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200 > Image 200 of Fairs and fair makers of Kentucky. Volume I

Part of Kentucky Works Progress Administration Publications

OF KENTUCKY _ __;___ ________ __; 189 - The story of these fairs belongs to the present. There~remains only to re- cord the fact that in this new departure there was continued the united effort of the State College of Agriculture and the Kentucky Department of Agriculture as driving forces seeking and securing for the State Fair the united support of all interested in the progress of the State. Out of the seeming defeat of the nine- ties, the stockmen, the farmers, and the businessmen of Kentucky emerged , more strongly united than ever before, and the pledge of that union was, and is, the v Kentucky State Fair. I _ IN CONCLUSION , , At the dawn ofthe twentieth century the broad objectives visioned by the earlyday promoters of the agricultural and mechanical societies of Kentucky had_ _ been attained. The United States Department of Agriculture, created by the in- V sistent demand of organized agriculture throughout the Union, and efficiently manned, was now doing far more than to distribute seeds. It was now leading the experiment stations of the Nation in research work calculated to place agricul- ture, especially in its livestock and field crop phases, upon a scientific foot- ing. It was now coordinating the work of the various State experiment stations, so that results secured by one might become the property of all. Federal daily weather reports had now become available to the farmer. Rural free delivery of mails had begun in lS96. Telephones were already spreading throughout the rural Midwest. An efficient agricultural press was bringing the farmer the latest findings of private, Federal, and State research. The extensive survey of Ken- Y tuckys natural resources, made in the fifties, had been expanded, twenty years later, bya more exhaustive study of its latent mineral wealth. The State's ri- ver development and road building programs had slowly improved transportation. Even the most distant markets were now available to the farmer by river or by . rail, and while the Mountains and much of the more rugged terrain of the State remained sadly deficient in roads, the Bluegrass and other long-settled _seotions boasted one of the best systems of turnpikes in the Union2"Railroad building, interrupted by the War between the States and resumed at the conclusion of that conflict, was opening to industry=th rich mineral districts of eastern and west- ern Kentucky. c i_ In the field of mechanical improvement, the years of the nineteenth century had brought to agriculture greater advancement than had been made in the preced- ing five thousand. The plow had been perfected. The grain drill had replaced the scattering of seed by hand. The harrow had replaced the brush drag. The I mower, the hay rake, and the binder had taken the place of the scythe and sickle, of the hand rake, and of the work of binding the sheaves by hand. The threshing machine had replaced the flail. The fanning-mill now winnowed the grain. In the dairying industry the silo, the cream separator, the barrel churn, and the cream- ery were now all available, and the Babcock test now removed from the realm of uncertainty the question of the individual cow's butterfat production. Coldl storage for meats, dairy products, and other perishable foods had recently come into practical use and had greatly widened the market outlets of the farm. In the home the change was correspondingly great. Spinning and weaving, LF' common household tasks in l8OC, had, a century later, become forgotten arts in the average Kentucky home and remained alive and valuable to the household econo- my only in the Mountains or other agricultural frontiers where the Jeffersonian , theory of farm and home self-sufficiency still survived. Factory-made clothing had-largely replaced the home made; this in spite of the fact that use of the sewing machine had become practically universal. The oil lamp had taken the place Fm of the candle. Canned and prepared foods on the shelves of the local grocer now competed with the skill of the kitchen. The lessening of household labor had the