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Image 5 of Kentucky farm and home science, vol. 6 No. 1 winter 1960

Part of Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station

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V Raising sheep and calves in cages to provide a wor1n-free ‘t» _ L env1ronment helps workers to deter1n1ne more precisely Th Eff t f P 't' s , B BC S 0 &I°2lS1 1S]]1 ,-te`? BY STANLEY E- LELAND, ]R. Figure 2 shows the results of a typical experi- ·~»*3 D. ·£A‘.1Prh1¤ A. A A A cpmmmt ° mm"` lt °°sy I`HCl11t.l Originally, this experiment included four _?•~ ln eddltlon tv evaluating Worm r<¢m€di€S,1>¤r¤Sit¤i¤- calves. Three of the calves, numbers 932, 934, and A _ J Slsts ln the Depettment ot Annnel PetnologY have 933, were given one, one-half, and oneefourth million J" been eondnotmg stndles to determine more PYee1selY stomach worm larvae Trichostronvz Ius axei . Calf · O what adverse elteots nemetode Psnnsltes have on 935 was retained as an uninfected worm-free control. domestic animals. These studies have included blood Calf 932, Wlllell reeelverl the largest (lege ef wel-rn V wd Plesmtl Volume detel”mlnetlons» eleetl`oPllol`etle larvae, died of acute parasitism 19 days after infection. L" S€I`LlH'lfl`9tCt101l2llf1OH, total $61111]] ]_)1'Ot€1ll lll€2l.Sl.ll`€lTl€lltS, In this Experinleut a direct relationship bgtyvegu the ( and ObS€l`VZ].tlOllS Oll th€ IlOIl·ITllCl`OSCOplC and llllCl`O· nu]/nbgr Of vvOI·l]·l larvae given and the ggllgral Coljdl- I seoP?e Petnologloel ollenges tion of the animal was evident in the 2%-month ob- VAM Slnoe llol`ses» slleeP= wd cattle eeell setve as llost tv servation period. Calf 934 showed definite clinical _ Over 20 dltletent sPeeles ot Psmsltie nematodes and signs of parasitism (note calfls rough coat and general W- since nearly all animals become infected in their onnearrrnee ol? apathy in Fig; gy i tlsllel enVll`onment¤ lt is neoessel`Y to obteln “’onn‘ In the aggregate of the three experiments, all calves \ `. , .r . · , ·. ; · . . fiee expeianental animals. This .s done in the case grven g()g7()()() or more larvae Showed rerulrly el)- of sheep and cattle by taking the animals at birth and Servrrble nutlrologleel elmnges at nest rnertern T telslng tnem ln sPeelsllY deslgned oeges (lng- ll Wlnell In the case of the blood determinations, deviations provide a worm—free environment. These worm-free {rorn tlle Control were in general nronortgonnl to tllci .· “ ._{e_,.,.·· ,=_ UUlUl)€l` of \VO1`lU l2ll'Vi1G g1VCIi. BlOOtl z`tD;l plasm;1 _ · ·*‘ ”‘ V _ volumes, total serum protein, and serum albumin all . .__b. Q .... : .... -.AA-~‘ -·-····*·‘‘ “" { V e Vi . showed reductions following infection. The serum alpha globulin in infected calves showed a marked A · increase, while the other globulins were decreased. ‘’.·- ¤ _ (Continued on Page 8) "V I V lTwt) l`L‘l)llCLltl()1]5 of this calf (‘Xl)(‘I`Illl('Ilf l\zl\`t‘ llL‘t‘l1 Cinn- ’~-oy ' `6 X A*" ’ pleted and all were essentially in agreernent. ·=>‘ - f A i ` ‘V ° ,· · .A. A~»A A A· ei·.; ~ =--=e '°'* ;` ¢*‘? TVV];4 · T `»t` ’ \/ kk ‘ A .... . _ ..;. .» ’ ·· — . » =:- ·~ .,3 _ . 3, * · rc . Ay — ·—~A»-; ~ --··i ‘‘‘> V " 93* V A/j ·A .A V., “ ’ " · _ I __._:_ ..‘, . _ { -.4 , { A - . , . . . . r ‘** ,A A ` :A‘A ¢ ” "`‘‘ , ` —,, Fig. l.- Sheep and cattle are rar.;cd in specially designed A gf -=t¢- l ;7_ . —-’- cages to provide worm-free environment. The cages are l ``__ _.{, A ..._ A ·--· V---. Z· ,._ z A elevated from the floor on metal supports and have Steel- , V___‘’_ ° ___,___r vi ._.. __ ·t-r — -=·· · ’‘i‘ rr ‘‘=`‘ mesh bottoms to prevent accumulation of manure. 1** -r~..%A,A¤/ V',r . A_ VAAVAV ° ’‘‘’ ‘‘‘’ W I`) e G _ animals are then infected with varying but known I I I I ng _., p V ’·*¢» .. A . . A A ·' , 2.- 1; *` ` ¤ ' ' · quantities of worms of a single species Thus. it is ng , Tl°`° "`°` ("llllll M 755 965 ., _ _ j . _ _ davs ol same age) were raised A (,,,,,:0:. A A * " also Posslllle ln these Puts i¤*<*¤t¤<>¤S to detennlne a·({]—mAt`ree. To slmw the effects A (1) the lethal larval dose, the general course oi- or nrnAr,Sn;Snr_ ggly; and g;;.Al were yy .; , V the disease, the male-female worm ratio, the inoculated with known nlnnl>v1‘S rr gitjy VVAV l l . . - - ‘ . A A r ‘ . - ·· ir? ' A Q ‘2 1 €gg—l21ylllg potential of the female worm. and (0) the ol “o‘m l·nl·‘t· nots "’“?·€l‘ "’·" { 3 4 ji; { . · . - (934) and size (llfl(3l`Cll(`CS com- ·, 6 ’ V l ‘~ pathological effect on the host in the absence of other . _ ._ _ _ , ·· , · y V A ..f · _ ` pared with w01m·l1ee ttmllol 0 ' A, · \VOI`ITl Sl)L(,l€S. (.nll‘ algo), { . W; Q é, ,Y__ T lf · A W KENTUCKY FARM AND Hmm Scr1;xce—\Vrxrun 1960 at l ‘ ‘ _ F V' Y { I g . I I r A ..,., . ,. _ ,».;· "‘·' yr °, fh .; lt' A