encircle the city and pass down the river front upon an elevated track some three miles in length. There are about
one hundred and twenty-five miles of street car and suburban lines, running over the one hundred and forty-four miles
of streets of the city. It will thus be seen that there is scarcely a block of ground in the twelve an(l a half square miles
of territory covered by Louisville that is not readily accessible by car. All fares within the city are limited to five cents,
and this includes transfer to and from all parts, so that it is possible to ride from six to ten miles in the city for a nickel.
The suburban lines, which pierce the country to a distance of from three to four miles, and which reach every one of
the residence additions, have a uniform fare of ten cents. Such an abundance of intercity transportation has prevented
the concentration of population within narrow limits, and thus prevented real estate from attaining excessively high
values, like those that prevail in cities where no facilities exist. The system in Louisville has been fostered by the
policy of imposing as few restrictions as possible upon the extension of lines and has had the effect of making ground
for residence and manufacturing purposes cheaper than in any other city of equal size in the United States. The street
car lines are all well eqiipped, accustomed to handling immense crowds without inconvenience or delay, make rapid
time, and are justly celebrated for the comfort and service they render to patrons in return for the small fare demanded.
Some showing of the mileage and business of the various lines in the city will be of interest:
IIILSIS IF PSEGERS
ROADS. TRACKS CALLY
Louisville City Railway. . .. 64.0 11,897,000
Central Passenger . . . . . . . . . . ... 30.0 7,000,000
Louisville and New Albany Daisy Line . . . . . 5.8 560,ooo
Louisville, N. Albany, andJeffersonville transfer, 10.0 t975S000
Daisy Belt Line (building). . ........ 6.o . . .....
Belt Line (to be constructed).o.. . . . . . . 1 .o . .....
Total. I25.8 20,432.000
The trans-river steam lines run trains every half hour between Louisville, New Albany, and Jeffersonville, at a uni-
form fare of ten cents. The large populations of these two Indiana cities are, for all practical purposes. part of the
population of Louisville.
The population of Louisville in 1887 was estimated by several methods of computation to be about 2oo,ooo. The
exact figures of the estimate are i95,91o. The census of i88o discovered only 123,758, which was probably under the actual
number, although the rapid growth of manufactures and the large increase in railroad facilities since i88o, readily account
for the enormous growth of population. The city directory, compiled by Mr. C. K. Caron, one of the most careful and
conscientious statisticians in Kentucky, gives an interesting summary of the increase of names in that publication.
The number of names in the directory in i88o was 49,550; 1881, 52,401; 1882, 54,362; 1883, 56,845; 1884, 59,810; 1885,
62,110; i886, 64,408; 1887, 66,900.
Estimates of population in cities where directories are published unite upon computing one producer to three per-
sons, which would give three as the multiplier; this would make Louisville's population for 1887, according to the direc-
tory, 200,700. Since the abolition of slavery, the increase of working population has been rapid and great The growth
of the city since 1780 is given in the following table:
Population, 1780. 3o Population, 1840.... . 21,210
1790 . 200 1845 .8. . . . 37,218
800. 359 1850. 43,194
x810 . 1,357 i86o - .. 68,033
"820 . . 870 -o100,753
1827. . . . . 7,063 1880 . . . . . 123,758
830. 10,341 1883. . 151,113
1835. . - 17,967 i887.... . 195,910
Thus it appears that the increase from I88o to 1887 has been 56 per cent., which will compare favorably with the
growth of Chicago, Cleveland, Milwaukee, and the other Northern cities, which, under artificial stimulus, have, during
the past ten years, enjoyed advantages not possessed by Southern cities. The rapid development of great manufactur-
ing enterprises in Louisville, the possession of the cheapest and most abundant coal supplies in the world, the cheap-
ness and proximity of great timber and iron supplies render it probable that the increase of population until 1890 will
exceed the present rate, and that the census will demonstrate remarkable facts about the greatest of Southern cities.
The healthfulness of Louisville is remarkable, there being few cities in the United States which rank so high in that
particular so important to persons seeking homes. The city is absolutely free from the epidemics characteristic of the
far South, and the climate being equable and temperate it is free from the objections that beset both extremes of country.
The cause of the healthfulness is to be found in abundance of pure water, broad streets, and pure air, perfect sewer
drainage, and excellent sanitary regulations. These taken together enable her to occupy the lowest place in the table
of mortality rates last published by the United States government in 1885:
ANNUAL DEATH-RATE PER 1,0oo INHABITANTS.
New Orleans ..... . 28.5 Boston .. . 21.9
St. Louis....... . 25.2 Milwaukee . .2..... . 21.9
New York. 24 .9 Hartford. .. ....... 21.7
Richmond, Va .24-5 Lowell .. . .. 20.6
Chattanooga ... . . . 23.8 Chicago .. ..1.... . . . 19.2
Detroit........ 23.3 Pittsburgh . .1..... . x8.7
Cincinnati...... 23.3 Indianapolis. ... .... 18.1
Philadelphia......... 23.3 Nashville (white) . . - 14.6
Newark, N. J......... 23.1 Nashville (colored). . . 58.8
Brooklyn ......... 22.9 Louisville . . 17.4