xt70cf9j6n6x https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt70cf9j6n6x/data/mets.xml Kentucky Negro Education Association Kentucky Kentucky Negro Education Association 1945 The most complete set of originals are at Kentucky State University Library. Call Number 370.62 K4198k journals  English Kentucky Negro Educational Association: Louisville, Kentucky  Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal African Americans -- Education -- Kentucky -- Periodicals The Kentucky Negro Educational Association (K.N.E.A.) Journal v.16 n.2-3, April-May, 1945 text The Kentucky Negro Educational Association (K.N.E.A.) Journal v.16 n.2-3, April-May, 1945 1945 1945 2020 true xt70cf9j6n6x section xt70cf9j6n6x  





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April—May, 1945


















The Kentucky
State College

Prepare for Post-War Leadership


Arts and Sciences
Home Economics — Agriculiure
Business Administration

Standard Class A Four Year College
Accredited by the
Southern Associafion of Colleges
and Secondary Schools

Registration, Summer Session, June 18

B. B. ATWOOD. President



 The K. N E A Journal

Ofidal Organ of the Kentucky Negro Edumtional Association
Vol. XVI ApfilMay, 1945 No. 2-3




Published by fine Kentucky Negro Education Association
Editorial Office at 2230 West Chestnut Street
Louisville 1-1, Kentucky

W. Hi Perry, Jr., Executive Secretary, Louisville, Managing Editor
Mrs. Lucy Harth Smith, Lexington, President of K.N.E.vA

BOARD or numerous
A. F. Gibson, Pineville Victor K. Perry, Louisviile
Mrs. Mayme 5. Morris, Louisville w. M. Young, Lincoln Ridge
{Pufbfishefl bimonthly during the school year

(Numbers 2 and 3 of Volume XV! are cml’l’binet‘lY due to unavoidable
delay of number 2 in the shop of the printer.)

Membership in the K. N. E. A, includes subscription to the Journal.
Rates of advertising mailed ‘on request.



K. N. E. A. Ofiicers. ,
Editorial Comment ..
Steps Toward Our Goal, Lucy Harth Smith.
Eastern District Association Meets, C. B Nuckolls
Conference Organizes Against Educational Discrimlna ion,
Blyden Jackson ........................................ . . .
Library in Rehabilitation at the Handicapped Helen A Kean.
The Grab Bag, Selected ........
Abstract of Minutes, 1945 Meeting,
Kean Resigns from K. H. S. A. L.,
Recommendations of Principals Conference, Wl O, Nuckolls.
Report of 1945 Legislative Committee, A. F. Gibson
Report of Group III, B. Carmichael Willis.
Financial Report of Secretary-Treasurer.,
Report on Kentucky Negro High and Graded Schools, Whitney








 K. N. E. A. OFFICERS FOR 1844-45

Lucy flarth Smith, President.
Robert L. Dwery, First Vice‘
'1‘. J. Long, Second Vice-President...
W. H. Perry, Jr., Secretary-Treasurer.
L. V. Ranels, Assistant Secretary .....


Lucy [Earth Smith, President.
A. 1“, Gibson .
Mayme R. Morris
Victor K. Perry . ‘

Whitney M. Young lL-inCOIn Ridge






Edward T. Buford, High School and College Dept. Bowling Green
Mayme R. Morris, Elementary Education Dept Louisville
M. L. Copeland, Rural School Dept.. .. .Hopkinsv%e



R. L Carptenter, Music Department

F. W. Browne. Vocational Eriucation
W. 0 Nuckolls, Principals’ Conference.
Beatrice C. Willis Primary Teachers Dept
Annrma Beard Youth Council .............
Ouida Wilson E73115, Art Teachers‘ Conference.
G. W. Jackson, Sociafl Science Teachers‘ Conference
Gertrude Sledd, Science Teachers’ Conference..
Jewell R. Jackson, English Teachers’ Conference.
C. Elizabeth -Mundy. L’brarians‘ Conference.
W. L, Kean, Physical Education Department.
W. H. Craig. Guidance Workers Conference.
A. J. Richards Foreign Language Teachers’ Conference.
William D. Johnson, Adult Education Department .....


l—«M, O. Strauss, Paducah ...... .First District Association
2—Herbert Kirkwood, Henderson .Second District Associatoin

S—A. L. Poole, Bowling Green. . .Thil‘d Dish-let Association
4—Riussell Stone, Bloomfield ou'rth District Association
E—Mayme R. Morris, Louisville. Fifth District Association
6—‘W'hitney M. Young, Lincoln Ridge. .EBiue Grass District Association
7—H. R. Merry, Covingtan. Northern District Association
8—IE. M. Kelly, Jenkins. . . . .Eastern District Association
H. A. Matthews, .Benham. Upper Cumberland District Assn.


l—E. T Buford. High School and College Deparhnent, Principals
Conference, Librarians’ Conference, Adult Education Departmm'm
Art Teachers’ Conference (Section D: Music Department, (Section

2—'Beatrice C. Willis. Elementary Education Department, Primary
Teachers’ Cunferenre Art Teachers’ Conference (Section 2), Music
Department (Section 2).

3—6 W Jackson: Social Science Teache'i‘s’ Conference, Science
Teacher-5’ Conference, English Teachers Conference, Foreign
Language Teachers Conference, Physical Education Department

4—W. H. Craig: Guidance Workers’ Conference. Youth Council, Voca-
tional Education Department, Rural School Department.


. Paducah











Editorial Comment

2. .r





The conference of Kr N. E. A. leaders held in Louisville on April
21 was the second ‘war-time conference of the Association during
World War In, and was attended by district presidents, departmental
chairmen, members of the legislative committee and other members
present in the city at the time of the meeting.

{By this means the work of the organization was conducted with
special attention to the recommendations of the legislative committee,
and the planning for future conventions by departmental chairmen
and group leaders, Our constitution makes no provision for confer-
ences held in lieu of annual conventions other than to empower the
directors to not for the Association, The conference was, therefore,
held under their direction, and their approval was necessary to make
valid any recommendations made during its sessions.


Teachers conceptions of their responsibility for good “learning
situations" are constantly changing. The old standard of a quiet room,
well ventilated but ill equipped, and presided over by a teacher con-
tent to teach principally the 3 R’s, is being replaced by the Ibelief that
school rooms should be in modern buildings, well situated, well equip-
ped, and affording services through which pupils may be physically
and culturally prepared to solve life‘s pmblems.

Teachers are concerned about the conditions of schools in areas
distant from their own, and on an levels—primary to graduate. They
are interested in curricula development, texhbook selection, tax poli~
cies, and the numerous local and general practices that effect pupils
and schools.

The reports of the legislative committee of the KINEA and KEA, of
the assistant supervisor oi Negro education, and the developing
recommendations of the Kentucky Commission on Negro Affairs and
the Committee for Kentucky are fruitful sources of information and
suggestion. Teachers will do well to think carefully over the ideas
presented, with a view to making practical those most likely to do

the greatest good.

 snaps rowan» ourl GOAL
ay Lucy Hath siniih

tit has always been my earnest ‘belief that a' knowledge of the con-
tributian made to American and world progress by the Negro would
tend to bring elbout good will among the races in mm country. With
this idea in view, I, as your president, was successful in gaining con.
ferences with our efficient State Superintendent, John Fred Williams,
and other memlbers of the State Textbook Commission who gave con.
sidetation to the idea.

With a number of books on Negro life and history secured for them,
they finally selected, approved and adoptetl two of them, for use in
the schools of our state. These were ”A Child’s Story uf the Negro,”
by Jane Shackeliord for fifth grade, and “Negro Makers of History,"
by Carter G. Woodson, far the sixth grade, published 'by The A5-
sociated Publishers, 1538 Ninth Street, Washington, D, C. With this
part of our work accomplished it is necessary that We as teachers
review these books and request that they be used in our varicus
communities Certainly all students have a right to knuw that the
development of our great country was not accomplished by any one
grimy, But through coeperative efl’ort.

There are other books which you should secure for your libraries
among which are: “My Happy Days,” Jane lShackelford; "Ward Pic-
tures of the Great," Derricotte, Turner and Roy; ”Story of the Negro
Retold," Woodso'n; “Folk Tales," Whiting; "Negro Art, Music and
Rhyme,” Whiting; “African Myths," Woodson; ”Play Songs of the
Deep South," A. Trent Johns; “The Negro in Our History,” Waodson;
‘Tlegro M siciarls and Their Music,” Cuney-flare; "Women Build-
ers," Daniel; ”Negro Poets and Their Poems," Keriin; ‘Wegro Ora-
tors and Their Orations," Woodson; “African Heroes and Heroines,"
Wnorlson. All of these can be secured from The Associated Publish-
ers, Washington, D. c.

A short while ago Governor Willis appainted your president on a
committee to secure funds for The Frederick Douglass Memorial and
Historic Association which sponsors the home of Frederick Doug-
lass at Washington, D. C., as a national shrine for the Negroes at
America. Same day we want our children to make a visit there
and gain an inspiration therefiromi We are asking that our teachers
give their children a chance to contribute at ‘least a penny to the
fund. We also invite teachers, principals, and islands to join our list
of at least one dollar and share in this great project. You may send
your contributions to me at 258 East Fifth Street, Lexington, Ken‘
lucky, and proper receipts will ’be given you. This can ’he dune at
any time during the year.

The K. N, E. A was invited to become a memlber organization Of
the Committee for Kentucky, which had its initial meeting at the
Kentucky Hate! in Louisville last month Your president and several
of our oflicers attended the meeting. This organization of the 74


 memiber organizations of both groups is a fact finding committee
whose objective is the welfare of all of Kentucky. Certainly we
should not fail to accept the invitation to be a charter member.
With so many improvements needed in our educational system, in-
duding our average salary scale in which Kentucky stands fortieth -
amung the forty-nine states, we should join this great organization
for social betterment. We cannot do this on progress along other
lines, unless our members support the K. N. E. A. with their annual
dues. We solicit your suggestions for the improvement of the K.N.E)A.

By C. B. Nnckolls, Principal B. T. Washington High School.
Ashland. Kentucky

.The Eastern Kentucky District Educational Association held an
interesting meeting at Wheelwright, Kentucky, on November 9 and
10, with Mrs. Emma B. Horton, president, presiding, at the Wheel—
wright High School. This session was one of the best, with the high-
est enrollment of teachers in its history, Principal W. ’1'. Gilbert,
his faculty, and the good people of the city spared no pains in mak-
ing the stay of the teachers a happy one.

The association theme was: “Win the war—twin the peace." The
program of the session was interesting and inspiring tram the be-
ginning to the end. The following are highlights 0‘ the opening ses-
sion: Welcome by Mr. E. R. Price, manager of inland iSteel. Inland
iSteel cooperated in every way for the educational, social, and civic
development of the community. Various departmental meetings
were held, and proved valuable.

The association went on record as endorsing the state educational
program as outlined by the Kentucky Negro Education Association.
It gave full endorsement to the program of higher education for Ne-
groes in Kentucky, especially to the very fine plan of improvement of
our Kentucky State College at Frankfort in gradually raising its
graduate work in proportion to the needs of our group and to con-
tinue to maintain a standard Teachers College, This type of train-
ing is in greater demand than ever before in the history of Negro edu-
cation in Kentucky.

The association works in harmony with the state program of Negro
education as planned by our state organization. We extended thanks
to our parent body, the K. N. E A., for making possible the appoint-
ment of a Negro as Assistant Supervisor of Negro education, and
other educational improvements.

The association, out of appreciation and recognition of the fine
service rendered by Mrs. E. B. Hcrton, instructor at the B. T. Wash-
ington High School, Ashland, and president of the Eastern District
Association, voted to send her to the K. N. E. A. at the 1945 session,
with traveling expenses paid, as our official delegate. Since there
W35 no K. N. E. A. meeting, she attended the Planning Conference of
the K. N. E. A. on April 21.


By alydon Jaclson. Past President, Louisville Association of Teachers
in Colored Schools

On March 124, in a one~day conference held at Jackson College in
Jackson, Mississippi, fifty-seven representatives of the southern Negro
press and the southern Negro schools counseled together upon the
task of securing to southern Negroes equality of educational oppor-
tunity. .

The conference explored the nature and variety of discrimination
against Negroes in the South‘s educational. establishment at all levels,
:but placed its emphasis upon the development of a program promis—
ing practical results, rather than upon a mere “discussion of the
situation." In keeping, therefore, with the conference’s resolution to
prepare an eflective campaign in the sphere oi action a permanent
organization of the forces there represented was immediately created
with Carter W. Wesley, of Houston, Texas, as chairman; C. A. Scott,
01 Atlanta, Georgia, and Mrs. Lucy Harth Smith, of Lexingon, Ken-
tucky, as vice-chairmen; ~Dr. Reid E. Jackson, of Southern University
as secretary; President Horace M. Bond, of Fort Valley College, as
director of research; and President RAB. Atwood, of Kentucky State
College, as treasurer.

The conference delegated to a resolutions committee the casting
into final form for publication of its decisions on policy and philos-
ophy, underscoring, however, its conviction that the achievement of
a democratic solution for the South‘s educational problems urgently
demands vigorous action on the part of Negroes themselves. The con,
ference established an eighteen 'memlber commision to devise and
execute strategy for the creation of a budget and a paid stafi to work
toward realization of the conference’s objectives. It then adopted as
its name the title, “Southern Negro Conference for the Equalization
ad Educational Opportunity," and set its next meeting for Memphis,
Tennessee on May 12.

Kentucky was represented at the conference ‘by Frank Stanley,
publisher of the Louisville Defender; President R. B. Atwood, of
Kentucky State College; Mrs. ’Lucy Harth Smith, president of the
K. N. E . A.; and deden Jackson, a delegate from the Louisville AS-
sedation of Teachers in Colored Schools.


om COPIES or Jounmu. WANTED

The New York Public Library needs the following issues of the
K. N, E. A. Journal to complete its files:

Vol. ’l~tNos. 1 and 3; Vol. Vil——Nost l and 3; Vol. vul— Nos. u and 3;
Vol. Vim—Nos l and 3; Vol. lX—Nos. 2 and 3; Vol. X—Nos. 1
and 3; Vol. th—No. 3; Vol. Kill—(Nos. l and 2.

It will be appreciated if persons having extra copies of the above
issues will forward them to the office of the secretary.

By Helen Anthony Kean
(Teacher of Sightsiiving Class, Madison street Junior High School,
Louisville, Kentucky)

:No problem is more vital to society than that of safeguarding the
mental and physical health of its members. Education of the han-
dicapped has established itself as a service well justified from a hu-
manitarian and an economic point of view as well as a practical
and sensible function of democracy. rlt is true that the war with its
returning victims has made us more conscious of our responsibility to
this group Ibut since the turn of. the last century there has been an
increasing interest in the handicapped based upon scientific facts.
For a long time our philosophy has been changing from the‘ Spartan
Doctrine of “Destroying the weak" to the Christian philosophy of so—
cial responsibility.

No longer are the feeble minded ridiculed as fools and beggars, or
the deaf and dumb styled as stupid—no longer are the insane thrown
into dungeons or the tuibercular looked upon as incurable wretches.
Instead, the state and federal governments have assumed as their
duties the education of these handicapped and have established
schools providing for all types of atypical individuals,

The number of handicapped adults is increasing daily by the thou—
sandsl All of us recognize What the war is doing to our men both
mentally and physically. Even we at home are undergoing such
emotional stresses inflicted by our ever changing modes of living that
most of us are developing a neurosis to some degree, ‘50 Conscious
are we of the responsibility that we owe those returning soldiers who
have been “blinded. by the flames and steel of War or deafened by
its frightful din of battle—those crazed by the horrors of death and
destruction,” that the sword rehabilitation is an every day expression.

After the last war we lacked imagination Despite our good will
and deep gratitude we could think of nothing 'better to do with our
disabled soldiers then to make them night watchmen or elevator
operators. .No so, this one. The United States Civil Service Com-
mission has been hiring World War II veterans at the rate of lilflflfl
a month. Some 3,000 kinds of government jobs are made available.

Many corporations are doing the same kind of intelligent plan-
ning Ford, General Motors, Lockheed, Eastern Aircraft, and many
other companies are making surveys of the jobs in their plants in
order to place disabled men where they can compete on equal terms
with anyihody elsel :Properly placed handicapped employees are mak
ing impressive records.

The army is operating several specific centers located strategicélly
over the country to provide the best possible medical and surgical
care, combined with the best in vocational training. When returning
wounded men reach this country they go to a receiving hospital.


 There they are sorted out according to their disability and sent to the
center for training in various types of jdbs. After a few weeks of
care and training these depressed and discouraged men go out with
a new outlook on life. .The job thatis being done by the hospitals.
and by the professionals has been magnificent. This does not mean,
however, that when the men are dismissed from these centers they
are ,completely healed. Their bodies, perhaps. Their hearts and
minds? Not These still hear scars—net those of battle, ‘but those of
anguish for fear they might not be accepted by the ones they love
at home. They face us, shy, nervous, and rbewildered.

‘In the hospital they were among others of their kind. They Were
surrounded 'by understanding doctors and nurses. There is an ar-
ticle in the January, 1945, MoCall, by Betsy Barton, in which she
reminds us at the great task ahead of us. The article is entitled,
“Those ’Who Did Not Die." Says she, in part, “-He will need reassur-
ance from you right away—the support at your love, the knowledge
that it does not matter to those he loves how he looks or how he
now is shaped.” Miss Barton goes on to show us how we can help
our loved ones through slow and laborious effort to gain courage and

Librarians have a particular contribution to make to the handi-
capped by providing special guidance in bibliotherapy for the sick
and specific guidance in 'book selection for the handicapped at home.
The pullillic library is now extending its services into hospital wards
not only lending books but by supplying trained librarians. Many
hospitals have included trained librarians on their staff to oversee
the reading at the patients A typical hospital library might ’be de-
suribed by the General and Children‘s Hospital Library at the Uni-
versity of Iowa, Iowa City.

Book selection for the hospitalized person is very important. The
right back at the right time for the right person has often been the
turning point 1mm illness to convalescence. The book for the surgi-
cal case may be poison for the tubercular.

Gay and colorful picture books break the monotony of the hos-
pital scene. Books of games and riddles may he shared with neigh-
boring patients. Stories of pioneering and exploration broaden the
sick person’s narrow world. The first thing to do is to discover, if
possible, what the patient thinks his needs and desires are. The 1i-
'bl'al'lan must know everything that it is possible to know regarding
her patient, his physical condition, his ability, his interests, and his
social background. In addition to bringing wholesome recreation to
the patients the librarian has introduced literary treasures that they
will never forget

The gap a book can fill in the life of a handicapped individual who
is deprived of normal recreation helps him to a balanced existence
Books make for contentment Contentment is curative. The worth
of the library in that alone is immeasurably important in. the re
habilitation of the himdicapped individual.



-A hearing on H. R. 0-296 (companion measure to S. 181) began
Tuesday morning, April 10, 41045, in Washington, D. (1, before the
House Education Committee of which the Honorable Graham A. -Bar-
den, North Carolina, is chairman. H. R. 1-296 calls for a Federal Ap-
propriation in the amount of $300,000,000 annually, $200,000,000 to be
used to meet existing emergency situations in education arising from
the war and $100,000,000 to 'be used to more nearly equalize educa-
tional upportunity in the nation. The action taken ,by Congressman
Barden and his committee will undoubtedly be noticed with deep
appreciation thy many thousands of both lay and professional leaders

throughout the country.
: t e r s t


One of the chief arguments employed against S 637 (forerunner of
5131) in the United States Senate, when that .bill was debated in Oc-
tober, 0943, brought to the forefront of attention state surpluses. It
was argued these :were large, that they were more than adequate to
meet existing school needs, and that they were availaible for such use.

Recent infomation reveals the fact that state governments have
earmarked more than $1,000,000,000 for postwar projects and that
further accumulation of state balances during the current year is ex-
pected to bring earmanked funds to the $2,000,‘000,000 mark.

These earmarked purposes include the construction of pu’blic
works with major emphasis upon highways. Great :weight deservedly
rests on the fact that in its last days the 78th Congress enacted a
Federal-aid-to-high’ways bill in the amount of $1;500,000,0no with
which to match state funds for highway construction and reconstruc-

From this it is clear that the same Congress, which found itself u-n-
willing to increase Federal aid to public education because of balances
in many state treasuries, was at the same time willing and ready to
induce such states to set aside such balances, not for education [but
for highways and other purposes made more attractive to the states
'because of Federal provisions to match such state funds. The ulti»
mate intent of Congress in this policy is defensible and sound, in its
immediate effect, however, it is a policy which takes the ground from
under the argument employed :by Congress in withholding a larger
amount of Federal aid for public education. In effect this policy has
Placed Congress in the position of saying, “Use state {balances for
school purposes (but don’t do it until after, through matching them
With availabfle Federal funds, such halances have been expended for
highways and other public works.”

This is a viewpoint that should receive wide attention. It helps to
explain why American youth today is unnecessarily a grievous Base

 ualty of war, the effects of which will not become a major charge
against the national welfare until another decade has passed
—«'N.EiA. Legislative News Flash



A new Senate Bill providing Federal aid to education, in which
$225,000,000 is definitely earmarked for increasing fund-s now alloted
fdr salaries of public school teachers, is receiving vigorous support
of organized labor. It establishes State control of education (policy,
course content, methods, etc.), requires fair apportionment of educa—
tion funds to racial minorities, and provides distribution of funds
among States on the basis of need.

3 a: u u . 1

Senate Bill 717 requires State control of Educaliun: It provides for
surveys within each State to determine the need for aid, and for the
publication of reports that shalil contain “information showing the
accomplishment of the respective States through the expenditure of
Federal funds."

It establishes a national board to act as an advisory board to the
United \States Commissioner of Education, who is the administrating

officer of the board.
0 1 t r s ,,

1: contains provision for protecfing minority men. It provides that
no State using these funds shall reduce its appropriations; it requires
States to submit statistical data to the Office of Education.

'For the first time in our history it provides a means to encourage
State planning in the field of construction for education. (At present
thousands of dollars are expended by Federal works agencies for
educational buildings Without consultation With State education

. i a x i a

12 lpproprinies $300,000,000 to aid public schools with film life-
guards: Protection of racial minorities; sets aside 75 per cent of the
money for salaries of public school teachers; requires that Federal
funds must supplement and not supplant State funds, and prohibits
use of any of the appropriation as salaries paid to persons not in
'pulblic schools.

ilt provides for a trustee through whom would be handled funds to
go to children not in the public schools; it appropriates $100,000,000
to promote health welfare and safety of children by providing edn~
cations] facilities and services such as transportation, library facilities,
etc; it provides for financial aid to needy students,

-—Ethel Bi ’Dupont am Louisville Times)
. t o x n n

For many- years the fear motif has .been emphasized almost ex-
clusively by numerous parents and educators in their attempts to in-
fluence the sex conduct of youth. This main bugahoo held up to girls


 has 'been unmarried motherhood, Iwhile boys were faced with the ter-
rors of venereal infections. Warnings against illegitimacy and disease
are needed, but they should not the overworked nor over dramatized.

Too often this scare psychology formed the basis of what was con-
sidered “sex education." At rhest it was negative pedagogy; at worst
it produced mental traumas that might Ibe as harmful to youth as
are the dangers it sought to abate. Certainly it was not a strong
foundation for true character Ibuilding.

Now these opportunist methods are becoming even more illogical
for, with the increasing knowledge of contraceptives and the discow
ery of quick, almost painless cures for syphilis and gonorrhea, the
two major props are kicked from under what always was an unsound
educational Structural Hereafter, if sex education is to amount to
anything, it must be based on sound social, biological, and ethical
teaching. 111‘. must be positive. It must uphold moral discipline and
decency for decency‘s sake. The days of invoking sexual ogres to
frighten youth into good conduct are numbered. And all thinking
educators will speed them on thier way with a Wholehearted "Good
riddance,”—-(From Social Hygiene News and Views, October 1, 1844.)

o e n a c i

The Julius Resen‘wald Fund, during the 2-year period ending June
30, 1944, expended $1,615,513 on its programs of education and race
relations The chief activities were (1) education of teachers for work
in the rural schools of the South, both colored and white; (‘2) endow-
ment of Dillard University, one of four institutions that mean much
to the higher education of Negroes in the several regions of the South;
(3) fellowships for exceptionally promising Negroes and white south-
erners; (4) efforts to improve race relations.

'From the beginning, the main concern of the Fund has been the
betterment of the condition of Negroes with a view to their full par-
ticipation in American ‘liife. The low status of this tenth of our popu-
lation—in education, health, employment, and civil rights—is a drag
on the progress of the Nation and a fault in our democracy, The
hmd’s concern is not for any group tor its own sake, but concern for
the Nation as a ‘Whole and‘ for our democratic \way of life,

The Fund’s interest expressed itself first in helping to build public
schoolhouses in the rural \South Where the (bulk of Negroes live, Fol-
lowing that basic program oi two decades ago, we have stressed the
preparation of teachers, the building of institutions for higher edu-
cation, the improvement of the health of the group, and the providing
of opportunities through fellowships to hundreds of young people of
special talent or promise. since progress depends in large part on
White attitudes, we have also made contributions to general south—
ern institutions and have provided fellowships for white southemers.

Now the Fund is turning its major attention to the relations of
the races and the building of full democracy. lSince over four million
Negroes—one third at the total group—are now living in the North


 and West, the Fund is extending its interest from the South In the
Nation as a Whole.
Concluding Programs

The Fund has, from time to time, centered its interest on a number
of special fields. In general, we have tried to conclude each program
in a period of '10 or 15 years. This was not because we thought the
field had been cared for in that period, but because we felt that, after
intensive work for a decade or so, it was better to leave the given
cause to efforts by other agencies and public funds. There is always
danger that the help of a foundation may become a crutch rather
than a stimulus to independent growth

The contributions reported on preceding pages complete our major
tasks in helping to build up four centers of higher leaning for

Another program—Negro health— was officially ended 2 years ago,
but concluding payments were made during the period under review.
Our total expenditures in this field have been more than one and a
half million dollars, Payments of $94,464 during the 2 years just post
were for winding up earlier commitments, rounding out programs in
certain health centers, and in concluding the professional experience
of a number of doctors, nurses, and public health Workers—(Fore-
word, Review for the Two-Year Period, 1942-44, Julius Rosenwald

t : c o a u

Education should be directed toward building strong Wholesome
family life, and understanding values which the people hold dean
Experiences in creative arts, crafts, and wholesome recreation should
be vital forces.

’Ways must he found to bring albout an increased flow of compe-
tent personnel into rural education. 'An intensification of effort is
recommended to frame a program of preservice and inservice edu-
cation which insures for teachers an appreciation of rural life, and a
thorough knowledge of utilizing its resources in the educational pro-
grams as well as of improving the economic, social, and cultural base
of rural livingl

Suggested educational improvements for rural minority and speu‘al
groups, including Negroes, Spanish Americans, and isolated migra-
tory groups are: Improved school organization, administration, and
supervision; appropriate school buildings, consolidation and
transportation facilities; adaptation of curriculum and instruction to
pupil needs; better prepar