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Page 860 of Nineteenth century and after : a history year by year from A.D. 1800 to the present (vol. 3)/ by Edwin Emerson, Jr. and Marion Mills Miller ; illustrated with eight colored plates and sixteen full-page engravings and two maps.

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EMANCIPATION OF RUSSIAN2i SERFS King of Naples were conveyed to the Papal States on a French man-of-war. One month later the citadel of Messina, after a stubborn defence of half a year, capitulated. The union of Italy, with the exception of Rome and Venice, was now complete. By his steadfast adherence to the national cause, Victor Emmanuel had secured the Italian throne for the House of Savoy. Shortly after this crowning stroke of his policy, Cavour, the greatest statesman of modern Italy, passed away. As he lay on his deathbed, Cavour addressed to the priest who had come to shrive him his last words, which summed up the future policy of Italy in regard to Rome: "A free Church in a free State." The greatest event of the year was the emancipation of the Russian serfs, as announced on February 19 in an imperial ukase by Czar Alexander II. The serf population of Rus- sia at that time aggregated 47,100,000 individuals. The Government was to organize a system of loans, which would permit the peasants attached to the soil immediately to lib- erate themselves from their lords, while remaining debtors to the State. The domestic servants, who were not attached to the soil, were only to receive their personal liberty on con- dition of serving their masters for two years. This great measure of emancipation, as Rambaud has said in his "His- tory of Russia," was, in fact, a settlement of accounts as to the ancient community existing between masters and peas- ants. It imposed sacrifice on both parties. When this was brought home to the peasants many believed they had been duped. A strange ferment arose in many provinces; it was necessary to call out the soldiery, and three times the troops had to fire on the people. In the Government of Kazan 10,000 men rose at the call of the peasant Petrof, who an- nounced to them "the true liberty." Hundreds perished, and Petrof was taken and shot. A revolution in Warsaw was suppressed by the presence of 80,000 Russian soldiers. 860 1861