" been eondnotmg stndles to determine more PYee1selY stomach worm larvae Trichostronvz Ius axei . Calf O what adverse elteots nemetode Psnnsltes have on 935 was retained as an uninfected worm-free control. domestic animals. These studies have included blood Calf 932, Wlllell reeelverl the largest (lege ef wel-rn V wd Plesmtl Volume detelmlnetlons eleetl`oPllol`etle larvae, died of acute parasitism 19 days after infection. L" SI`LlH'lfl`9tCt101l2llf1OH, total $61111]] ]_)1'Ot1ll lll2l.Sl.ll`lTllltS, In this Experinleut a direct relationship bgtyvegu the ( and ObSl`VZ].tlOllS Oll th IlOIlITllCl`OSCOplC and llllCl`O nu]/nbgr Of vvOIl]l larvae given and the ggllgral Coljdl- I seoP?e Petnologloel ollenges tion of the animal was evident in the 2%-month ob- VAM Slnoe llol`ses slleeP= wd cattle eeell setve as llost tv servation period. Calf 934 showed definite clinical _ Over 20 dltletent sPeeles ot Psmsltie nematodes and signs of parasitism (note calfls rough coat and general W- since nearly all animals become infected in their onnearrrnee ol? apathy in Fig; gy i tlsllel enVll`onment lt is neoessel`Y to obteln onn In the aggregate of the three experiments, all calves \ `. , .r . , . ; . . fiee expeianental animals. This .s done in the case grven g()g7()()() or more larvae Showed rerulrly el)- of sheep and cattle by taking the animals at birth and Servrrble nutlrologleel elmnges at nest rnertern T telslng tnem ln sPeelsllY deslgned oeges (lng- ll Wlnell In the case of the blood determinations, deviations provide a wormfree environment. These worm-free {rorn tlle Control were in general nronortgonnl to tllci . ._{e_,.,. ,=_ UUlUl)l` of \VO1`lU l2ll'Vi1G g1VCIi. BlOOtl z`tD;l plasm;1 _ * V _ volumes, total serum protein, and serum albumin all . .__b. Q .... : .... -.AA-~ --* " { V e Vi . showed reductions following infection. The serum alpha globulin in infected calves showed a marked A increase, while the other globulins were decreased. .- _ (Continued on Page 8) "V I V lTwt) l`Ll)llCLltl()1]5 of this calf (Xl)(I`Illl('Ilf l\zl\`t llLtl1 Cinn- ~-oy ' `6 X A*" pleted and all were essentially in agreernent. => - f A i ` V , .A. A~A A A ei.; ~ =--=e ''* ;` *? TVV];4 T `t` \/ kk A .... . _ ..;. . . =:- ~ .,3 _ . 3, * rc . Ay ~A-; ~ --i > V " 93* V A/j A .A V., " _ I __._:_ .., . _ { -.4 , { A - . , . . . . r ** ,A A ` :AA "` , ` ,, Fig. l.- Sheep and cattle are rar.;cd in specially designed A gf -=t- l ;7_ . -- cages to provide worm-free environment. The cages are l ``__ _.{, A ..._ A -- V---. Z ,._ z A elevated from the floor on metal supports and have Steel- , V____ ___,___r vi ._.. __ t-r -= i rr =` mesh bottoms to prevent accumulation of manure. 1** -r~..%A,A/ V',r . A_ VAAVAV W I`) e G _ animals are then infected with varying but known I I I I ng _., p V * .. A . . A A ' , 2.- 1; *` ` ' ' quantities of worms of a single species Thus. it is ng , Tl` "`` ("llllll M 755 965 ., _ _ j . _ _ davs ol same age) were raised A (,,,,,:0:. A A * " also Posslllle ln these Puts i*<*t<>S to detennlne a({]mAt`ree. To slmw the effects A (1) the lethal larval dose, the general course oi- or nrnAr,Sn;Snr_ ggly; and g;;.Al were yy .; , V the disease, the male-female worm ratio, the inoculated with known nlnnl>v1S rr gitjy VVAV l l . . - - . A A r . - ir? ' A Q 2 1 ggl21ylllg potential of the female worm. and (0) the ol om lnlt nots "?l "" { 3 4 ji; { . . - (934) and size (llfl(3l`Cll(`CS com- , 6 V l ~ pathological effect on the host in the absence of other . _ ._ _ _ , , y V A ..f _ ` pared with w01ml1ee ttmllol 0 ' A, \VOI`ITl Sl)L(,lS. (.nll algo), { . W; Q , ,Y__ T lf A W KENTUCKY FARM AND Hmm Scr1;xce\Vrxrun 1960 at l _ F V' Y { I g . I I r A ..,., . ,. _ ,.; "' yr , fh .; lt' A