xt70k649pf4f https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt70k649pf4f/data/mets.xml Hawks, Francis L. (Francis Lister), 1798-1866. 1835  books b92-114-27695078 English W.D. Ticknor, : Boston : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Mississippi River Valley History To 1803. West (U.S.) Description and travel.Goodrich, Samuel G. (Samuel Griswold), 1793-1860. History of the western states  : illustrated by tales, sketches and anecdotes ... / by Lambert Lilly, schoolmaster pseud. text History of the western states  : illustrated by tales, sketches and anecdotes ... / by Lambert Lilly, schoolmaster pseud. 1835 2002 true xt70k649pf4f section xt70k649pf4f 


          OF THE












Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1833, by
                    S. G. GOoDRICH,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Mlassachusetts.



   THIS work being one of a series, it may be proper
to insert here the preface to the first of them, en-
t itled The Story of the American Revolution, which
explains the plan and design of the author.

  " In this little work, the author has attempted to relate the story
of our glorious Revolution, in a simple manner, so that it may be
interesting and instructive to children and youth. He has not
adopted a very regular method of treating the subject, but has
attempted to keep the interest of the pupil constantly alive, by a
variety of tales. anecdotes and sketches, illustrative of the events
with which they are connected.
  " It is remarkable, that very few books of history are read by
children except as a task; while works of fiction are perused with
the greatest avidity. Now, if fiction borrows its chief interest from
as resemblance to truth, how is this fact to be accounted for I
think it may be explained by two considerations. In the first
place, fiction, being the offspring of the imagination, is generally
written with a warmth of language which makes the reader realize
every part of the story, and cheats him, against his better knowl-
edge, into the persuasion that the narrative is true. On the con-
trary, the writing of history is a task calculated to repress all vi-
tacity of feeling; research must take the place of invention, and
fancy must act in humble subserviency to facts, dates and records.
uTnder such circumstances, dulness creeps into the mind of the
writer, and is thus imparted to the book.
  " For these reasons, in most books, fiction wears the aspect of
truth, and truth the aspect of fiction. Children are excellent judges
of manner, and are very much affected by its They will listen
with much more interest to an indifferent story, happily told, than
to a good one stupidly related. They, as well as people of mature
age, are more attracted by a novel, or romance, written in a lively
and natural style, than by the most important history, if composed
of a dull and heavy manner.
  " A second consideration, which will account for the preference
given to tales of fiction, is this:-They are generally much more


minute in their details than books of history. The latter tell us of
armies and nations, while the former present to us individuals,
and acquaint us with their thoughts and feelings, their hopes and
fears, their joys and sorrows, and thus make us sympathize with
lemn in all the vicissitudes to which they are exposed. It is this
minuteness of detail which forms one of the principal charms in
books of fiction ; it is the comprehensiveness of books of history,
ewhich makes them repulsive to juvenile readers, who are always
seeking for amusement.
  " Such being the views of the writer of the present volume, lie
has adopted a method in some respects new. If he has occasion
to state that a battle occurred., he states it in few words, and theii
relates anecdotes, individual adventures, and other minute circuin-
stances, calculated to fix the attention of the pupil, to excite his
interest, and thus make him realize the whole scene, as if he
were himself an actor in it.
  "By this means, and by adopting a familiar style, the author
hopes lie has succeeded in imparting to this little work some of the
attractive qualities which belong to tales of fiction. Nothing, cer-
tainly, is more desirable, than that truth should be the basis of early
education; and whoever shall succeed in rendering history inter-
esting and agreeable to youth, will perform a task for which he
will deserve the thanks of the age. That the author has fully sle-
ceeded in this attempt, he cannot pretend to hope; but, deeply
convinced of the importance of the object he has in view, he has
itiade the present experiment, and leaves the result to the decision
of the public.
  "'If this volume is favorably received, it will be followed by a
series of works on American history, executed in a similar man-
ner. The subjects proposed are the following -the Early His-
tory of New England; the Early History of the Middle States;
the Early History of the Southern States; the History ofthe West-
erri States; the History of the West Indies; the History of Mexi-
co ; the Early History of South America; and the History of I)is-
coveries in America. These volumes, if published, will be ahun-
(lantly illustrated by engravings, and will appear at intervals of
two or three months.
  " The materials for these works are abundant, and in the high-
est degree interesting. The design of the author will be to em-
brace the entire history of the Western Continent in the series,
and thus furnish a set of books, which may be put into the hands
of youth, as works of amusement, but which will instruct them
fully in the history of their own country, and in that also of other
countries in the same hemisphere."

   The four first works above mentioned, as well as
the History of the American Revolution, are already
published. and the others will soon appear.




                      CHAPTER I.
Scene of the following Adventures and Anecdotes. Descrip-
  tion of the Valley of the Mississippi, and other Territory of
  the West. Aspect of the Country in various Sections.
  Veoetable Productions. Wild Animals described. The
  Buffalo. Buffalo Hunting. Beaver, and Beaver Trapping.
  The Brown Bear, and Grizzly Bear. The Panther. The
  Prairie Wolf. The Raccoon, Squirrel, Opossum, Elk,
  Antelope, and other Quadrupeds. Story about the Squir-
  rel's sailing across Rivers, and how the Opossum pretends
  to be dead ...........................................  9

                     CHAPTER II.
An Account of the Birds of the Western Country. The
Prairie Hen and the Pheasant. How the wild Turkey se-
duces the tame one. The Robin, Mocking-bird, Red-bird
and Paroquet. Migrations of the wild Geese and Swans.
Reptiles of the Western Country.  Different Kinds of
Snakes. Story of a Family attacked by a Company of
Rattlesnakes. Anecdotes of the Alligator.............. . 19

                     CHAPTER III.
A Sketch of the Character and Manners of the Western Peo-
ple. Some Account of the Indian Tribes. Nature and Pro-
ducts of the Soil. Modes of navigating the Mississippi.
Scenes on board the Steam-bot ..    .......... ..... . 25

                     CHAPTER IV.
Other Anecdotes of the Mississippi Navigation. Scenes in
the Bay of New Madrid. Practice of lashing Boats togeth-
er. Shops kept on board these Boats. Quarrels between
the Boatmen.  Frolics.  Steam-boat Navigation on the
Mi   lssissippi .6... e             .e..... ......  31

6                     4s,(h)N'l'CONTENTS.

                       CHAPTER V.
 Sketches of the early History of Florida. Origin of that Name.
   History of Ponce de Leon and other Adventurers. Ac-
   count of a French Colony in Florida. Wars between the
   French and Spaniards there. Discovery of the Mississippi.
   Anecdotes of the ExDedition of M. de la Salle.. .....  37

                      CHAPTER VI.
 How La Salle erected a Fort among the Illinois Indians.
   How his Men mutinied, and endeavored to incense the In-
   dians against him. Stories about Mausoiea, a cunning Iro-
   quois Savage. How La Salle came very near being killed
   by Poison. Story about Mr. Dacan. Other Adventures of
   La Salle among the Savages. Adventures of Father Hen-
   UePin........               .......                  45

                     CHAPTER VII.
The Adventures of La Salle and Father Hcnnepin continued.
  Interview with the Quapaw Indians. Visit the Taencas.
  Account of their Houses, Temples and Ornaments. Anec-
  dotes of the Taenca Women. Meet with other Tribes..... 53

                    CHAPTER VIII.
La Salle's Voyage down the Mississippi concluded. Arrives
  at the Mouth of the River. Ceremonies on that Occasion.
  The Travellers explore the Shores of the Gulf of Mexico.
  Adventures which they meet with. Return to Canada. La
  Salle goes to France. Hennepin goes back to the West.
  Meets with La Salle's Brother, who tells him News about
  that Gentleman. Cavalier's Story........     .       ........ 62

                     CHAPTER IX.
Father Hennepin has more Conversation with Cavalier. The
  latter goes off upon an Expedition. Hennepin meets with
  Cousture, who tells him how La Salle was killed by some
  of his own Party. Particulars of the Murder. Other An-
  ecdotes                   ....                   .. 68

                     CHAPTER X.
Sketches of Adventures in the West after La Salle's Death.
  How, New Orleans was settled. Quarrels between the
  Spaniards and the French. A bad Mistake made by the
  Spaniards, and a large Party of them killed by the Indians.
  Account of the Natchez Tribe. How a Quarrel arose be-
  tween them and the French. The French massacred. The
  Natchez destroyed...    ........    ........          '74



                     CHAPTER XI.
Contests between the English and French. Expedition, in
  1754, against the French on the Ohio. First Campaign of
  General Washington. Defeat and Death of General Brad-
  dock, in 1755. Quebec taken by the English. War with
  the Cherokee Indians. General Peace in 1763..........  83

                    CHAPTER XII.
Sketches of Western History during the Revolutionary War.
  Skirmishes with the Indians. Adventures of American hunt-
  ing Parties in the Woods. Anecdotes of Daniel Boone, the
  great Hunter. Story about the Attack of the Indians upon
  Logan's Camp in Kentucky....... .............. ....  87

                    CHAPTER XIII.
Other Adventures of Daniel Boone. He is captured by the
  Indians. How they treated him. How he escaped from
  them. Account of their Attack upon Boonesborough. An-
  ecdotes of the Siege. The Indians are driven off......... 96

                    CHAPTER XIV.
Sketches of the History of Kentucky and other Sections. Ex-
pedition by the Hunters against the Indians. Battle with
the Savages. Story about Black Fish. Expedition of the
English and Indians against the Kentuckians. Attack on
  Ruddle's Station. How it ended. Some of the Kentuck
  ians carried off captive. How one of them escaped from
  the Indians       ...............   ...........    101

                    CHAPTER XV.
The Kentuckians make another Expedition against the In.
dians in Ohio. What Effect it had. The Savages attack
M'Afee's Station. Skirmish with M'Afee, and how the lat-
ter shot one Man in the Mouth. How the Women helped
the Men to fight the Savages. Attack upon Bryant's Station.
The Indians driven off.. .                 ........ 06

                    CHAPTER XVI.
Skirmishes with the Indians. How Women were engaged.
Battle between a Negro and an Indian. A Family attacked
by an Indian Party. A New England Party of Emigrants
attacked on the Ohio River. Story about a Boy who was
wounded. Cherokee War. Battle between Mrs. Mason
and theSavages,inTennessee......................... 114




                    CHAPTER XVII.
Stories about Persons who were taken captive by the Indians.
  How Moses Hewitt was treated by them, and how he es-
  caped. Skirmish which Mr. Meigs had with a Party, of
  Savages. History of the earliest settlements in Ohio.
  About Marietta. About Cincinnati. About' General Put-
  nam ...............................................  121

                   CHAPTER XVIII.
About the Mode of Life led by the early Settlers of the West-
  ern Country. The Process by which they reached their-
  Degfination. How they lived after they got there. Their
  Houses, Farms, Fences and Tools. Their Improvements
  from Year to Year; and how Log Houses were given up
  tor better ones........          ..                  127

                    CHAPTER XIX.
Story of an Emigrant. who went out to Ohio, with his Son and
  Family, in 1779. !low the migrating Party was collected.
  How thev fought off the Indians. Row our Hero made his
  first Settlement, and how much Corn they raised. Moves
  to Lexington. Goes out to hunt, and survey Land. Ad
  ventures in theWoods. Story about Crawford........... 131

                    CHAPTER XX.
Story of the Emigrants continued. Adventure with a Bear
  The Family moves again. The Indians steal some of their
  Iorses. Our youngHero joins an Expedition against the
  Enemy in 1786. His Adventures as a Soldier. Skirmish
  with the Indians. Takes some Prisoners. Story about
  Magery ............................................. 140

                   CHAPTER XXI.
Account of the Christian Indians. Their.Missionaries. The
Troubles they met with. Anecdotes of their Character.
They move to Ohio. How their Settlements were broken
up       ..........                ....... 146



                     OF THE


                 CHAPTER I.
Scene of the following Adventures and Anecdotes. Dc-
  scrption 'of the Valley of the Miisissippi, and other
  Territory of the West. Aspect of the Country in
  various Sections. Vegetable Productions. Wild Ani-
  mals described. The Buffalo. Buffalo Hunting.
  Beaver, and Beaver Trapping. The Brown Bear, and
  Grizzly Bear. The Panther. The Prairie Wolf.
  The Raccoon, Squirrel, Opossum, Elk, Antelope, and
  other Quadrupeds. Story about the Squirrel's sailing
  across Rivers, and how the Opossum pretends to be

  THE scene of most of the anecdote and adven-
tures of which this volume will consist, is laid in
those states and territories which make up a large
part of the Valley of the Mississippi River. This
vast tract of country extends northward as far as
the streams which run into lakes Winnipeg, Supe-
rior, and other large bodies of fresh water in their
vicinity. It is bounded on the south by the wind-
ing shores of the great Gulf of Mexico, into


which the Mississippi empties; on the west, by the
range of highlands, running parallel with the river,
which give rise to the Arkansaw, Red and Missouri
rivers; and on the east, by the Alleghany ridge,
separating it from the section of country watered
by the Atlantic streams. Some description of this
great territory will be a proper introduction to the
sketches furnished in the following chapters.
  The general surface of the Mississippi Valley may
be best described under three distinct heads-the
thickly timbered, the barrens, and the prairie
country. As to the first division, wherever forest
land is met with, it is uniformly distinguished for
the great size of the trees, the depth of verdure in
the foliage, and the abundance of vegetable growth
of every description.  The trees are large and
tall; and they rise aloft, like vast columns, free
from branches. In rich soil, they are generally
wreathed with a drapery of ivy, grape-vines, or
some other wild productions of the kind called
crepers, whose tendrils and blossoms cling to the
branches, and mingle with the broad leaves of the
  At other times, these forests are as free from
undergrowth as a farmer's orchard. Perhaps the
only shrub seen among the trees is the beautiful
pawpaw, with its shining foliage, and its bending
and graceful stems. In other locations, there are
thick and tangled cane-brakes, and patches of rank
brambles and brier-vines.  These, though they


always indicate a good soil, are the frequent and
safe retreats of bears, panthers, and other wild
animals of the west.
  The country called barrens has generally a
surface undulating with moderately-sized hills of a
particular form. They are long, regular ridges,
mostly covered with a tall, coarse grass, and only
here and there shaded by trees which are neither
very large nor very small. These are oak in the
greater number of instances.  The land of the
barrens is of an indifferent quality, as the nanme
would lead one to suppose. There are large tracts
of this kind of country in Kentucky, Tennessee
and Alabama; and they are also often met with in
Illinois and Missouri.
  The prairies are of varitus descriptions and
names. The " wet prairies," so called, generally
occur on the bodies of the great water-courses.
Their soil is black, deep and rich, and is clothed
with native grasses of an atsonishing height and
luxuriance.  From this circumstance, and from
the levelness of their surface, they are sprinkled
over with multitudes of small ponds, formed by
rains, and only dried up, during the greatest heat of
summer, by the power of the sun. When this hap-
pens, and especially as the little channels connect-
ing them with the river gradually become dry, fish
are taken by cart-loads among the high grass,
where the water has been three or four feet deep.
When the waters entirely evaporate, they of course



die; and hence it is, partly, that, though thousands of
buzzards and other birds feed upon these fish, they
pollute the surrounding atmosphere for months,
if not perpetually, and render a residence upon the
prairies unpleasant and unhealthy.
   In other respects, however, and especially at
other seasons, circumstances are more favorable to
the health and comfort of man and beast alike.
In the spring and autumn, innumerable flocks
of water-fowls are seen wheeling their rounds over
the small lakes and ponds of the prairies, finding
abundant food in the oily seeds of the plants and
grasses which have ripened during the summer.
Flocks of deer scour swiftly across these rich plains,
sometimes stopping to graze peaceably in the
neighborhood of the settler's domestic cattle.
  During the months of vegetation, the richer
prairies are covered with flowers and flowering
plants and shrubs, of 'an almost incredible variety
of forms, scents and hues. In the " barrens," you
will find four or five kinds of the little flower com-
monly called " ladies' slipper," all of the most
splendid colors. Most of the prairie flowers have
tall and arrowy stems; and the blossoms are very
large and gorgeous in appearance, though without
much fragrance. They present different succes-
sions of hues as the season advances. The pre-
vailing color, in spring, is bluish purple; in mid-
summer, red, with a considerable proportion of
yellow; in autumn, very generally yellow, and that


Page 13.

This page in the original text is blank.


so extensive and so rich, as to present to the
imagination of the spectator, at a little distance, an
immense surface of gilding.
  Such is the nature of the wet prairies. The.
"dry prairies," on the other hand, as their name in-
dicates, are nearly destitute of streams and springs.
These immense level plains are the pasture-grounds
of large herds of buffaloes. They are generally
as much without wood as without water; and the
weary traveller may wander there for days, and see
the horizon, on all sides around him, sinking to
contact with nothing but the grass of the prairies.
  In the wide prairies on the Upper Mississippi, Mi.s
souri, Arkansaw and Red rivers, in all the space
beyond a distance of two or three hundred miles
from civilized settlements, the buffalo is the grand
object of hunting, and the means of subsistence
among the Indians, and the white hunters and
trappers. And not only does its flesh furnish their
food, but their dress, their couches, their seats,
and much of the ornamental part of the furniture
of their cabins, are made of the skins and furs.
The former, indeed, tanned, and stretched on poles,
are a chief article in the construction of - their
wigwams and lodges; and the latter, under the
common name of " buffalo robes," are an important
article of commerce. There are very few of the
young readers of this book, probably, who have
not learned by experience, in the winter season, the
comfort of a buffalo robe.



  The appearance of these animals is generally
known.' They are not very far from the size of
the domestic ox.  They have small horns, not
more than four or five inches in length; small,
fierce-looking eyes; bushy heads, covered with
shaggy wool of a brownish gray color; and a pro-
tuberance on the shoulders, called the "hump."
This is the choice part of the animal as an article
of food. The beef generally, however, is nearly
equal to that of the domestic ox, at least when
killed at the right season, and properly preserved.
  At and about the sources of the rivers just
named, and of many others, the beaver is a great
object of pursuit by hunters and trappers, both
savage and civilized. To the former, indeed, it is
an essential means of gain and subsistence; for they
barter the skins regularly with the white traders,
for arms, ammunition, blankets, traps, whiskey,
and various other objects of necessity or desire.
Great numbers of white men, living upon the
frontiers of civilization, repair to these distant
regions, for the sole purpose of hunting and trap-
ping the beaver. When they have collected and
packed a sufficient number of the furs, they fell a
hollow tree, launch it into some full mountain
stream, and paddle down perhaps a thousand miles
of the Missouri, or some other great river, to
barter their cargoes at St. Louis, and the other
towns and cities of the Mississippian region.
  Both the brown and the grizzly or wkite bear


are found in the Valley of the Mississippi; the
latter chiefly on the upper courses of the Missouri
and its tributary streams. The brown bear does
not often undertake to contend with man, face to
face; but the grizzly bear, instead of flying,
pursues or attacks him with less fear than almost
any other beast of prey.  The strength of this
animal is prodigious; and they sometimes weigh
considerably more than a thousand pounds. One,
which was killed by a party of travellers, a few
years since, measured three feet five inches about
the head, three feet eleven inches about the neck,
eight feet seven and a half inches in length, and one
foot eleven inches about the fore leg. The talons
were four and a half inches long. Fortunately, they
are not very swift, and as they usually range in the
timbered regions, and do not climb as the brown
bear does, the hunters generally escape from them
by mounting a tree. Attacks are not often made
upon them, and never but by several men in
company. The fur is so much valued, as some-
times to sell for fifty dollars, and frequently for
  The panther is a ferocious animal of the cat
kind, ranging the forests throughout the whole
Mississippi Valley. They are of the size of the
largest dogs, and of a darkish gray color, marked
with black spots; but are shaped more like the
domestic cat, having short legs, large paws, and
long talons, with a round head and whiskers also
like the cat's. They purr, too, much in the same


16    ollvroRt  w'riu ixn-Esr'I _N s'rwvI'E'.

manner, when in good humor, though their night
howl, in their fiercer moods, is the most wild and
terrible to be conceived. They conceal themselves
among the branches of trees, and dart, from that sit-
uation, upon their prey. When wounded, they have
been known to attack men; and they seldom
fail to attack a child, when they meet one alone.
   The prairie wolf is a small but strong animal,
with a form much resembling that of the fox, and
a bark and howl like those of the common dog.
They sometimes travel in packs or droves on the
prairies; and their shrill and sharp bark is often
heard at night in the hunter's solitary cabin or camp.
It sounds like a note of defiance to the dogs of the
cabin; and the latter, in such cases, will retreat to-
wards their shelter, showing signs of fear, reducing
their bark gradually to a feeble and timid whine, and
finally pawing at the door of the cabin for admission
within. They are a most anngying scourge to the
farmers, and the greatest impediment to the raising
of sheep upon the prairies.
  The raccoon is more troublesome in the corn-
fields; and it is a sport, preparatory to more hazard-
ous hunting, for the farmers' boys to sally out'and kill
or capture one of these less dangerous animals in the
  Woodchucks and opossums abound also in the
prairies. The latter is a lazy and stupid animal.
Its shelter is a hollow log or tree; and when you
come upon one suddenly, at any distance from this
shelter, instead of retreating for it, the opossum


turns over on its side, throws out its legs, and
settles its body, eyes, and other features into a
motionless resemblance of death. Even the hunt-
er's dog in these cases is deceived. He applies his
nose to the animal, paws it over, and passes it by as
dead. So familiar is this fact among the hunters,
that it is a common saying with them, that a man
who takes great pains to dissemble for a particular
purpose, is " opossuming !"
  Squirrels, gray, black and red, prey upon the
corn-fields, adjacent to woods, in all sections of the
valley. Farmers consider it an object, in autumn,
when they are most troublesome, to furnish a boy
with gun, powder and lead, on condition of his
keeping a constant guard about the corn-fields.
At this season, nothing is more common, in the
hickory or beech woods, than to see half a dozen
of these active and proud little animals, flourishing
their erect tails, and, barking, and skipping from
branch to branch.
  There is good evidence that these squirrels
cross rivers of considerable breadth; sometimes
swimming, and at other times mounting a large
chip, or a piece of bark, and raising and spread-
ing their tails by way of sail. In fact, the lit-
tle navigator occasionally spreads too much can-
vass, or ventures abroad in too much wind; and
so, like many a stouter and wiser voyager on the
various waters of the earth, he is overset and
drowned. It is related as having happened in the



year 1811, that they emigrated from the north
towards the south by thousands, marching in a
body of some order, along the lower section of the
state of Ohio, and the whole front of Indiana.
Great numbers of these adventurous travellers un-
fortunately perished, in attempting to cross the
Ohio river. '
  Large flocks of elks are found in the northern
limits of the range of the buffalo. The elk is a
large species of the deer, something taller than the
horse.  The antelope is another species, found
among the remote mountains, and is a fleet and
beautiful animal, rarely met with by the hunters.
The mountain sheep inhabit the same tract of
country. They are as large as the deer, are cov-
ered with a wool like fur, and have horns of a pro-
digious size.
  The prairie dog is so called from the supposed
similarity of its cry to the barking of the com-
mon dog. It is about twice as large as the gray
squirrel, and has a large head, short ears, black
whiskers, and a sharp nose. They are a social
set of creatures, living upon the dry prairies
in large communities. The hole in the ground
which they live in, is called a burrow; and may
be known at some distance by the little mound at
the entrance, which is formed by the earth heaped
up in digging it. There are several occupants,
probably all of the same family, in each burrow.
In mild weather, they are seen sporting about the


mouths of their habitations, with all the sprightli-
ness and glee of the squirrel. At the approach of
danger, they raise the peculiar hark which has
given them their name; and, after indulging in this
clamor for a short time, retreat to their dens. When
overtaken, away from their homes, they show all
the ill humor of a small cur, but are easily made
tame, gentle and affectionate.

                 CHAPTER II.

An Account of the Birds of the Western Country. The
  Prairie Hen and the Phaesant. How the wild Turkey
  seduces the tame one. The Robin, Mocking-bird, Red-
  bird and Paroquet. Migrations of the wild Geese and
  Swans. Reptiles of the Western Country. Different
  Kinds of Snakes. Story of a Family attacked by a
  Company of Rattlesnakes. Anecdotes of the Alligator.

  AMoNG the birds of the Mississippi Valley, are
the robin-redbreast, the blue-bird, the red-bird, the
blue jay, the mocking-bird, the goldfinch, owl, par-
oquet, pigeons, partridges, pheasants, turkeys, hum-
ming-birds and prairie hens. The latter is seen in
great flocks, in the autumn, in the prairies of Mis-
souri and Illinois.  It is rather larger than the
domestic hen. Its colors and its shape make it a
beautiful bird. It lights on barns, and hovers about
cyrnfields, and is tamed without much difficulty.
  The pheasant is the same bird called the par-



tridge in New England, and the partridge the
same with our quail. The latter are very numerous
in many sections, and are frequently taken as they
are crossing the rivers, on the steam-boats which
happen to be going up or down in the way of their
flight. A standing amusement in the western
country is to take them by driving them into a net.
  The wild turkey is a fine, large bird, with bril-
liant blackish plumage. These are numerous, too,
in the vicinity of corn-fields; and hundreds of
them are sometimes driven from the enclosures
of the settler. They associate readily with the
domestic turkey; and when the latter is reared
near the range of the former, they are sure to
be sooner or later enticed into the woods by them.
The Indians, and the western sportsmen, have a
way of hunting them to advantage by imitating the
cry of their young, and so inducing them to come
within reach of the musket.
  Thousands of the robin-redbreast winter in Lou-
isiana. They perch by night in the thick cane-
brakes, and are killed by scores with a stick.
They do not sing so much or so well as those of
New England; and, indeed, none of the wesmn
birds are half so remarkable for their notes as for
their plumage, size, and great numbers.
  The mocking-bird is one of the most noisy of its
race, imitating all other birds, and heard at all
seasons of the year. It breeds in thorn-bushqs
and among arbors of brier-vines. It delights, too,


to sit on the tops of chimneys, now and then dart-
ing perpendicularly, as if in a frolic, high into the
air above, and descending by the same movement,
singing gayly all the while.
  The red-bird inhabits the deepest forests. Its
plumage is extremely beautiful, and its " whistle"
clear, mellow and cheerful. The traveller is often
aroused, as he rides along the borders of woods,
of a sunny morning-and especially after frosts in
the winter-by hearing- this song softening the harsh
scream of the jay. The male bird, at one season,
is of a most brilliant purple color, with a fine
showy crest, and a bill of the appearance of ivory.
  The paroquet is found from the latitude of forty
degrees north to as far south as the Gulf of Mexico.
Its food is the fruit of the sycamore, and its retreat
in the hollow of that tree. It is a voracious bird,
preying on apples, grapes, figs, and all other kinds
of fruit. Paroquets have a hooked bill, and a splen-
did mixture of burnished golden and green plu-
mage on their heads; and their bodies are covered
with a soft brilliant green.  They are said to
perch by hanging their bill to a branch. They fly
in large flocks, and add singularly to the magnifi-
cence of a forest prospect, as they are