xt708k74ts43 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt708k74ts43/data/mets.xml  1850  books b92-128-29187803 English J.M. Hewes, : Boston : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Mammoth Cave (Ky.) Niagara River (N.Y. and Ont.) Niagara Falls (N.Y. and Ont.) Schuylkill River (Pa.) Description of the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, the Niagara River and falls, and the falls in summer and winter; the prairies, or life in the west, Fairmount water works and scenes on the Schuylkill  : to illustrate Brewer's panorama. text Description of the Mammoth Cave of Kentucky, the Niagara River and falls, and the falls in summer and winter; the prairies, or life in the west, Fairmount water works and scenes on the Schuylkill  : to illustrate Brewer's panorama. 1850 2002 true xt708k74ts43 section xt708k74ts43 


     OF THE

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        BOST ON:
        (Successors to John Putnam,)
      NO. 81 CORNHILL.

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  Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1850,
              BY 1. M. HlEWES  CO.
In the Clerk's Office of the District Covrt of Massachusetts.



  THE world has but one Niagara, and but one Mammoth
Cave, and the Prairies are her own. All three of them are re-
markable for their vastness, though in all other respects they
differ entirely from each other-the one roaring through narrow
channels, dashing among the rocks, and leaping from the
mighty precipice with the noise of thunder, throwing up the
spray, to be converted into a beautiful bow for the decoration of
its brow, with streams of silver and myriads of diamond drops,
reflecting all the colors of the prism in ever-changing and fan-
tastic forms, as if they were toys for the sunbeams to sport with,
-the other, deep under ground, with its appalling darkness, its
oppressive silence, its unknown immensity, and the painful
sense of loneliness with it, is adapted to awaken emotions of the
deepest sublimity and awe. And then, again, the vast Prairies,
with their thousands of acres covered with beautiful flowers,
and wild and luxuriant grass, waving in the wind like the sea
in a gentle swell, or stretching far away before the eye, like a
downy carpet varied and interspersed with flowers, fit for a
fairy queen or giant king to dance upon. As all three of them
are admirable subjects for Panoramic exhibition, affording as
they do, opportunity for bold effect and power of perspective,
being also great national objects, they have been selected for this
truly great national production. American wonders, transferred
with such correctness to the glowing canvas, by an American
artist, could not fail, (it is presumed,) to secure the patronage
of an enlightened community. There is this difference. how-
ever, between them. The tourist or traveller visiting Niagara,
can see the whole. It is enlightened by the splendors of the
noonday sun, and his eye can take in the size, form and color
of every object. And so in part with the great Prairies of the
West-but far otherwise with the Mammoth Cave. The dim
torch which the visitor takes with him into that inky darkness,
does little more than render the darkness visible; it falls far
short of dispersing the gloom, so as to enable the spectator to
form any thing like an adequate idea of its great dimensions, its
various halls, or the singularity of the objects they contain. At
the time these drawings were made, the different parts of the


Cave were Illuminated (by permission of the proprietor, Dr.
Croghan,) with hundreds of lights, of various kinds, placed at
different points, so as to give the best effects, and the views are
thus given. We can therefore form a more correct opinion of
the form and appearance of the different chambers, avenues and
halls, by an inspection of this Panorama, than can be obtained
by a visit to the Cave itself. There have been caught in the
rivers of the Cave, fish without eyes, furnishing a beautiful il-
lustration of the truth, that the Creator makes nothing in vain;
for what would be the use of eyes where not a ray of light
exists Many specimens from the Mammoth Cave, including
these eyeless fish, to be seen at the Hall, free, from 10 to 12,
and from 1 to 2J o'clock, daily.
  A view taken from Boston Common is shown, to enable the
spectator to judge for himself of the correctness of this Exhibi-
  A Panorama view of " Fairmount Water Works." It lingers
on the mind, like a dream of fairy land.
  Again: we are transported to the icy world, where old
Niagara, with its everlasting roar, rushes on in its relent-
less course, plunging down amid the icy foam, while mil-
lions of sparkling rays reflected from the sunbeams, form
lovely rainbows, sporting amid the frozen mist, and the sur-
roiunding trees covered with foliage of ice. The fall has robbed
them of their coat of green, and clothed them in garments which
sparkle and glitter like diamonds. The effect of this upon the
beholder is most awfully sublime and utterly indescribable.
The sublime, arising from obscurity, is here experienced in its
greatest force. The eye, unable to discover the depth of the
Falls, or even to penetrate the mist that seems to hang as a veil
over the amazing and terrific scene, gives place to the imagina-
tion, and the mind is instinctively elevated and filled with ma-
jestic dread. Here is
                 " All that expands, yet appals."
         "And such was that rainbow, that beautiful one,
         Whose arch was refraction, its key-stone, the sun;
         A pavilion it seemed, with a Deity graced,
         And justice and mercy met there and embraced."



  The Exhibition commences with a VIEW TAKEN ON BOS-
TON COMMON. This is given that the audience may be the
better able to judge for themselves of the correctness of the other
parts of the Exhibition. You see the State House, the old Elm
Tree, the lofty Fountain, Park Street Church, and other well
known objects. After which,
  FAIRMOUNT WATER WORKS, near Philadelphia, on the
Schuylkill River.
  Fairmount furnishes on3 of the most beautiful and useful
combinations of nature arnd art to be seen in the whole country.
Philadelphia had for many years suffered greatly for good
water. Two attempts were made to furnish a supply from the
Schuylkill, by means of very powerful steam engines. But ex-
periments, which were conducted on an extensive scale, proved
that a sufficient supply could not be obtained in this manner.
Accordingly, in 1819, another plan was adopted, which has
operated in the most successful manner, and which continues to
furnish the city with an abundant supply of good, sweet, fresh
water. A dam was built across the Schuylkill. From the
water thus raised, a stream was caused to fall on large wheels;
these wheels, in their evolutions, worked machinery, by means
of which, the water of the river was forced up into vast,
artificial reservoirs, capable of holding 25,000,000 of gallons.
From these, the water is conveyed by pipes throughout the
city and suburbs of Philadelphia. The aggregate length of
these pipes is 100 miles. The daily consumption of water
which passes through them is 4,000,000 of gallons. The reser-
voirs are sufficiently large to contain a supply for ten days.
The whole cost of the works was nearly a half a nmillion of dol-
lars. Upwards of 60,000 are annually received for the use of
the water. From the experience of years, it is found that there


Is sufficient power to raise many times as much water as the
city can possibly require for its consumption, and hence, that
there is a surplus power applicable to other purposes.
  Fairmount is a great place of resort. The views of the
Schuylkill and the surrounding country, from the top of the
reservoir, the refreshing coolness of the place in a warm day,
the beauty of the numerous fanciful fountains, throwing up their
silvery jets, which break and sparkle in the sun like brilliant
diamonds, with the interest and immense utility of these vast
arrangements when viewed as a magnificent work of art-all
combined, serve to render this a place of great attraction. Nu-
merous omnibuses are constantly running to and from the city,
a distance of two miles, which convey, at a low rate, a great
number of persons to see these important works. On the Pano-
rama are given a number of views of Fairmount and vicinity,
taken from the most favorable positions for picturesque effect.
The long dam, with its beautiful fall, the high reservoir, the
gardens, with their statuary and leaping fountains, the building
containing the machinery for throwing the water into the reser-
voir, and the noble river, are presented before the spectator with
great distinctness. Next comes
  THE PRAIRIES. The prairie, or great plains of our west-
ern country, are considered by all as objects of curiosity and in-
terest, because they are sui generis; they belong exclusively to
our country, and chiefly to the western portion of it.
  There are several kinds of prairie, differing very greatly in
appearance, extent and fertility. The first which is exhibited
in our Panorama, is known by the name of the. "Mound Prai-
rie." It consists of a level plain of great extent, its surface va-
ried with a number of conical hills of from twenty to sixty, and
even a hundred feet in height. The most popular belief is, that
these hills, or mnounds, have been thrown up by the Indians at
some former period, either as burial places, or as receptacles for
the deposit of various articles of value. Some geologists who
have visited these regions, express the opinion that they are
natural elevations of the soil, or "butes;" and that the former
owners of the land had nothing whatever to do with their con-
struction. Be this as it may, it is certain that several very sini-
ilar elevations, in the vicinity of St. Louis, and also some near
Natchez, Mississippi, upon being excavated, were found to con-
tain many things which had evidently been deposited in them
by the aborigines; among which were skeletons, bows and
arrows, stone axes and arrow heads, and a variety of culinary
and other implements. It is probable that the mounds spoken
of were family cemeteries, and the implements found with the
skeletons, the property and household furniture of the deceased.
  There is another character of plain, called the "Rolling
Prairie." No mounds or other remarkable elevations appear


here, but there is a gradual and very perceptible undulation in
the soil, which produces, at a distance, a very fine effect. Wind
storms are here very prevalent, and the tall and rank prairie-
grass bending and swaying in the blast over the uneven and
billowy surface, presents a striking similarity to the ocean, par-
ticularly in situations where (to use an expression common
among the Western hunters) " the blue bowl is turned over you,"
i. e., where the prairie is so extensive that the horizon is dis-
tinctly seen, and nothing is visible but the vault above and the
grass under your feet.
  This kind of prairie is uniformly preferred by squatters and
settlers, on account of its superior productiveness. The soil is
much richer than that of the other plains, and yields the most
abundant crops in return for comparatively light labor. Al-
though not a tree of any description rears its trunk on these
wide prairies, it is, nevertheless, a remarkable fact, that under
the surface, at the depth of from twenty to sixty feet, timber is
frequently found; large trees, in a good state of preservation,
lying horizontally; and what is more singular still, these trees,
so buried beneath the earth, are of a kind the genus even of
which is not found in the region, nor indeed within the limits
of the territory of the United States. They are Palms! and
characterized by the soft, spongy wood and scaly bark of this
exclusively tropical production. By what mighty revolution of
the earth these gigantic exotics have been deposited in the
bowels of our Western soil, we can, of course, only conjecture.
  The Panorama shows a party of emigrants travelling over
the prairie on a journey to the far West. They have large,
covered wagons to convey their provisions and baggage, drawn
by horses or oxen. These wagons are called by WNestern men,
" Prairie schooners;" are made in the strongest and most sub-
stantial manner, and of well-seasoned wood, in order to resist
the hardship to which they must necessarily be exposed, as well
as the extreme dessication which takes place on the tipper
plains. We have known instances of wagons falling absolutely
to pieces from the dryness of the atmosphere, the wheels run-
ning off, and the axles shrinking to such a degree as to render
them almost valueless for their appropriate use. The wagons
also serve an admirable purpose to the emigrants in lieu of tents,
furnishing as comfortable sleeping apartments as could be
  The third and last class, is the Flat Prairie. It is usually
almost as level as a race-course, abounding in tall and luxu-
riant grass, invaluable for cattle, but not possessing so eligible a
soil for cultivation; hence settlers usually avoid it, and choose
the undulating or rolling prairie. The flat plains are covered,
during the spring and summer, with a vast variety of the gay-
est and more beautiful of Flora's gifts; there is, indeed, a perfect
wilderness of flowers, many of them of the most brilliant colors;


and the contrast which is formed by the intermingling of these
with the polished green of the tall and waving grass, presents a
scene of quiet beauty and loveliness, which is rarely observed in
any other situation.
  On the flat prairies, occasional belts of heavy timber occur to
vary the monotony of grass and sky, but you may frequently
travel in other directions, for many weeks together, over what
may be aptly called a vast sea of grass, with a free and unob-
structed horizon all around you; and in this great extent, not one
arborescent plant shall greet the eye, if we except the fringe of
willows which usually margins each little stream meandering
through the great, and seemingly interminable wilderness. In
the autumn and winter, the grass being at -those seasons very
tall and dry, travelling over the prairie is often rendered dani-
gerous by extensive conflagrations occurring upon them. These
are sometimes the result of accident or carelessness; but more
frequently the grass is fired by the Indians for the purpose of
improving the pasture of the following spring, upon which sub-
sist vast herds of Bisons and other wild graminivorous animals,
upon the chase of which, many tribes depend for an annual
supply of food.
  There are few scenes more grand and awfully terrific, than
are exhibited when the surface of these immense plains is
wrapped in one broad sheet of flame. The destroying element
crackles and roars on its course, the forked flames leaping among
the tall and withered grass, and rushing over the prairie almost
with the speed of a race-horse. But for an expedient as curious
and ingenious as it is effectual, parties of emigrants and others,
travelling upon these plains at the time of a conflagration, would,
in every instance, inevitably perish by one of the most frightful
and agonizing of all deaths. The expedient is this: When an
emigrant party perceives the fire approaching from a great dis-
tance, every member of it is instantly set to work to burn the
grass in various places in and around the encampment, extin-
guishing the flames within, as the fire begins to spread out in
every direction around, until a large space is thus cleared of the
combustible matter, within which the party remains in perfect
safety. Fire is thus made to "fight fire," the flames kindled by
the travellers meeting those of the main conflagration, and the
whole is soon extinguished for want of aliment.

  NIAGARA RIVER, (including all the scenes between the
two great Lakes,) renowned the world over for its mighty
Cataract, now glides before the eye.
       " The roar of waters! From the headlong height,
       Niagara cleaves the wave-worn precipice;
       The fall of waters! rapid as the light,
       The flashing mass foams, shaking the abyss;
       The hell of waters! where they howl and hiss,


       And boil in endless torture; while the sweat
       Of their great agony, wrung out from this
       Their Phlegethon, curls round the rocks of jet
       That gird the gulf around, in pitiless horror set.
         And mounts in spray the skies, and thence again
       Returns in an unceasing shower, which round
       With its unemptied cloud of gentle rain
       In an eternal April to the ground,
       Making it all one emerald;-how profound
       The gulf !-and how the giant element
       From rock to rock leaps with delirious bound,
       Crushing the cliffs, which downward worn and rent,
       With his fierce footsteps, yield in chasms a fearful vent.
                      S        S       S       4
                                   Look back!
       Lo! where it comes like an eternity,
       As if to sweep down all things in its track,
       Charming the eye with dread,-a matchless cataract,
       Horribly beautiful! but on the verge,
       From side to side, beneath the glittering morn,
       An Iris sits, amid the infernal surge,
       Like Hope upon a death-bed, and, unworn
       It steady dies, while all around is torn
       By the distracted waters, bears serene
       Its brilliant hues with all their beams unshorn,
       Resembling, 'mid the torture of the scene,
       Love watching Madness with unalterable mien."
  The Niagara river opens with a view on Lake Ontario. This
Lake is the most eastern of that great chain of inland seas,
which extends for so many hundreds of miles across the conti-
nent of North America. It receives the waters of the more
western Lakes by the Niagara river, and discharges them
through the Saint Lawrence into the Atlantic ocean. It is four
hundred and eighty miles in circumference. The boundary line
between Canada and the United States runs through the middle
of it. In some places it is six hundred feet deep, and through-
out its whole extent it is navigable for vessels of the heaviest
tonnage. A somewhat singular circumstance is, that its surface
is three hundred and thirty-four feet below that of Lake Erie,
with which it is connected by the Niagara river and the Wel-
land canal.
is an old fortress, built of turf and earth, which, after standing
a number of years, is now rapidly going to decay. It was of
considerable importance during our last war with England, and
was at different times in possession of each of the opposing par-
ties. It stands on the Canada side of the river. On the oppo-
site side of the river is seen Fort Niagara, occupying a very con-
spicuIous and commanding position. It has seen hard service,
having been at different times in possession of the French, Eng-
lish and Americans, who have successively conquered it after
terrible conflicts.  It has been the scene of wild and romantic



adventures, which would furnish material of thrilling interest
for the novelist or the poet. It was built in the year 1678, by
M. de La Salle, an officer of the French army.
  YOUNGSTON. This is a very pretty town containing
several hundreds of inhabitants, with its vicinity ornamented
with elegant mansions and beautiful farms. It is distinguished
as being the first place burnt by the enemy in revenge for the
destruction of Newark.
  Brock's Monument in the distance, and Queenston Heights.
  Standing here, you have a view of the Queenston Heights,
and Brock's Monument, four miles in the distance.
  LEWISTON is a beautiful and thriving village, which was
named in 1803, after Mr. Lewis, Governor of the State of New
York. Classical associations cluster around it. It was burnt
by the British in 1813, but in 1815 the inhabitants returned, and
it is nowv in a flourishing condition. It is on the east side of the
Niagara River, at the head of navigation. It has a good steam-
boat landing, from which boats regularly ply to various places
on Lake Ontario. It has a communication by railroad to Buf-
falo, by Niagara Falls, which connects with the Lockport and
Niagara Falls Railroad.
  QUEENSTON is a small, irregular, quaint-looking village,
more known, perhaps, from the battle which was fought in its
neighborhood, than for any important objects which it contains.
The next scene upon the canvas is a view of
  BROCK'S MONUMENT. In the foreground, ascending the
heights, and looking back far off in the distance, is seen the
Niagara river, wending its way through the country, till lost iA
Lake Ontario. Formerly we could ascend this Monument, and
have one of the finest views in the world; but it has been
destroyed by persons unknown, and is now a ruin. It was built
of a soft, white stone, which was quarried from a mountain in
the neighborhood. Its base is twenty feet square, supporting a
round shaft which rises one hundred and twenty feet from the
ground. Its cost was about eight thousand dollars. It was
here that the battle of Queenston Heights was fought, which re-
sulted favorably for the British. though at the sacrifice of that
gallant officer, Major General Sir Isaac Brock, who was slain in
the action. He did not fall in the precise spot where the Monu-
ment stands, but about eighty rods down the hill, on the north-
western side. He was marching bravely at the head of his
men, cheering them on to action, when he received his fatal
wound and fell. This Monument, erected to his memory, was
greatly injured on the 17th of April, 1840, by an attempt of some
evil-minded persons to blow it uip with gunpowder. The circu-
lar stairs by which travellers were accustomed to ascend to its


summit were destroyed, stones were forced from the wall, and
the Monument rent throughout its whole length. Since then,
contrary to the expectations of many, a part of it has fallen, so
that it now presents a picturesque, but very ruinous appearance.
We next arrive at the
  DEVIL'S HOLE, a deep, dark, terrific chasm, in the rocky
bank of the river on the American side. The gloomy grandeur
and historical reminiscences which invest it, render it an object
of much interest. A most wild, rugged and lofty cliff rises
above it, over which a small stream called Bloody Run pours
its waters into the dark and fearful chasm below. In 1759, a
party of French and Indians pursued a company of English sol-
diers, and drove them at the point of the bayonet over this rock.
They were all dashed to pieces in their fall but one. This was
a poor fellow, who very fortunately was caught in the friendly
arms of a tree. His enemies not suspecting sutch a merciful ini-
terposition, without making any particular examination of the
condition of their enemies, soon departed front the fatal spot.
The rescued soldier, though severely wounded by the adventure,
then left the tree, climbed cautiously up the high and difficult
bank, and succeeded in making a safe retreat.
  THE WHIRLPOOL. This is formed by a short bend in the
river, by which the rapid waters coming down from the Falls
are suddenly arrested and thrown back upon those which are
behind. In the effort to find an outlet, an immense circular
eddy, or whirlpool, is created, which, by its roaring, foaming
and ceaseless gyrations,. may well remind one of the famous
Maelstrom on the coast of Norway. It is sai(L that logs, trees,
and other floating objects, have sometimes been whirled around
in these eddying waters for weeks, before they found the outlet
and passed down the river. The poet's description of it is by
no means hyperbolical:-
       "Resistless, roaring, dreadful, down it comes,--
       There, gathering triple force, rapid and deep,-
       It boils, and wheels, and foams, and thunders through."
this international thoroughfare, in its completed state, passes
before the eye. This bridge, constructed of iron wire, is 800
feet long, about 10 feet wide. and the height above the water is
about 200 feet. It is capable of bearing the heaviest carriages
and wagons. The first person who crossed was Mr. Eliot, the
architect, and the second was his wvife. It is a very important
work, as it opens an easy communication between the United
States and Canada.
  Standing on the American side, and a little below the Suspen-
sion Bridge, and looking up the river. you will see the Falls of
Niagara in the distance, two or three miles from you. Nearly



all the Falls can be seen from this point. Crossing over from
the American shore, we next arrive opposite to the Ferry land-
ing, where the little boat, the " Maid of the Mist," plies; over
on the Canada side and up to the jaws of the Great Horse Shoe
Falls, this portion of the Niagara river is called the "Swift
drifts." Passing on a little beyond on the bank on the Canada
side, and on a level with the edge of the Falls, we see beyond
the American Rapids, and bridge from the main land to Bath
Island; from thence to Iris, or Goat Island, and the village of
Niagara, formerly called Manchester, with the Cataract House,
Eagle Hotel, Falls [louse, c.
  THE BANKS. The banks of the stream are high and pre-
cipitous, showing the various rocky strata of which they are
composed. Its naked aspect is slightly relieved, however, by
the diversified coloring of its component parts; and still more
by the numerous little silver rills which trickle down its rocky
  At the distance of between one and two miles above, by cross-
ing over to the American side, we have a good view of the
bridge about which so much has been said within the last year
or two. It is a fine structure, built entirely of iron wire, and is
called the "International Suspension Bridge," from the circum-
stance of its forming a highway between the possessions of the
United States and those of her Brittanic Majesty. This bridge
was completed in the latter end of last year, and occupied nearly
twelve months in building. Its cost was 15,000. The first
person who crossed upon it was the architect, Mr. Charles Ellet,
and the second was his wife. The span of the bridge is 800
feet; the width 9 feet 9 inches, and the height from the water
about 200 feet. Standing on the American side, and looking
under the bridge, we have a distant though very good view of
the Falls. The Cataract presents a very beautiful appearance
from this point, but it is necessary, in order fully to appreciate
its awful grandeur, to approach it much more nearly.
  Crossing to the opposite, or Canada side, stands the noble
building called the Clinton House, near which is seen the Ferry
Landing, having a staircase leading down the bank, about six
rods below the Falls. From the top of these stairs the visiter
may enjoy a scene of surpassing grandeur. The deep green
river beneath, the awful rocky precipice, the mighty floods
rolling and tumbling from the heights above, and the wild
romantic and variegated scenery around, form a coup d' eit im-
possible to be described. Here is seen, floating like a sea-gull
on the turbulent and yeasty waves, the little steamer called the
" Maid of the Mist," a small but excellent boat, built expressly
for navigating these wild and agitated waters. Since this little
craft was provided, visiters have been furnished with opportu-
nities of inspecting many interesting scenes that otherwise would
have escaped their view altogether.


  On the Canada side, the singular looking building called the
Pagoda, is seen, and near it the Ferry Railway. On this side
of the river, from near the Clifton House, you have a fine view
of the American Falls. The water above is seen roaring and
foaming on its course, bounding from ridge to ridge, until it
sweeps over the mighty ledge and falls below. From beneath,
it boils up like a sea of white foam; the spray rises in clouds,
which hang overhead like a judgment, or are wafted away in
fleecy masses by the wind, the rays of the sun falling upon the
innumerable particles, causing them to glitter and scintillate like
diamonds, rubies, and emeralds; while the beautiful bow of
promise hangs suspended in the midst, like an angel of mercy
floating over the infernal pit. This is emphatically the home
of the rainbow, it being always visible whenever the sun shines.
Most visiters prefer looking at the Falls in the glow of brilliant
sunshine; but there are many who select the quiet, calm moon-
light for this purpose. Others again seek them in storm and
tempest, when the awful surges are lashed into foam, and the
roar of the cataract overpowers all other sounds. The view is
magnificent and glorious in all these aspects, and the effects
produced on the mind are various as the ideas and feelings of
the spectators.
  Looking a little above the American Falls the bridge is seen
leading from the shore to Bath Island, from which you have a
magnificent view of the rapids. The water drives with such
immense impetuosity and force that it seems incredible that the
bridge could have been constructed here. Here it is, however,
and by it you are furnished with an opportunity of visiting
Bath, and by another similar bridge leading from it, Iris, or
Goat Island. These islands form lovely and sylvan retreats,
being covered with the most luxuriant growth of forest trees,
wild vines, c., and having beautiful foot-paths intersecting
them in every direction.
  At the lower end of Iris Island is seen a long covered passage
called the Biddle staircase, erected at the expense of Nicholas
Biddle, Esq., the celebrated financier. by which a safe though
somewhat tiresome passage is afforded to the various scenes of
interest at the foot of the Island. It was here that Sam Patch
made two successful leaps from a platform ninety-seven feet
high, in the autumn of 1829. This daring but silly personage
subsequently made two leaps at the Genesee Falls, from a still
higher elevation, the last of which from a height of 125 feet,
proved fatal. He was seen no more.
  Upon leaving the Bridge from Bath Island, turning to the
right and passing along the bank of Iris Island, the narrow
ridge, called the Hog's Back, is seen. It was here that two
persons, a young man and a little girl, recently lost their lives
by falling in the powerful current, from which they could not
extricate themselves, and in a few seconds disappearing by
being whirled over the Falls.



  The Central Fall is formed by a small portion of the river,
cut off by Prospect Island from the American branch, which
rolls in a clear, beautiful, and sparkling volume to the precipice,
where it bounds away in a smooth and almost unbroken sheet.
  Behind this cascade and under the, rock is the celebrated spot
called Ingraham's Cave, or Cave of the Winds. This wonder-
fuil cave has been several times visited and explored, but tourists
usually eschew it because of the great peril which is necessarily
encountered by those who attempt to enter it. It is near one
hundred and twenty feet wide, and about thirty deep. The
sparkling and foaming torrent shoots off far above, dashing the
spray in such abundance over the person of the adventurer that
in a moment he is completely drenched. A wall of rock rises
frowning on one side, the falling sheet arches the other. The
bottom of the cave is composed of loose stones or shale, which
have fallen from above, and slopes gradually down lo the front,
where it terminates in a precipice thirty-four feet high from the
water's age. The thick spray rolls ceaselessly along the floor,
curls up the arching wall, and flies across the roof, while con-
stant and fierce winds commingle and roar through it inces-
santly in unison with the sullen and deep bellowings of the
ever-falling torrent.
  The water on the American side falls one hundred and sixty-
four feet, and on the Canada side one hundred and fifty-eight
feet.  The fall on the Canada side, embracing the largest
channel of the river, is called, from the shape of the precipice,
the ' Crescent, or Horse-Shoe Fall," and near to this is situated
the Terrapin Bridge, three hundred feet in length from Goat
Island, and projecting ten feet over the falls. Near the termina-
tion of t