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Page 6 of City of Louisville and a glimpse of Kentucky / Young Ewing Allison.

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population will reside in that region, and the proportion must increase yearly. So that a larger part of the population can be reached from Louisville by cheap transportation. "These significant facts insure the merchant and manufacturer of Louisville ample markets for whatever they may have for sale. The South has hitherto been Louisville's best market, and the great industrial development of that region must greatly benefit the city. Louisville has it in her power to become the distributing point for manufactures, mainly of wood and iron, for a large area of the North and West. The iron used in the West must come mainly from south of the Ohio river. In bringing the pig-iron to Louisville, where it may be made into hardware, agricultural imple- ments, etc., it is bringing it in the direction of the market. In manufacturing such articles a higher class and better- paid labor is employed than in the mere making of the pig-iron. And such a population will bring a more substantial prosperity. Already Louisville has cheap coal and iron, and in a few years roads now projected will add greatly to the facilities of obtaining these indispensable articles, and there will be in the city great industries based upon them. Louis- ville should not only become a great lumber distributing point, but a great manufacturing point for all articles requiring wood for their construction. Already the car shops, agricultural implement makers and builders in the States north of the Ohio river are looking southward for a supply of lumber, and this demand must yearly increase." Professor Sargent, Special Expert on Forests for the Tenth Census, says in his report on " Forests of the United States: " "The extinction of the forests of the Lake region may be expected to affect the growth of population in the cen- tral portion of the continent. New centers of distribution must soon suppant Chicago as a lumber market, and new transportation routes take the place of those built to move the pine grown upon the shores of the great lakes. The pine that once covered New England and New York has already disappeared. Pennsylvania is nearly stripped of her pine, which once appeared inexhaustible. The great North-western pineries are not yet exhausted, and with newly-introduced methods, logs, once supposed inaccessible, are now profitably brought to the mills, and they may be expected to increase the volume of their annual product for a few years longer, in response to the growing demands of the greal agricultural population fast covering the treeless mid-continental plateau. The area of pine forest, however, remaining in the great pine-producing States of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota is dan- gerously small in proportion to the country's consumption of white-pine lumber, and the entire exhaustion of these forests in a comparatively short time is certain." Professor Sargent then refers to the iong-leaf pine belt of the South Atlantic and Gulf States, of which he says: '"The timber is unequaled for all purposes of construction," and adds with reference to the hardwood forests: "The most impoitant of these forests covers the region occupied by the Southern Alleghany Mountain system, embracing South-western Virginia, 'West Virginia, Western North Carolina and South Carolina, Eastern Kentucky and Tennessee. Here oak unequaled in quality abounds. Walnut is still not rare, although not found in any very large continuous bodies; and cherry, yellow poplar, and other woods of commercial importance are common." In this connection the extension of the Cumberland Valley branch of the Louisville Nashville railway to Pine- ville and beyond, and the extension of other projected lines into Eastern Kentucky, will have a most important bearing. In a communication to the Courier-journal, some years since, was ventured the assertion that the extension of a railway through Eastern Kentucky and into South-west Virginia and Western North Carolina would do more to build up the industries of Louisville, than any one thousand miles of railway into the cotton States. Subsequent investigations con- firm this belief. The abundance and excellence of the coals and timbers, the superiority of the coking coals, and the nearness of abundant ore deposits and vast stores of ore suited to the production of Bessemer steel, and the varied resources of tiat region are such that a phenomenal development must result. Kentucky is the only State having within her borders parts of the two great coal fields. Louisville is situated midway between these, and she can so connect herself with the industries and commerce of this State as to have an enduring prosperity assured. The Kentucky river, with navigation secured to the coal, should be to Louisville what the Monongahela is to Pittsburgh and the cities below. In the valley of Green river are immense deposits of iron ores asso- ciated with coal and convenient to railway and river transportation. These ores are regularly stratified, ranging from two feet to five feet in thickness, and can be mined cheaply. These ores are thicker and equal in quality to those of the Hocking Valley, Ohio, where the ores form the basis of extensive iron industries. In the counties of Western Ken- tucky bordering on the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers are large deposits of rich Limonite or " Brown " iron ores, similar to the ones on which the prosperity of Decatur and Sheffield are predicated. Furnaces in these counties will have the local ores, and the advantage of having in addition the Tennessee and Alabama ores brought down stream in the direction of the markets, and furnaces in that region will be as near the coals of Western Kentucky as are the fur- iiaces in the above named towns to the coals of Alabama and Tennessee. They will also be convenient to the Missouri ores carried up the river to the furnaces of the upper Ohio. While the coals of Western Kentucky may not produce a coke equal in quality to the cokes of South-eastern Kentucky, it is certain that a coke fully equal to those of Alabama and Tennessee can be made from them. With the completion of the Ohio Valley railway south-westward from Union county, there will be two railways connecting the coals with the Cumberland river ores, and the coal measure ores of the Green and Tradewater valleys. These conditions offer an abundant unlimited opportunity for the development of Louisville into the greatest manu- facturing and distributing center of the Mississippi Valley. As a residence city for all classes Louisville enjoys many remarkable advantages, not the least of which is the taste which has been characteristic, from the first, in the beautifying and building of homes. The business quarter has always been plain-though the buildings have been equal to all the demands of an active commerce-while all who could build homes have made them as handsome as their means permitted. The great plain upon which the city was built, covering seventy square miles, and extending back six miles from the river to a group of picturesque " knobs " or hills, has afforded every facility for the economical gratification of taste. Ground being plentiful and level, distance was not difficult to overcome, and so, instead of being crowded into restricted limits set up by natural barriers, the city 6