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5 > Item 5 of Address to the people of Kentucky on the subject of emancipation

New York, upon a surface of 45,658 square that reigns in her dilapidated villages-the large miles contained a population of 344,120. This quantity of exhausted land that is lying waste, statement exhibits in favor of Virginia a differ- ence of 405,188 inhabitants, which is double and the forests of pine and cedar now waving that of New York and 68,000 more. In 1830, over a soil that once rewarded the labors of the after a race of 40 years, Virginia is found to husbandman. contain 1,211,405 souls, and New York 1,918,- We thus perceive that slavery produces the 608, which exhibits a difference in favor of New same melancholy results in Virginia as we have York of 707,203. The increase on the part of Virginia will be perceived to be 453,187, starting Pointed out as existing in Maryland. But bad from a basis more than double that of New as the condition of Virginia is, a still more York. The increase of New York upon a basis gloomy state of things is before her. She now of 340,120 has been 1,578,391 human beings. Virginia has increased in a ratio of 61 percent., gains her support principally by selling slaves and New York in that of 566 per cent. The to other States. This trade, in the present total amount of property in Virginia, under the state of things, is to her of the most vital im- assessment of 1838, was 211,930,508. The ag- portance, but it places her at the mercy of the regate value of Real and Personal property in New York, in 1839, was 654,000,000, exhibit- States with which she carries on the traffic.- ing an excess in New York over Virginia of These States have drained off the dark waters 442,066,492. Statesmen may differ about which would have overwhelmed her. But now policy, or the means to be employed in the pro- some of them show an inclination to shut out motion of the public good, but surely they ought to agree as to what prosperity means. the stream from themselves. It must then roll I think there can be no dispute that New York back, and spread desolation over the face of that is a greater, richer, more prosperous and Pow- ancient Commonwealth. She will be reduced erful State than Virginerr to a condition worse than any which her worst is but one explanation of the facts I have enemies could wish for her. Sooner or later shewn. The clog that has staid the march of this state of things must come. Too many of her people, the incubus that has weighed down her citizens seem to think that they can keep off her enterprise, strangled her commerce, kept sealed her exhaustless fountains of mineral this dark cloud by shutting their eyes. If they wealth, and paralysed her arts, manufactures continue to do so, its thunders will burst upon and improvement, is Negro Slavery." their ears when it is too late for them to avoid Since these remarms were written, the cen- the storm, sus of 1840 has been published, shewing that Before the convention for amending the Con- New York has increased during 10 years, 515,- stitution of Virginia, called in 1830, Charles 413 inhabitants, while Virginia has increased Fenton Mercer, of Loudon county, made the only 28,525-all of which is in the western part following remarks, which drew tears from the of the State where there are but few slaves, and eyes of members of the convention: the ruinous effects of the system are less severe- "Mr. Chairman, as I descended the Chesa- ly felt. peake the other day, on my way to this city, Furthermore, the census of 1840 has de- impelled by a favoring west wind, which, co- operating with the genius of Fulton, made the veloped the important and alarming fact that vessel on which I stood literally fly through the the population of Eastern Virginia, is less by wave before me, I thought of the early descrip- 26,106 inhabitants than it was in 1830. The tions of Virginia, by the foliowers of Raleigh, population of the Union has increased during and thecompanions of Smith. I endeavored to scent the fragrance of the gale which reached the same period 32 7-10 per cent., which ap- me from the shores of the capacious bay along plied to the population of Eastern Virginia in which we steered, and I should have thought 1830, say 8,330,048 would give 1,105,454 as the the pictures of Virginiawhich rose to my fancy, number of inhabitants there ought to be in this not too highly colored, had I not often traversed our lowland country, the land not only of my section of the State, but deducting from this, nativity, but that of my fathers-and I said to the actual population shews that Eastern Vii- myself, how much it has lost of its primitive glnia has, In 10 years, fallen short of the gen- loveliness! Does the eye dwell with most pleas- eral advancement by the number of 298,512 in- ure on its wasted fields, or on its stunted forests of secondary growth of pine and cedar Can habitants. If the ratio of the increase of popu- we dwell without mournful regret on the tem- lation and the value of Real Estate be consi- ples of religion sinking in ruin, and those spa- dered as tests of the prosperity of a State, then cious dwellings whose doors once opened by the it is evident that the Eastern section of Virginia hand of liberal hospitality, are now fallen upon it is their portals, or closed in tenantless silence- is the reverse of prosperous. This conclusion Excepton the banks of Its rivers, the march of is further corroberated by the mournful silenes desolation now saddens this once beautiful