xt705q4rjk1r https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt705q4rjk1r/data/mets.xml Everts, W. W. (William Wallace), 1814-1890. 1854  books b96-16-36620162 English Hull, : Louisville : This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. Ethics. Conduct of life. Manhood  : its duties and responsibilities / William Wallace Everts. text Manhood  : its duties and responsibilities / William Wallace Everts. 1854 2002 true xt705q4rjk1r section xt705q4rjk1r 




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         W. W. EVERTS,


                1 854.

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        Entered, according to Act of Congress, In the year 1854,
                        BY W. IV. EVERTS,
In the Clerk's Once of the District Court of the United States, in and
                    for the District of Kentucky.





P   AC,       .   ..                                            9

                         CHAPTER L

SELF DUTIES,      -    -   -   -   -   -   -   -    -   -   -   13
Contemplation of Youth Interesting.-Responsibility a Necessity of Rational,
Dependent Beings.-Particularity of the Divine Law.-Different Clases of
Duties.-Self Duties-Physical Education.-Mental Culture.-Reglmen of
the Thoughts.-Subjectlon of the Pasions.-Politeness.-Industry.-Fru-
gality.-Improvement of Time.-System-Perseversnoe-Faithfulnes.-

                        CHAPTER IL


Importance of the Family.-Its Saredness.-Consequeuces ofits Violation.-
Character of the Libertine.-A11 should Provide for the Alllance.-Selec-
tion of Companlon.-Family Circle.-Filial Duties.-Fraternal Duties.-
Family an Institution of Learning.-Family a Circle of Happiness.-Family
a School of Virtue.-Re-union of Kindred in Heaven.

                        CHAPTER m.

PATRIOTIC DUTIES, -       . . . . . . .                     - 83

Rank of Patriotism, among Virtues.-Fostered by the Advantages and Glory
of a Land.-Claims of our own Land.-Familiarlty with the Genius and
History of our Political Institutions.-Sovereignty of the People.-Distrib-
uted Government.-Despotism in Church and State Symbolize.-Constitu-
tional Government.-Its Idea.-Its Embodiment of the Wisdom of Ages.-
Its Sacred Obligations.-To be Conserved by all Citizens.-Party Spirit.-
Sectional Partyism.-Popular Education.-Iustitutions of Religion.-The
Conservative Element in Civil Society.



                        CHAPTER IV.

Kindly Sentiments towards the whole Human Brotherhood.-Protection of
  the Rights of Man Universally.-Arts of Peace.-Drying up the Sources of
  Evil by various Social Reforms.-Spread of Christianity.-The Ideal state
  of the Race attained In Its Triumph.-Varlous, Habits of.Beneficence.-The
  Song of Life.

                         CHAPTER V.

DUTIES OF RELIGION,                                            183

Duties to Fellow-men are also Duties to GodL-Mankind seeking Distinguished
Patronage, may enjoy it in the service of God.-Individual, Domestic, Patti-
otic, and Philanthropic Duties attain their highest Guarantees in Religious
Obligation.-Its Technical Duties, or means of Religious Culture.-Truth
of the Scriptures.-Habit of Prayer.-Self-examination.- Observance of
the Sabbath.-Christian Prolession.-Subjection of the whole Life to the
Regimen of Relgtion.-Fnal Judgment.-Immortality of Virtue.

                        CHAPTER VI.

SPHERE AND DUTIES OF WOMAN,                                    16t

Three-fold Sphere of Woman.-Primary Organization of Society.-Home-
Woman its Light-Its Teacher.-Religious Sphere of Woman.-lIer promi.
nence in the Religious History of the World.-IHer usefulness in Christian
Charities and Missions.-Pernicious Influence when destitute of Religious
Principle.-Social Sphere of Woman.-Her Pursuits more Varied.-Her
Rights of Property better Guarded.-The Peculiar order of Society Insti-
tuted in the Family.-A Moral Empire.-Its Peculiarity destroyed in the
Displacement of its Ilead.-Rights of Woman.-Female Education the Nile-
ometer of Society.-Education of Woman.-Physical Culture.-Mental
Training.-Domestic and Associated Industrial Accomplishments-Ele-
gant Acoomplishments.-Moral and Religious Discipline.

                       CHAPTER VIL

THE METROPOLIS, . - - - - -                                    187

Early Origin of Cities.- Exponents of History and Resources of Civilization.-
  Sane in great Features.--Variety, Magnificence, and Aggregate Extent of
  Architecture.-Immenee Concourse of People closely contiguous to each oth-




  er.-Artifidal Character.-Pbysical Aspects.-Social Organhatn.-Levity
  otCharacter.-Hurried Life.-Represslon of Kindly Sympathle&-Relations
  to the Human World.-Foster and Diffuse the Elements of Civilization.-
  Wealth.-Arts.-Letters.-Aseendent Influence in the Civil Organization
  and Political History of Society.--Assimilative Moral and Religious Influ-
  ence over the State.-Causes of Extreme Wickedness of Cities.-Manilfes-
  tations and Aggregate Extent of-Facilities for Diffusion.-Moral Forces of
  Judaism concentrated in Jerusalem-Christ and his Apostles directed their
  Ministry chiefly to Cities.-All Important Measures for Ameliorating the
  Condition of the Race must Contemplate large Communitles.

                        CHAPTER VIII.

THE TEMPTATIONS OF CITY LIFE,           .    .       -            2

First Visit to the City.-A Crisis in Human Life.--Young Men in large
Towns in Circumstances of distinguished Promise and Peril.-Removal
from Accustomed to strange and ever changing Scenes.-Want of the
Conservative Influences of Home.-Over-estimate of Wealth and Frauda-
lent Methods of Business.-Diversified Examples of Wickedness in apparent
  Impunity and Triumph.-Appeals to particular Passions and Weaknesses
  of Human Nature.-Coneealed Character of City Life.-Triumph over these
  Temptations is glorious.

                         CHAPTER IX.

THE THEATER,                                                       287

Conspicuous Advertisements.-Thlngs premised in this Discussion.-Theater
  as it is.-Necessary and Uniform Influences not Abuses.-Not entitled to
  the Credit of the Drama. -Does not promote Popular Education.-Does n-t
  exhibit True and Useful Knowledge of the World-hence a mere Institution
  of Amusement.-In that Character prodigiously Expensive.-Without Legal
  Censorship invariably sinks to Subserviency to Passion and Viee.-Itence
  Precludes the Safeguards of Virtue where most essential.-Their most avail-
  able Entertainments eminently unsatisfying and dissipating.-General
  Character of its Profession abets Demoralizing Influences.-The Character
  of its Standard Plays and most Popular Entertainments further abets these
  Influences.-As wholly.an Institution of the Night, it fosters Temptation,
  and encourages. by concealing, Vice.-Brilliancy of Scenic Representations,
  Dfecorations, and Music, in their Relations, arc like Sweet Sounds, alluring
  to the Borders of Perdition. Its Affinities and Affiliations demonstrate
  and promote Its Demoralizing Influences-Concurring TestimoniCs ot the
  Wise and Good of Succeeding Age against It.-Remonstrance against its

 This page in the original text is blank.



  Is the First Part of the "x Voyage, " we propose to de-
lineate the promise, and commend the proper training of
Childhood. The subject will be treated under a figurative
title, "Childhood, or the 'Narrows' of Life," suggested
by the relation of the channel bearing that name, and
leading from the Great Metropolis of the New World to
the ocean. The treatise, by its allegorical style, it is
hoped, will be rendered intelligible and captivating to chil-
dren; and by its just analysis and clear illustration of
the promise and proper education of childhood, prove a
useful manual to parents and guardians.
  In the Second Part of the "Voyage," we shall endeavor
to point out the leading temptations and the reliable safe-
guards of the young, and trace the triumphs of youth in
a career of virtue and piety.
  In the Third Part of the "Voyage," we have attempted
to delineate the several classes of the duties of men, as
Self-Duties, or those arising from the individual consti-
tution of man; Domestic Duties, or those arising from the
family institution; Patriotic Duties, or those arising from
civil compact; Duties of Philanthropy, or those arising


from the broader relations of the human brotherhood;
and Duties of Religion, or those arising from the common
relations of creatures to their Creator. In this part, also,
are contained a dissertation upon the peculiar sphere and
Duties of Woman; and three others upon the " Lights and
Shades of City Life;" sketching the features of a great
Metropolis, the trials of virtue amid its gay scenes, and
the demoralizing influence of the stage. Though this vol-
ume has been written, amid the most pressing engage-
ments, and not intended for so early publication, we hope
it will aid some of the young, and some parents and guar-
dians in appreciating more fully the "1 Duties and Respon-
sibilities of Youth."
  In the Fourth Part of the "Voyage," we shall attempt
to trace the true dignity of mature manhood, and the p eace
and honor of virtuous old age.
  We commend the parts of the "Voyage of Life," as
they may be issued, to the classes to which they severally
refer, and to those specially seeking their welfare and the
amelioration of the condition of the human family.
                                   W. W. EVERTS.
   Umsmvi, JULY, 1864




MA1 A N H 0 0 -D.

 This page in the original text is blank.



                   SELF DUTIES.

 "YorTa ip not like a new garment, which we ean keep fresh and fair by
 wearing sparingly. Youth, while we have it, we must wear daily, and It will
fat wear away."                                FOSTER.

   As WB gaze upon the brow of youth, meet the
glance of his eye, and seek to scan his thoughts and
penetrate his destiny, our interest deepens to thought-
fulness-sometimes to sadness.     He is a mariner,
taking the parting view of the shores of his native
land, and entering a rough and treacherous sea, to
perform a long and hazardous voyage. And while his
snow white sails are spread to the inviting winds, and
his gay streamers floating in the air, and his bark, like
a thing of life, is bounding over the hither wave, the
ocean, in its far off regions, may be nursing the whirl-
wind and the storm, which shall baffle his seamanship
and courage, and drive his gallant bark a wreck; or
may be opening safe roads, and gathering favoring
breezes, to waft him to his destined haven.
  He is an immortal being, approaching, or uncon-
sciously standing, upon the threshhold of his destiny.
He is a pilgrim, lingering at the gate of life, to gain



glorious admittance there, or be banished thence to the
shades of an unending night. The wise conduct and
happy issue of life can arise only from a just sense of
  The greatest of American intellects, when asked,
what was the greatest thought of his life, replied: "The
thought of my accountability to God."
  Responsibility is the necessity of a dependent and
rational being. It is co-extensive waith the expressed
will of the Creator, respecting his character and actions.
It is embodied in a divine law, emanating from supreme
authority and infallible intelligence-a grand rule of
discrimination and obligation, of injunction and prohibi-
tion, in reference to all possible modes of being, action,
thought, or disposition. "As to the quality and extent
of that law," a distinguished writer has said, "i proceed-
ing from a perfectly holy Being, it could not do less
than prescribe a perfect holiness in all things. Think
of the absurdity there is in the idea, that its require-
ments should be less than perfeet holiness. For that
less-what should it be   What would or could the
remainder be, after holiness up to a certain point, and
stopping there It must be NOT holiness just so far.
Not holiness and what must it be then What COULD
it be but something UNHJOLY, wrong, sinful Thus a
law not requiring PERFECT rectitude, would so FAR give
an allowance, a SANCTION to what is evil-sin. And



from Him who is perfectly and infinitely holyt An
utter absurdity to conceive! " 
  The rigor of the divine law in watching with such
scrutiny the whole life of man, marking his most private
actions, and prying into the most secret springs of con-
duct, is often complained of as beneath the dignity of
the divine Providence; a formidable interference with
man's liberty, and a perpetual restraint upon his happi-
ness. And in respect to these multiform and Inevitable
obligations, in every age, and in every rank and condi-
tion of life, unbelieving men have exclaimed: "We
will not have the Almighty to reign over us."  "Let
us break his bands asunder, and cast away his cords
from us."
  To escape sense of guilt, obligation is denied; and in
the approved morality of the world, the law is sought
to be set aside, or narrowed down in its requirements.
"Never Jesuit's commentary on the Bible falsified more
than the world's system of principles perverts or sup-
plants that of the Almighty. It is as if the tables,
written on Sinai, had been subjected to be passed through
the camp for the people to revise, interpolate, erase, or
wholly substitute at their pleasure."
  Sure the legislation of heaven cannot be thus subject
to the revision of earth! The judicial forms of the
divine government cannot be modified to accommodate
  Life and Thoughts of John Foster.





the caprice, or vindicate the conduct of a selfish and
sinning race.
  In urging objection to the comprehension and rigor
of the divine law, it is forgotten that the guilt of the
violation of any particular law, may outmeasure the act
itself, and swell to the violation of all God's laws. In
breaking any, even the least of God's commandments,
are evinced the selfishness, the blindness of unbelief, the
disregard of sacred rights, the defiance of divine author-
ity, which would, under the pressure of stronger temnp-
tations, lead to the violation of the greatest, or all the
  The importance and guilt of every transgression,
must, therefore, be admeasured, in divine law, to its
rebellious attitude to God, and its legitimate tendencies
in his government. According to that standard, the
grandeur of a virtue may be greater than that of the
sky-piercing mountain, or blazing volcano; the mischief
of a vice greater than that of a tornado or an earth-
  The least, the incipient motive of evil, must, there-
fore, be met by prohibitions and penalties of divine
law. The smallest errors, even thoughts of sin, cannot
pass unrebuked, unless the whole catalogue of human
crime, be tolerated. If the seeding of evil be winked
at, the harvest should be patiently endured. If wve
spare the eggs of the cockatrice, we should not profess



too great hostility to the poisonous brood. If we neg-
lect purposely the first trickling of water through a dam
or embankment, it would be inconsistent to affect too
much horror at the desolations of the flood, sweeping
away factories and dwellings, and ravaging gardens and
  Hence, the wisdom and goodness of the divine law in
taking severe cognizance of all the acts of life, and
reaching to the thoughts and intents of the heart.
  Cicero has, with great precision and elegance of
language, portrayed this comprehensiveness of human
  "' Nulla enim vitae pars, neque publicis neque privatis,
neque forensibus neque domesticis in rebus, neque si
tecum agas quid neque si cum altero contrahas, vacare
officio potest, in eoque et colendo sita vitae est honestas
omnis, et in negligendo turpituda." Cic. de Officiis, lib.
I, ch. ii.
  " For no part of life, neither what you transact in
public or in private, in foreign or in domestic affairs,
with yourself, or with another, can possibly be free from
responsibility. From cherishing a sense of this respon-
sibility, arises all the virtue, from repressing it, all the
vice of human life."
  The extreme particularity of the Jewish ritual, ex-
tending its sanctions to minutest circumstances in the
order of worship; to the frequency and manner of ablu-



tions of persons, dress, vessels, and of houses; and to
the kind, age, and color of animals to be offered in sac-
rifice, was doubtless designed to provide memorials of
ever recurring obligations, and furnish a living type of
the higher spiritual regimen of the divine law, enforc-
ing all the particular distinctions of right and wrong
among men.
- Classifying the obligations of men, we may distin-
guish, 1st, those arising from individual constitution and
endowments, or self duties; 2nd, those arising from the
domestic constitution, or family duties; 3rd, those aris-
ing from civil compact, or patriotic duties; 4th, those
arising from our broader relations to the human broth-
erhood, or duties of philanthropy; 5th, those arising
from the common relations of creatures to the Creator,
or duties of religion.

                PHYSICAL EDUCATION.

  Of self duties, first, we urge the care of the body.
Its adaptation of bones, muscles, sinews, nerves; its
faculty of locomotion, of vision, and hearing; its pro-
cess of nutrition, growth, and renewal of decay; its
erect form and countenance looking heavenward and
radiant with divine intelligence, distinguish it as the
crowning glory of the material world, and the suitable
habitation and throne of the appointed lord of the earth.
As the masterpiece of material creation, its degradation




or neglect evinces ingratitude to the Creator, and be-
trays a sacred trust. As the house of the soul, and by
its condition modifying the capacity for spiritual cul-
ture, acquisition, and enjoyment, the importance of pre-
serving its functions in the most healthy state can
hardly be exaggerated.
  Physical and mental achievement, the pleasures of
sense and of reason, alike sink in the decline of bodily
health. And commonly, that decline is insidious, and
gradual, and hopeless as it is gradual.  The sapling
struck suddenly down by the falling tree, when disen-
gaged from the incumbent pressure, may, by its unbro-
ken elasticity, spring again to its erect position. But
prejudiced in its growth, by an incumbent force gradu-
ally turning it aside from direct ascent or bending it to
the earth, as it becomes distorted it looses its elasticity,
and when relieved of the biasing force, it will rise slowly,
if ever. Thus the insidious violation of the laws of
health, pervertis and abridges the physical life of the
race. They do not live out half their days. And the
days allotted to them arc filled with needless darkness
and sorrow.
  By the sentence of mortality the seeds of various
diseases are distributed and latent in the human sys-
tem. Under the regimen of virtue these seeds of dis-
ease may be in part resolved and dissipated through the
circulating and porous system, hereditary weaknesses




and infirmities may be removed, and the principles of
health and happiness incorporated into the constitution.
But by exposure, over exertion, or dissipation, they are
fostered and prematurely developed in the subversion
of health and life. The facilities for retaining and con-
firming health are great; of regaining it, few. "tTo
him who hath is given, and he shall have abundantly;
but from him who hath not shall be taken away, even
that he previously bath."
  The invalid, cut off from the sources of health, nour-
ishing food, pure air, and genial exercise, easily declines,
and loses all his scanty estate of health. But possess-
ing a sound bodily constitution, you have the amplest
means of retaining and confirmin-g it.
  Preserve it, therefore, before you lie on a bed of
sickness, your temples throb with the burning fever, or
your brow, cheeks, and trembling lips bear the pale
marks of wasting consumption.   Study the laws of
health. Observe temperance in all things. A profes-
sional gentleman who had always enjoyed perfect
health, and scarcely knew the meaning of pain and de-
jected spirits, assigned as the reason of his distinction,
strict temperance. He early formed the habit of taking
nothing into his system which he found to be injurious,
and always ceased to gratify his appetite while it was
yet good. At the intervals of business, leave the couut-
ing house, the store, tlue shop, and go abroad amid




scenes of life and beauty, inhaling the refreshing air,
and quickening the vital current by a brisk walk. And
if engaged in manual occupations, do not recklessly
expose yourself to heat or cold, night or storm, or need-
lessly overtax the strength or functions of the body.
Especially avoid dissipation. It enervates and exhausts
the vital powers, and engenders and fosters manifold
diseases. To various self abuses may be traced debil-
itated constitutions, scrofulous habit, insanity, and
nameless trains of evils darkening the lives of its
victims, and entailed in dreadful retribution upon their
children to the third and fourth generation. By the
faithfiul regimen of the body, then, prove yourselves
worthy of higher trusts, and indirectly conserve all the
varied interests and happiness of life.


  The duty of mental improvement is as obvious as
that of physical culture.  If there is nothing great
in the world but man, there is comparatively nothing
great in man hut mind. That is your instrument of
power, your patent of nobility, and your endowment
for immortality and endless progression in knowledge and
happiness.  It constitutes your own greatest dignity,
and your highest resemblance to the invisible Creator.
  By adapted and persevering culture you may improve
and strengthen its faculities, store its chambers of mem-




ory with classified truths and images of beauty, elevate
its pursuits, aspirations, and pleasures to those of higher
ranks of beings, till it look above the clouds and reach
beyond the stars.
  Or you may leave it encumbered with material life,
debased with passions, and enfeebled in purpose, till
it rise in rational exercises scarcely above the instincts
of the brute (creation, and in groveling aims creep with
the serpent in slimy filth along the fens and bogs of
sensual life.
  The most valuable culture of the mind does not de-
pend upon access to large libraries, or the facilities of
a collegiate edulation. That mental training, that com-
mand of your faculties and subjection of your passions,
that knowledge of yourselves, of men, and things which
will fit you to become the most useful citizens, constitute
the highest. education. And such education is available
in all the walks and conditions of life. Pursue it in a
thorough knowledge of your own profession, or trade,
or calling, so that you may excel in it.  Pursue it,
when possible, by association with public libraries, lit-
erary and scientific institutions, and by attendance upon
public lectures. Pursue it by systematic reading at
the intervals of business, to comprehend a character,
a theory, a country, an age. Vagrant reading is of
less use, and may be pernicious. Not only read with a
purpose but with discrimination.




  In the garden of plants in Paris, the qualities of
plants distributed over a wide range of beds are distin-
guished by different colored labels. It were well if the
myriad books which crowd our book stores and public
and private libraries could be thus classified and distin-
guished according to the purity, or perniciousness, or
mingled character of their influence.
  You should no more be willing to devour mental, than
material, garbage or poison. You should no more be
willing to dwell within the precincts of a literary, than
a literal, pandemonium; to visit the chamber of obscene
imagery and embellishment in a book, than in a house;
to consort with a libertine and bandit in mental reverie,
than in literal association.
  Rise, then, in thorough and select culture, to dignity,
influence, and happiness. Transmute the charcoal of
native intellect into the sparkling diamond of cultivated
mind. Impart to the unshaped marble, symmetry, ex-
pression, and beaaty. Clear off the native wilderness
and supersede the luxuriance of noxious weeds, by clas-
sified fertility and beauty of fields and gardens. Mingle
not with the blending crowds of ignorance and vice,
but distinguish yourself with the educated, the intelli-
gent, and refined.
  As complemental, and the most distinguished facility
to mental culture, we urge the duty of governing the



thoughts. The mind, instead of being dissipated in
idle reveries, building castles in the air, or in vain or
sinful thoughts, may be occupied in trains of useful
reflection.  By proper attention, casual trains of
thoughts may be made available for the illustration
of some truth, the enforcement of some duty. Reflec-
tion is a locomotive power which may move the trains
of human conduct and destiny.   Concentrated upon
proper objects, it may impel and sustain the progress
of useful life, and arts, and social happiness. Subjected
to no control, it may escape in noiseless and aimless
activity, or precipitate the whole train of human affairs
in ruin.
  Moreover, man's habitual thoughts reveal or deter-
mine his character. Thoughts of truth, justice, benefi-
cence, mercy, and peace, are the efflorescence, the
fragrance, of an exalted and virtuous character, and
they contribute further to refine and adorn it. ", I am
but a lump of common clay," says the Persian apo-
logue. "Askest thou whence came my fragrance I
was long the companion of the rose leaf, hence my
  The soul that produces pure and noble thoughts
retains their beauty and aroma. But thoughts of self-
ishness, impurity, and injustice, evince a depraved
character, as pestilent exhalations do stagnant waters
or marshy grounds. But they aggravate by a reflex




Influence the depravity whence they spring, and evil
thoughts become the precursors of evil deeds. Thoughts
of covetousness precede theft, forgery, burglary, rob-
bery; thoughts of vengeance, slander, affrays of vio-
lence, murder; thoughts of impurity, seduction, liber-
tinism, and profligacy.

"For atoms must crowd upon atoms, ere crime groweth to be a giant.
  What, is thy servant a dog Not yet wilt thou grasp the dagger;
  Not yet wilt thou laugh with the scoffers, not yet betray the innocent;
  But if thou nourish in thy heart the revenge of injury and passion,
  And travel in mental heat the mazy labyrinths of guilt,
  And then ccncelve it possible, and then reflect on it as done,
  And use, by little and little, thyself to regard thyself a villain,  [heart,
  Not long will crime be absent from the voice that doth invoke him to thy
  And bitterly wilt thou grieve that these buds have ripened into poison."

  Keep, then, your heart, the source of casual thoughts.
Keep it as a treasure, carefully deposited, secured, and
guarded. Keep it as a citadel which guards the royal
family, treasures, and the passes of a kingdom. Keep
it as a garden, precluding the growth of noxious weeds,
by eradicating them, and planting and rearing, in their
place, useful plants and beautiful flowers.


  The habitual subjection of the passions to their nor-
mal exercise, is another important duty, nearly allied
to that of regulating the thoughts. Passion is the mo-
tive power of man and of society. If it escape with
noisy and aimless action, like steam from the blow-pipe,




it is wasted force. Or if it move the train of human
affairs, without directing intelligence, or regulations of
time and place, it will precipitate a vast destruction.
But concentrated, under intelligent direction, upon the
machinery of industrial, social, and religious life, it is
as beneficent as it is an amazing power. Under proper
regimen, the passions are like the trained horses of a
royal chariot, gaily caparisoned, and flying over royal
roads, parks, and country, obedient to the whip, the
rein, and the voice of the charioteer. Without subjec-
tion, they are like M3azeppa's fiery steed, unbridled and
unrestrained, bearing its rider through thicket, over hill
and dale, to ultimate destruction.
  The subjection of the passions is a pledge of efficiency
and distinction among men. Without it, a man may
think well, plan well, but he will achieve little. It is
a higher element of character than material courage or
intellectual penetration. He that rules his own spirit
is greater than he that takes a city, vanquishes a king-
dom, amasses wealth, solves the problems of nature, or
eircumnavigates the globe. And it is a surer guarantee
of respect, influence, and success in life, than distinc-
tions of wealth or talent.  By precluding the petty
differences and strifes which alienate friends and arm
enemies, it makes its possessor magnanimous and great.
  There is weakness, as well as meanness and degrada-
tion, in ungoverned passion. Mlan sinks by it to the level




of the brute, controlled by instinct and impulse. But
there is dignity, greatness, and power in habitual self-
possession and government, elevating its possessor to
superiority over his adversary or compeer, in every
calling, profession, or condition in life. A friend, once
rudely insulted at the polls by a politician of talent,
social position, and influence, instead of retaliating
with approbrious epithets and sarcasm, simply replied,
in a manner to fasten the eyes of all present upon
his abuser, - Sir, no gentleman will insult me; no
other can." His antagonist was confounded, and his
triumph was complete.
  By such self-government, a peace is retained, to
which he is a stranger who is perpetually carried
away by an irrascible temper, with acts of revenge.
            "Hle that revenges knows no rest;
            The meek possess a peaceful breast."
  The subjection of the sensual appetite is as impor-
tant as that of an irrascible temper. Reason and con-
science prescribe the scope and determine the bounds of
their lawful indulgence. The observationof those bounds
is the charge of duty and the high distinction of a ra-
tional being. In their transgression man sinks towards
the sphere of the lower order of the animal creation.
        ' Tis the inferior appetites enthrall
        The man, and quench the immortal light within him;
        The senses take the soul an easy prey,
        And sink the imprisoned spirit into bruts.



  Self-government should embrace the elevation of all
the affections and tastes to the standard of their virtu-
ous exercise.  Virtuous susceptibilities subjected to
violence and excess become vices. Reserve is liable
to degenerate into supineness, activity into restlessness,
vigilance into curiosity, penetration into censoriousness,
promptitude into levity, fluency into loquacity, grace
into coquetry, taste into f