xt70p26q0p5q https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt70p26q0p5q/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1946 journals kaes_circulars_004_437 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 437 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 437 1946 2014 true xt70p26q0p5q section xt70p26q0p5q BACCO INSECTS  
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ard, ; .a
gg}   Suggestions For tI1z|r Control   »
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   - rn KcnI:ucIjcct. xi 
will   Circular 437 ‘ ii
f  College of AgricuI+ure and Home Economics I  
_G__H   Agriculrural Ex+ension Division   '
  Thomas P. Cooper, Dean and Director   I

 l 4
Differences between types of tobacco and in conditions under which 3 
tobacco is grown, make it difficult to formulate adequate control mea-  
sures for all types and conditions. A satisfactory remedy for an insect  
in one area might be entirely unsatisfactory in another area. Because  
of these and other problems encountered with tobacco insects, a Tobacco .
_   Insect Council was formed in 1937. lts members are entomologists work-  
ing on tobacco insect problems and meeting frequently to pool informa-  if
tion. The recommendations of their last conference on burley and dark  
fire-cured tobacco made by the following committee are contained in this   i.·_
circular :  ig fr;
Allen, Norman, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U.S.D.A., Flor-  fi an
ence, S. C. _.
Caffrey, D. J., Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U.S.D.A., Wash- W
ington, D. C. °
Chamberlin, F. S., Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U.S.D.A., Q
Quincy, Fla.  
Dominick, C. B., Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Chatham, Va.  "
Gilmer, P. M., Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, Ga.  .
Jewett, H. H., Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station, Lexington, Ky. V if
Nettles, W. C., Extension Service, Clemson, S. C.   8.
Pepper, J. O., Extension Service, State College, Penna. i_  A
Price, W. A., Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station, Lexington, Ky.   Sl
Rowell, J. O., Extension Service, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg.   f
Virginia (Chairman).   n
Scott, L. B., Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U.S.D.A., Clarks- ·i  b
ville, Tenn. ,
' Stahl, C. F., Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U.S.D.A., Oxford, NC-  fi C
Stanley, W. W., Tennessee Agricultural Experiment Station, Knoxville, Tenn.  T l
Tenhet, J. N., Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, U.S.D.A., Riclt  “ g
mond, Va.  ' F
Underhill, G. W., Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Blacksburg, Vit-  A [
ginia (Secretary).   1

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    Tobacco Insects  
JHCCO   I , ` _1
Hm}   Arranged by W. A. Price   I
dark   I , _ A
I UUE   Thorough burning or steaming of the tobacco plant bed and tight ` _ E "
  framing and covering of it are the first steps in controlling insects that `  
1:10**  if attack plants in the bed. If these things are well done insecticides often I _ il
Wash will not have to be used until the plants are set in the field. · I
 · Burn or steam the bed site thoroughly to destroy insects hibernating _ `
Eg in the topsoil. Make the frame of 6·inch boards painted with creosote. I I.
  and be sure that the frame is at least 2 inches narrower than the cloth I
 <· so that the cloth will overlap the frame. Measure the width of the frame A S
;S},m_   from the outside edges of the boards. Set the boards an inch or a little gl
_lMk:.   more into the soil, bank earth against them, and tamp. This prevents flea ` _`
’ t E beetles and other insects from entering under the boards. Fit the boards y y
L N_C_   Carefully at the joints so there will be no cracks for the beetles. Anchor i ‘i .
xnn. [  the frame to the ground by nailing the boards to pegs driven into the `
Rich  _` ground at corners, at the middle of each board, and at the joints. This I ° I
W vip  ig HSSUTES a frame that will not give when the cloth is stretched over it. h
T ig  Place the cloth over the frame, draw it down the outside edges of the t
 . boards and fasten with small nails or strips of wood. Be sure that there _ .
  are no openings between the cloth and frame. "`
  Boards for the frame, if given good care. will last about 4 years. so A
 I that the cost distributed over that period is small. The cost of insecticides
 ZX that would be needed if the bed were not tight-framed. and cost of labor to ‘
 ' apply them. would be about the same over the 4-year period. as the cost A
 T of boards rh creosote. The barrier also keeps out other pests such as .
  Cul-\\'Ol`IDS. Z1I`ITly \\’OI`I'l’]Se SpI`i[lgtE1iiS. and slugs.  
  S€\’€1`21l I`€IH€(TI€S for ONG l.Ol)HCCO pest 3.I`€. in SOIHB IIISTHIICBS, giV€II A T {
 .A: in this leaflet, so as to permit a choice of material and treatment. The .  
 l remedies are about equally effective. Use the remedy containing material A i
[ available in your area. l

 1 4
In Plant Bed  ` Di
Dust containing paris gree11 1 part, lead arsenate 5 parts Vi  be
Mix well and apply with a rotary, hand-operated duster or a l dl
plunger type cluster at the rate of % pound per 100 square yards. CU
I Repeat application about every 4 t0 7 days until pest is under control. D
Dust containing 1 percent rotenone  
Apply mixture prepared with cube or derris at the rate of V2 pound Q  pl
per 100 square yards of plant bed, with a rotary type, hand-operated ( D
duster or a plunger type duster. Repeat applications about every four  
days until beetles are destroyed. This dust may be applied through the  
» cloth cover of the plant bed if the cover is dry and not resting on the   a
plants. Rotenone is especially good for short periods around the edges  I ft
of the plant beds.  i b
I Dust containing cryolite, (70-80 percent sodium fluoaluminate)  .
Apply with a rotary, hand-operated duster at the rate of   pound  l [
per 100 square yards. Repeat application about every 4 days until Q
control is gained. . C
Dust containing 3 percent DDT i
i Results of first experiments indicate that 3 percent DDT dust is  ’ (
very effective for COllll`Olllllg the flea beetle. Apply with a rotary hand-  
operated cluster through the plant bed cover at the rate of 1 pound per
100 square yards. Repeat the application if evidence of flea beetle injury   l
is noted. An application of DDT dust immediately before pulling plants ‘
from the bed serves as a control of flea beetle after the plants are set in   .
the field.   `
Just Before Transplanting x
]ust before transplanting young plants to the field, dust them with A <
a mixture of 1 part paris green and 5 parts lead arsenate, at the rate of _
1 pound per 100 square yards. lf coverage is good, this application Q
will serve as a control for flea beetles after the plants are set in the  
field. _`
Disposal of Plant Bed  
Destroy all the plants in the bed as soon as transplanting has been —
completed. This removes the plants as a source of breeding material for  .
the flea beetle. Two good methods of disposal are: (1) pull the plants Q_
and scrape the soil with a hoe. or plow and harrow thoroughly, and (2l  
cut the plants off, and apply fuel oil with a sprinkling can, aboutf}  
I gallons per 100 square yards.  V

 · l ` . .
l‘l ~ l ¢
. tg • t I
.1 ,
l i
_ Newly Set Plants l.
 _ Dust containing paris green 1 part, lead arsenate 5 parts   ·‘ ·
  Apply right after setting, (unless plants were dusted in bed just ‘t`
 ` before pulling) with a plunger type duster or a rotary, hand-operated `   Z
Or 3 q duster, at the rate of about 3 pounds per acre. Repeat application until ' 2
ards control is gained. ` ‘·.{ ., ’
01- . . . ., . .    
. Dust containing cryol1te”' (70-80 percent sodium fluoaluminate) ` .
 _ Apply with a rotary, hand-operated duster covering well as soon as · _ ‘ " V
Gund  I possible after the plants are set. ·  
rated , _ _ l
{Om I Dust containing 3 percent DDT ,
1 the   Apply with a rotary, hand-operated duster or a plunger type duster   _
1 the  i at the rate of about 4 pounds per acre. Do not apply DDT after the · ..
edges  I formation of leaves of tobacco intended for market, because of the possi- ‘
A ble health hazard of DDT residues on the marketed tobacco. _
 _ l' ,
 ~ Field Plants
ound   Dust containing cryoliteii (70-80 percent sodium fluoaluminate) ` {
until ` . .
`· Apply with a rotary, hand-operated duster at a rate to provide good
f coverage. Repeat application about every 7 days until control is gained. ` _
t `  ’ .
ian;  _ Control practices _ { _
1 per A Plow before March l5 to reduce the over-wintering population of
ijuyy  { l1Ol`1l\\`0l`I1]S. Where there is soil erosion, follow fall plowing with a _
Jams ` cover crop, such as rye.
set iu 1 _ » ` ,
  Hand-picking _
  C0l1t1`ol of hornworms by hand-picking on small areas is generally {
. Q l}1`UtltE1l)l€. During heavy infestation, however, application of insecti-
with cides is necessary. i
.te of _ `
alltill   Dust COntaining paris, green l pound; hydrated lime 6 pOUll(lS · _
n tie , _ _ ‘ _
1 Apply with a rotary, hand-operated duster at tl1e rate ot 7 t0 8
; Pounds per acre, depending upon the size of the plants. Be sure to get _
  an even coverage of dust, as this lessens the danger of burning the leaves. `
been _ ANY diluent used with cryolite* should be insoluble in water and ,
ll fm. IQ 110111`€&1(!tl\‘e with cryolite_ D0 not use hydrated lime. hut ITlatC1'i£llS SUCl1 l
dams   as Cla}? talc. or flour are satisfactory, Be sure to wash your hands A E
1 (2) { 1l101`ouglily after handling poisonous insecticid€S, OY thi? §`01111g 10l’a€CO l
Out 8   l)l€111tS that have been treated in the plant hed.   ‘
. % 1 {
  lpalls S1‘€€11 l pound may be used when cryolite is not ohtaiuahl<*.  

 l 6  `
Lead arsenate and paris green  
f A mixture of 1 pound paris green and 5 pounds lead arsenate gives  
effective hornworm control when properly applied, but its use is~n’t ¤, IH
recommended except when cryolite is not available, or other control  ‘
measures are not practical. Whenever possible the mixture should be  i
used as a spray 1% to 2 pounds to 50 gallons of water, because protec-  —
tion can be gained cheaper by means of a spray. If dust is used apply _j 
· ` it at the rate of 6 pounds per acre when the plants are dry. ln any case  ny ,
take extreme care to see that heavy deposits of these materials are not  Q gl
left on the leaves, as they contain two poisons, lead and arsenic.   Sl;
Apply insecticides when the hornworms are small and easier to kill.  i w`
Prompt applications as soon as the eggs or small larvae are discovered . 
will save buying more insecticides later.   F
A poison bait for slugs and snails containing metaldehyde has been  1
• found highly effective for use in gardens or on lawns. This material is  .
available under various trade names. Follow directions of manufacturer. »  5
Hydrated or air-slaked lime   8
When damage is confined to margins of bed, apply the dust in a  
band 3 to ¢l· inches wide and 1/2 inch thick along margin just inside the  ( ‘
bed walls. When damage is well distributed over the bed, apply the lime   I
· over the entire surface with a duster at the rate of 4 pounds per 100  { (
square yards. Apply in the late afternoon when soil and plants are dry ;  l
to prevent injuring the young plants and to get best results. A  I
In Plant Beds Use a Poisoned Bait Made of: _ .
Wlieat bran ________.,_,_,_,_________,___,_______,,,________._______________________,,___,____________________ 50 pounds  _'
Paris green or sodium fluosilicate .......................................................... 1 pound · 
Enough water to moisten.  
Add enough water so that a handful of bait pressed together will  if
fall apart with a crumbly consistency.  .
liemove bed cover and apply broadcast at the rate of 41· pounds (City  i
weight) per 100 square yards.  .
On Newly Set Plants Use a Poisoned Bait Made of:  Y
Wvlieat lng;) _________________________________________________________,________________________________________ 50 p0undS i`
Paris green or sodium fluosilicate ........,.........._...........__..,_,__..________,_.._... 1 pound j
EIl()ll{{ll \\`illCI` to IIlOl$l.€ll.  ,
Apply the bait broadcast late in the afternoon just before plants are —_
set. at the rate of 15 to 20 pounds per acre (dry weight). When applyintf  
after plants are set. drop a small amount close to each hill. but do not  
L touch the plant with bait.  i

 (   _ l  
é 7   é
3 _1
s~n’t   In Plant Beds Use a Poisoned Bait Made of:   ” ·_
trol   Wheat bran (free of shorts) ...,........,..........,.....,....,.....................,....... 50 pounds ·•‘
be Q Paris green or sodium fluosilioate .........,._._,..._.,...,............................. 2% pounds `A   L
lei ` Enough water to moisten. ° `   1
lp)  I Apply by hand to bare s ots on the lant bed and to a stri `ust if " lr
.ase  » P P p l ..
g inside the bed wall. Broadcast bait on a narrow stri outside the wall.   .
not  . . , P . . . · 1
 · Be sure that the bait doesnt touch the young plants as this will result in { l
ml  V: severe burning. Apply bait in the early morning before the ground . — ·· ‘
1    . warms up. .  
ETC .  .i` _ `
 I For Newly Set Plants Use a Poisoned Bait Made of: . I in
  Wheat bran .................,.....................,...............,..._...._.,.._.,.._,................ 50 pounds   4 `
Q  Paris green or sodium fluosilicate ..............._...,__........_..,._...._............. 2% pounds ‘ .·
 . Water ............. . ............,,..____.._,,__,_,______________ _ _______________________________,________,__ 5 to 6 gallons I (
been ’
. . Apply broadcast by hand over the field before Jlants are set 20 ·
al 15 ,  . . . . 1 ·
mir.  YV pounds per acre (dry weight). If application is made after plants are ‘ ’
  set, apply bait to row middles only and scatter the bait over a strip
  around the field. ' · '
in a   Two new insecticides, chlordane and benzene hexachloride, appear i V
z the  ` \'€l‘)’ promisine for ¤rassho Jer control. Use chlordane 1 ound of a 50 i (
I zz m Pl P l
hme  5 percent wettable powder to 8 allons of water and s rav a 20 foot str1 p
. _ _ g P . P _ .
100  1 of vegetation bordering the field to be rotected from erassho J ers. It V  
_ _ _ zz P c l P
e dry ;  15 Important that this spray be applied just before the grasshoppers start
`  migrating. Apply benzene hexachloride as a dust (containing 1 percent ‘ t ‘
;  of the gamma isomer) to infested plants at the rate of 30 pounds per `
·,  acre.
ound i·  Use a Dr P ` ` · I
 -. y oisoned Bait Made of.
will   Cornmeal .._..,.............,...._...........__,.._...__,,____,__..,.___,,__,_____,_,___,___,_____,____________ 75 pounds
 ( L€i\€l f1l`SCNate ......__......,,._____,____,_,________,_____________________ _ _______,_____,___,________,______ l pound I I
(dry  ~ Nlix and apply dry.
 _ b lApply about lé teaspoonful of the dry mixture to the center of the I ··
·*  Ut or tip of the plant. i
ldp  A Apply about 1% pounds per 1,000 plants, Under most conditions Y
l§;;ld` Om OV {WO applications is enough. Effectiveness of this treatment will ‘ ‘
a d€P€U(l UPON a th0rou¤‘h distribution of the lead arsenate in the cornmeal é
· . D .
ts me   and UPON placing the right amount of the mixture in the center of each · l {
dying   Pliml l¤Ud. Small lots of this poisoned bait can be made as follows:  
O N0]   C0I`llIH€{ll ....______________ _ _______________________________________________________ 1 ptgqjk i .
 ·i LPA!] 8l`S€NZtte ...............,__,,_____________,__,_,_______,_,___,____,_________, Zlé nunr·<>s or 6 iwuping    
n teaspnonlnnls g

 ' 8
Select a bed site in late summer or early fall on land free of ]une
beetle larvae. Steam the beds if larvae are present in the soil, or apply
kerosene emulsion at the same dilution and amount as for controlling
white grubs in the soil (this method is especially applicable in Kentucky).
If grubs appear in the bed in spring, use poisoned bait made of:
Wheat bran ...........i...........................,.,......i................................................. 25 pound;
Barium or sodium fluosilicate* .........................i.................................... 4 pounds
Water to dampen.
Mix well and broadcast at the rate of 10 to 12 pounds per 100 square
yards of bed. The poisoned bait gives only partial control.
Apply in holes 6 to 8 inches deep and 2 inches in diameter, spaced
( one foot apart in each direction. Ten to 14 gallons (2 ounces per hole)
are required to treat 100 square yards of infested bed. The holes, which =
are made with an iron bar, are large enough to keep the level of the gaso- · _
line at least 2 inches below the soil surface. Plug the openings with Hm
‘ lumps of moist soil after applying the gasoline. M°’
` Coc
Use a Poisoned Bait Made of: Fl°‘
_ Cornmeal __.__,,_,,_,______,_,_,_,______,,_,,________,,_,,_____,,,,,,..____...,................................ 25 p0l1l1fl5 D°$
Oil of mirbane (nitrobenzene) ............................................................... 1 0111106 She
Paris green _...._____..,__._,_,___,,.,___,,,,________,_________.,_,,______,,._.,.,_.......................... 1 pound
Vi/ater .........,.........................._.....,,.,.,._.__...,....._............_....,.........................,. 1 pim Cul
Mix the cornmeal and paris green thoroughly, and add the oil of - H¤~
mirbane and water to give an even distribution of the liquid throughout Ch
the cornmeal. Apply to rows or hills of tobacco with a stick-can appli-
cator at the rate of 10 pounds per acre for dark fire-cured tobacco (3,500 ·
plants per acre) or 20 pounds per acre for burley tobacco.
Wireworm damage is greatest to newly set plants. These pests a1‘€
apparently attracted to the plant shortly after it has been planted in the
field. No satisfactory control method has been developed which can
be used economically on tobacco land. Use of large, stocky plants in
areas known to be infested with wireworms tends to reduce damage from
these pests.
*Paris green 1 pound may be used when fluosilicate is not available. i
- Lexington, Kentucky Junc. 19-17
Cnnpvmtivc Kxloerisinu Work in Agriculture uml ltmnt- ldrnnomicsz Cnllvgn of Agrienlun-t- nntl Hams V
Economies. University of Kentucky. and tht- ljnilvtl Smit-5 I);-pnmnt-nt of Ag;-iculume, mopvr¤¤“$· .
riumnts 1·. ctmpcr, zmmm. tsstna in n.nt.r—nn.t.~ nt the Acts of may it and June 30, wrt. ~
  1sM~6-4T ·