xt70p26q2400 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt70p26q2400/data/mets.xml  United States Housing Authority United States. Federal Works Agency 1939 [2], 20 leaves; 27 cm. UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Library Program libraries and the Federal Information Preservation Network Call Number FW 3.9:29/draft bulletins English Washington D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Works Progress Administration Housing Publications Public housing -- United States -- Maintenance and repair Budgeting Repair, Maintenance, and Replacement Costs/Federal Works Agency, United States Housing Authority December, 1939 text Budgeting Repair, Maintenance, and Replacement Costs/Federal Works Agency, United States Housing Authority December, 1939 1939 2019 true xt70p26q2400 section xt70p26q2400 ’ / ' FEDERAL WORKS AGENCY

This Bulletin is being issued to communicate to all local housing
authorities the policy of the USHA with respect to budgeting repair, .
maintenance, and replacement costs and to assist local housing authorities
in budgeting such costs in accordance with this policy. The Bulletin
contains a description of the various component parts of a project,
statements of standards and factors to be used in estimating the costs of
repairs, maintenance, and replacement. The classification of RM&R costs
used in this Bulletin and the relationship of such costs to other costs
is identical with that set forth in the "Manual of Instructions of Ac—
counting Prooedure for Local Housing Authorities", particularly part IV
thereof. The suggested standards reflect the USHA position that anything
short of the maximum amount of tenant help in project upkeep is repugnant
to the objectives of the United States Housing Act.

The system of budgeting repairs, maintenance and replacement costs
suggested in the Bulletin might be described as the "pay as you go" basis.
The reasons for suggesting this basis for budgeting RM&R costs are set
forth in some detail in the Bulletin. ,

A somewhat more detailed statement of the "Scope and Content" of the

‘ Bulletin is contained on page 1 of the Bulletin itself. A Table of
Contents is also included on the following page. This Table of Contents
should be detached from the Bulletin and added as page 21 to the ”List
and Table of Contents of Bulletins on Policy and Procedure" which was

; previously issued. This "Covering Page" should also be detached when the

. Bulletin is placed in your binder with the other Bulletins on Policy and

 / , ,
W 9
Supplement No. 4
Bulletin No. 29
Eggggting 39 air, Maintenance and Eeplacement Costs
BTDated December , 19395
Page -
Scope and content.............................................. 1
Standards and derivation of factors............................ 1
General standards......................................... 1
Repair, maintenance and replacement....................... 2
Policy for budgeting RM&R costs........................... 3
10 year average annual costs........i..................... ' 5
Additional average annual costs........................... 6
Standards of appearance................................... 6
Grounds........................................................ 7
Planted areas............................................. 7
Project maintained................................... a 7
' Tenant maintained.................................... 8
Surfaced areas.................v.......................... 8
Hard surface......................................... 8
Water bound surface.................................. 8
Yard appurtenances........................................ 8
Structures..................................................... 10
Painting and decorating........................................ 10
Exterior painting.............}........................... 11
Interior painting...............,......................... ' 12
Dwelling spaces...................................... ’12
- Project and commercial space......................... 15
Plumbing and gas system........................................ 15
Electrical system.............................................. 15
Heating system................................................. 16
Elevators...................................................... l7
Ranges......................;.................................. 1?
Refrigerators.................................................. 18
Other equipment................................................ 19
Electric hot plates....................................... 19
. Electric hot water heaters................................ 20
Sh0p equipment............................................ 19
Operating service equipment............................... 19
Social, recreational and playground equipment............. 20
Office equipment.......................................... 20
NOTE: Please detach this and add as Page Bl to the "List and Table of
Contents of Bulletins on Policy and Procedure” previously issued.
85989 H Bl

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This Bulletin is designed to assist local housing authorities in
budgeting costs of repairs, maintenance, and renldcements. More par—

- ticularly, this Inlletin sets forth, in paragraph I, an explanation of
standards andeSEA.policy for budgeting costs of repairs, maintenance,
and reulacemcntd, and, in paragraphs II through XI, a description of,

' and factors for estimating, EMiB.costs for grounds; structures; painte
ing and decorating; the plumbing and gas system; the electrical system;
the heating system; elevators; ranges; refrigerators; and other equip-

The classification of 3Md3 costs, and their relationships to other
costs, are set forth in part IV of the ”Manual of Instructions of Ae—
counting Procedure for Local Housing Authorities".


(a) 993332; §tagdagds.‘ In order to estimate the cost of repairs,
maintenance and replacements, it is necessary to understand.the prin—
ciples on which they are based and the attitude of Tie USHA towards
management policy which is appropriate for rehousing families of low
income who are living under seriously substandard housing conditions.
These principles recognize that families requiring substantial federal
and local subsidy to obtain decent, safe and sanitary dwellings cannot
afford nor should expect any service which the members of the tenant
family are well able to perform for themselves. The estimates given in
this bulletin reflect the necessity for drastic curtailment of operat~
ing budgets in order to promote efficiency and economy and thus achieve
the lowest feasible rent to the tenant compatible with low cost to the
public. The principles suggested infer that anything short of the maX~
imum amount of tenant help in project upkeep or the slightest tendency
towards providing ”apartment service” is paternalistic and reougnant to
the objectives of the United States Housing Act. Addendum ho. l to
Bulletin No. 16 further describes the underlying philosaphy on which
this bulletin is based.

A section of the "Management Reeclution" to be adopted by the local
housing authority should specify the policies and standards to govern .
various phases of repairs, maintenance and replacements.

In this bulletin appear short descriptions of the standards in—
volved to explain the estimate factors given. Costs computed on the

85989 H

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basis described in this Bulletin are only valid as a reflection of the
standards specified and will be most useful during the initial stages of ,
operation. Later local experience will demonstrate necessary adjustments
for individual projects. The estimates assume that the local authority
has cultivated a sympathetic understanding of the low rental housing pro—
gram on the part of the labor organizations and municipal departments
involved; that the management staff selected is thoroughly qualified and
has a high morale and that the tenant relations program has achieved a
clear~cut understanding of the maintenance policy by all tenants and has
stimulated a high degree of tenant cooperation.

In short, the policies suggested and numerical values given should
be accepted as realistic objectives which challenge the ingenuity of the
local authority, its tenants, its staff, municipal departments and or—
ganized labor.

(‘0) Eerie ._' .' 1211399 2.1. TEEL‘LCEEE

(l) Renoir moons fixing or replacing minor brokel certs.

_ (8) Eeintgnance is.a broader term often including repairs and means
keeping an object up to a certain standard of usability or appearance.

(3) Eenlacement means replacing an object at the end of its useful
life with a new object which is to serve the same purpose as the object

(l) Eseiul lige. The useful life of any object installed or used
in a project depends upon the policy followed in repairing and maintain—
ing it. If repairs and maintenance are neglected, early replacement of
the object neglected will be necessary. If the object is well maintained
and kept in good repair its useful life will be extended. Thus, replace—
ment expense is dependent upon the expense of maintenance and repairs. ‘

(5) One account classification for EM&BJ It is generally agreed
that no twb'ErSEEE‘JE QERZEETEEcEEn’LU—éfis will classify the same
items of expense uniformly as either repairs or replacements. No prac~
ticable definition which would be uniformly interpreted appears possible.
Further, USHA—aided housing projects are not operated for profit and.
thus are not subject to taxation. In the sense that state or federal
taxing bodies use the terms, no "net income or surplus” is likely. In
consequence there is no need to follow the regulations of taxing bodies

' with respect to differentiating between repair expense and charges to
separate depreciation reserves for replacements.

These reasons account for the policy adopted for USHAraided projects
of combining into one account classification all costs for repairs, main~
tonance and replacements for any item or group of items.

85989 H 2

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(5) Variation in BEQE Qosts, It is generally recognized that the
cost of repairs, maintenance and replacements:

(i) Will vary from year to year, tending to be more
constant in the larger projects Where the diversity is
greater, and

(ii) Will become greater as a project grows older.

(c) Policy :93 buriwetigg PM&R Costs. ‘

(l) Egssible Alternative Eglicies. Given the above facts, it Would
be possible to compute a level charge for HMdR over a 58—year period;
such charge being an amount which would.(with interest at 2% on reserves
on hand) be Sufficient to pay all the estimated HtfiR costs over a 58~year
period. Because of the low RMéR in the early years of a project's life,
a very large cash reserve would be built up during SuCh years for use
many years thereafter.

On the other hand, the average amount necessary for HMdE over the
first 10 years of a project's life might be computed and this amount be
included in the cost of operation for such period. Thereafter, the esti—
mated amount for successive periods could be computed and such amount be
included in the cost of operation for such periods.

(2) figgpiggggptg g: the Act. The second course seems the correct
one to adopt in view of the specific requirement in the Act that

"Annual contributions shall be strictly limited to the amounts

and periods necessary, in the determination of the Authority

(USHA) to assure the low~rent character of the housing proj~

ects involved” '
and in View of the further provision that ’

"the Authority shall reserve the right to reexamine the

status of the low—rentehousing project involved at the end

of ten years and every five years thereafter; and, at the

time of any sudi reexamination, the Authority (USHA) may

make such modification (Subject to all the provisions of

this section) in the fixed and uniform amounts of subse—

quent annual contributions payable under such contract as

is warranted by changed conditions and as is consistent with

maintaining the low—rent character of the housing project


(3) "Egyfggfypyrgo" basis. The secon6.course also seems preferable
because of the fact that operations for the first 10 years will thus be
on a "payeas—yourgo” basis and will avoid the building up of the very
large cash reserves which would accumulate during this period if a level
RM&R over 58 years were contemplated. In View of the fact that it is im—
possible at this time to accurately predict what conditions will be 10
85989 H 3

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years hence, it seems unwise to build up such large reserves out of the
rents paid by low—income families during the first 10 years.

(d) PM&R during first 19 years. The policy of the USHA will
therefore be to include in the cost of operation during the first 10
years the average annual cash cost estimated for RM&R over such 10—year

(5) Compensating for additional RM&R ggsts after first 10 years.
Given the continuing changes in our economy, ilfis impossible to pre—
dict at this time the exact situation which will obtain at the end of
such 10—year period. Other things being equal, it appears reasonably
certain that the RM&E for periods Subsequent to the intial 10—year
period will be higher because of the aging of the projects. It is,
however, quite possible that the rent—paying ability of low—income
classes will increase during 10 years and that rents may be raised to
compensate for such increased RM&R costs. It is also quite possible
that additional economies in other operating costs may be effected which
will compensate for the increased RM&R costs subsequent to the intial
10 years.

If these last two factors do not suffice to compensate for the in—
creased RMdR after the initial 10 years, it will be necessary at that
time to increase the USHA annual contribution by an amount neceSSary
to compensate for all or part of the increased EM&E. In order that it
may be possible 10 years hence to so increase the rate of USHA annual
contributions, the rate of annual contributions for the first 10 years
must be set at an amount below the legal maximum equal to at least the
expected difference between the average annual cost of-RMdR in the
initial 10 years and the average annual cost of Efl&R in the subsequent
48 years.

In effecting this policy, a computation must therefore be made of
the expected average annual amount of RM&R in the first 10 years and
the additional average annual amount of RM&R required for the succeed~
ing 48 years.

(6) Definition of £32 factors used in estimating. Two factors
are, therefore, given for estimating the cost of repairs, maintenance
and replacements for the various component parts of a project, with
the exception of Painting and Decorating, and "other eQuipment", i.e.
factors representing:

(i) The average annual cost for the first 10 years

of operation, which is the average of the cash disburse-

ments for Eiih over the first 10 years. This is desig-

nated hereinafter as the ”10 Year Average Annual RM&R


85989 E 4

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(ii) The additional amount to be added to the 10 Year

Average Annual Cost to determine the average annual BM&R

cost for the remaining 48 years of operation that is con—

templated by the amortization period of the bond issue.

This is designated hereinafter as the "Additional Average

Annual BM&R Cost”. -

(d) lg Year Average Annual Cost. Factors (expressed in decimal
ratios of development cost) for computing cost have been prepared by
the USHA, in the folIOWing manner: -

(1) Maintenance and repair ggsts. The maintenance and repair
policy and resultant costs for several typical systems or installations
were predicted for the first 10—year period of operation.

(2) nglacement EQEEE: The useful life of the various components
of each typical system or installation was forecast based upon the pre~
dicted policy and expense for maintenance and repairs. The amount of _
failures and costs of replacements during the 10—year period were fore—
cast for all items regardless of the estimated useful life of the item,
since it is recognized that for a given number of objects said to have
an average useful life of 15 years, for example a certain number will
fail and reQuire replacement before the 15—year period which will be
balanced by the number which last beyond 15 years.

(:3) Total adder. 9,3,3 averaged. The total costs thus estimated
for the various systems were divided by ten to arrive at the 10 Year
Average Annual RM&R Cost. Such Cost was then divided by the average
development cost for the typical systems or installations to arrive
at an average factor which is a decimal ratio of the development cost
for the system or installation.

It is expected that costs experienced for the first part of the
10—year period will be less, and during the last part will be more than
the average annual rate. Thus_reserves for RM&R should be established
to provide for the higher costs later in the 10—year period. As the
time interval is relatively short no interest earnings on the reserves
were forecast in developing the factors.

While it is expected that the actual RM&R costs experienced on cer—
tain systems or installations in a project will over—run the estimates
which are computed from average factors, it is alSO expected that the
actual costs on other systems or installations in the same project will
under—run the estimates. The over— and under—runs in a project will
tend to equalize each other so that the sum total of the 10 Year Average
Annual Efidh Costs for one well managed project should be reasonably
close to the sum total of such costs on a similar project equally well

85989 H 5

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It is, moreover, recognized that estimates now made for the 10—year

period cannot be entirely accurate even over this limited term of years.

' It is, therefore, anticipated that as experience develops on each par—
ticular project, necessary revisions will be made from time to time in
the average annual amounts set up for the first lO~year period.

(e) éfléijigpgi Aggggge Annual Costs. Assuming that present eco~
nomic conditions will continue, the £§€§Ege annual costs of RM&R for the
48 years following the first 10 years are expected to be substantially
higher than the 10 Year Average Annual EM&R Costs. The actual annual
costs immediately following the tenth year are expected to be less than
the 48—year average. Moreover, they are expected to increase gradually
thereafter. A cash reserve would thus be built up in the early part of
'the 48—year period. Because of the long period of time involved inter~
est earnings at 2% have been anticipated in estimating the average an—
nual cost of RM&R for typical systems during the 48—year period. With
this exception the method uSed in estimating the average annual costs
for the 48—year period is similar to that described for the 10 Year
Average Annual RM&R Costs.

To determine the Additional Average Annual RM&R Cost for a typical
system the amount of the estimated 10 Year Average Annual Cost for such
system was subtracted from the amount of the estimated average annual
amount which, with interest earned at 2% on reserves on hand, should be
set aside during the 48—year period to provide for the cash disburse—
ments for RM&R during such period.

The Additional Average Annual Cost for a typical System thus com~
puted was divided by the development cost of Such system to establish
the decimal factor for the Additional Average Annual Cost.

(f) Standagds of Appearance. As stated before, the budgeted amount
for repairs, maintenance and replacements, depends upon the accepted
standard of usability and appearance. The property Should always be kept
in usable shape and steps taken to preserve the structures and equipment
from undue deterioration. It is contemplated that good management will
be exercised and that the old adage, ”A stitch in time saves nine”, will
be followed.

Standards of appearance are hard to set. The tenants of low rental
housing cannot afford, nor should subsidy be increased, to pav the costs
required to keep the place as “spick and span” as in higher rental prop—
erties. On the other hand, inasmuch as the housing projects are made of
the same materials, ~ brick, concrete, plaster, wood, glass, and paint —
as the slums which were cleared away, it would be entirely possible for
any project to obtain the appearance of a slum in a short time. Despite
the fact that the standard of appearance appropriate for low rent hous—
ing is hard to set, especially on paper, it is a very important standard.

85989 H 6

 . .

The standard may be set by permitting the project management to
curtail maintenance and allow the scale of appearance to become a little
too low for a short time until an agreement can be reached, that the
project is to be maintained at a higher standard. There seems to be no .
other way now known to assure the project management that economy in
maintenance affecting appearance has reached the proper minima. The
following estimate factors contemplate operating very close to the lower .
limit of acceptability.


. The care of all ground areas either planted or paved, classified
as repair, maintenance and replacement, does not include the removal of
snow or trash, which is included in Operating Services. The estimate
of costs for repairs, maintenance and replacements of grounds therefore
includes all labor, supplies, materials and equipment required for
planted areas, for surfaced areas, and for yard appurtenances.

(a) Planted éreas. The degree of maintenance of landscaped areas
will depend—ppon the appearance standard which is adopted. This will
vary with different types of areas. In keeping with the general standr
ards for RMdR, the ultimate objective should be tenant maintenance of
all planted areas. The planning of some projects militates against the
complete ad ievement of this objective. For this reason planted areas
are divided into two classes for budgeting purposes, i.e. project main-
tained and tenant maintained.

(1) Ergjggt Maintained Planted Areas.

(i) Primary Ergjegt Areas. These areas, which are

similar to "front or side yard” areas, but not necessarily

adjacent to dwellings, should be kept at a relatively high

level of.appearance.

(ii) Secondary froject EEEEE‘ These areas may b

considered insofar as the degree of maintenance is con

cerned as ”back yard areas”. They are not necessarily

back of any building or adjacent to a dwelling. While

their appearance should always be neat and orderly, the

kind of planting and the care given them will be at a

lower level than that for primary areas.

. (iii) Play Field pig. Play fields requiring, turf
maintained for active recreation Would be out by scythes

or other field equipment.

(iv) Recreation Areas ~ Naturalistic. These areas

include wooded or field areas used as parks for passive

85989 H 7

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recreation and.require care only for the normal care of

the trees and the removal of the undesirable growth.

(V) gndevelooed Areas. Land purchased for future
development should be maintained only to the degree nec~

essary to prevent the areas from being unsightly and


‘\ 'j .

(a; Tenant fiaintained Planted Areas.

(i) Eenant firont~and §idg 33rds are planted areas

usually at the front and ends of buildings, the mainte—

nance of which can be assigned to the tenant. These

areas are comparable to Primary Project Areas, the only

difference being that the ordinary maintenance functions , ‘

_ are performed by the tenant. .
(ii) Egnjnt Back Xardg are areas of lesser im—
portance adjacent to the dwelling, the maintenance of
which can be assigned to the tenant.
(iii) Allotment gardens are additional areas set

aside for gardening by tenants. These garden areas

will require an occasional clearing by the project main—

tenance force and a certain amount of management super—

, vision. ‘

w\ m h ' . ‘ - '

(D) ourfecgfi Areas. Suriaced areas may be diVided between hard
surfaces and water—bouni surfaces. These areas include walks, drives,
spray'oools, play and other recreation areas, laundry yards, trash
platforms, etc.

\ Y .. s. . . . .

(l) dard Suriaced areas include those finished With masonry,
concrete and bituminous materials.

(2) EfijgrEbound surfaces include clay and gravel combinations
and macsdam.

(c) lard éppurtenances. Yard apnurtenances include fences,
clothes posts, benChcs, and guard rails.

(d) gorrection for Qabor Rates. The following tabulation gives
the average unit costs for the above classifications of planted areas
based on a 55¢ per hour labor rate. If the actual rate for unskilled
laborers (after making allowanCes, if any, for paid time on vacations
or on sickness) differs from 35¢ per hour, the labor costs indicated
in this tabulation should be corrected in direct proportion. In Such

, cases, it is suggested that the estimates for grounds be worked up to
totals for labor and equipment based on the 35¢ rate. Then the total
labor for erounds can be corrected for the local rate and'added to the
material costs giving a corrected total grounds cost. ’
85989 H 8 1

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(e) Estimated Unit gpsts 9: Itggg oi Ground Maintenance.
10 Year Average Annual Cost Additional
ITEM per 1,000 Square Feet Average
Labor Materials Total Cost
gnwn and Elanted Agefig
Primary Project—
2 Stories or less $7.87 $3.19 $11.06
3 Stories or more 9.80 5.00 14.80
Secondary Project 3.92 1.60 5.52 SEE
Play Field Turf 1.40 .87 2.27 NOTE
‘Recreation Areas—Eaturalistic .70 .50 1.20 BELOW
'Undeveloped Areas .28 .10 .38
' Tenant Front & Side Yards ' .70 3.44 4.14
Tenant Back Yards .70 .55 1.25
Allotment Gardens .42 .20 .62
NOTE: Since the costs of these items are not based on the development
cost the ”Additional Average Annual Cost” is obtained by mul—
tiplying the total cost for materials only by 0.21. The labor
cost is not to be increased in such computation.
*mrv 10 Year Average Additional Average
L‘J“ Annual Cost Annual Cost
Hard Surfaoed Areas .0112 .029
Water~bound Surfaced Areas .0410 .029
Yard Appurtenancee .0075 .089
85989 H 9

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(a) Igggription. Under the subject of Structures is included the
repair, maintenance and replacement of roofing and sheet metal; masonry,
caulking and waterproofing; tile setting, lathing and plastering; carw ,
pentry (including wood and asphalt tile floors), hardware, glazing and
screens; and sundry items including incinerator structures, ironwork,
etc. It does not include painting or decorative coverings.

(b) Standard of EQEB. The standard for maintenance of structures
should be based upon both utility and appearance. The roofing, exterior
walls and caulking should_be kept weathertight to prevent damage by
water to structure and decoration. Painting and decorating costs can
be materially increased by such wcter damage. The standard of mainte~
nance and replacement of carpentry work including floors should be in
keeping with the discussion on general standards. Screens should be‘
kept in a good state of repair in order to be at all effective.

(C) Eggigeig fagtogg. The 10 Year Average Annual EM&R Cost for
structures may be estimated at .0021 times the total development cost
of all of the structure, including floor coverings (linoleum, asphalt
tile, etc.) and the building foundations. _

The Additional Ayerage Annual RidR Cost is estimated at .0027 times
the total development cost of the structure.

(a) gescription. Painting and decorating includes all exterior
. and interior painting, also the project labor and material for washing
painted surfaces, plaster patching, floor refinishing, and for the re~
pair and replacement of shades and curtain rods.

(b) Standards. Paint is applied to protect the surface and to
affect the appearance. Color has little bearing on the protective qual—
ities, but has a large bearing on appearance. The color scheme of a
project should be simplified so that the number of colors to use will
be reduced to a minimum. Keeping in mind that atmospheric dirt in some
localities will darken painted surfaces, colors should be chosen for
exterior work thich will give pleasing results for the useful life of
the paint. The replacement of exterior paint should only be done when
it no longer protects the painted surface. The replacement of interior
paint will normally be made to improve appearance before it will be

V necessary to protect the surface by painting. ‘

(c) 199 Additional [3&3 919999 RM&R Cost. Costs of painting
and decorating are estimated to be the sane for the first 10 years and
85989 H 10

 for the following 48 years. Thus the figures given below reflect both
the 10 Year Average Annual Cost and the average annual cost thereafter.
There will be no Additional Average Annual Cost.

(d) Exterior Painting.

‘ (1) Estimate factors. A good grade of paint should always be
used. Even the best paints will give protection for varying lengths of
time, depending upon the climatic conditions. The experience of the
locality should be reflected in the painting cycle noted in the Manage—
ment Resolution. The following figures give an average cost of repaint-
ing the various items noted, based on paint Costing $1.75 per gallon~
and a labor rate of 75¢ per hour:

Steel frames and sash $9.38 per hundred sq. ft.

of masonry openings
' Wood frame sash .60 per window, consist~

(Av.—3'6" x 5'6") ing of 2 sash

Screens for wood sash .22 per window

Exterior doors (paint one

side), frame and all wood

of screen door 1.10 per opening

Outside blinds (plain) .99 per window

Metal hand rails attached

to buildings 1.10 per 100 linear feet

Outside trim (eaves, -

porches, gable ends,

etc.) 1.49 per 100 sq. ft.

(2) Correction for different paint and labor costs. If paint and
labor unit costs are different than those on which the above were based,
the following formula may be used to obtain a revised estimate for ex—
terior painting:

T = (0.104? * 0.00545L + O.4l)t

T = the revised estimated total cost for exterior

. P = the cost of paint in dollars per gallon

L = the actual cost of labor in cents per hour cor—

recting if necessary for sink and annual leave
with pay.

t = the total cost for exterior paint obtained from

using the factors above noted.
85989 H 11

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(e) Interior gain: agd Decoration

(l) Qgspription. This item includes minor repairs to walls,
ceilings and trim to prepare the surface for repainting; painting of
walls, ceiling and trim; waxing, oiling and refinishing of floor sur—
faces and the repair and replacement 0f shades and curtain rods. The
estimates are divided between dwelling spaces and project and commer-
cial space.

(2) Dwelling Spaces.

(i) flailg, Ceilings apd Trim. In general, interior
painting will be replaced for the sake of appearance before
it will be necessary to replace it to protect the surfaces.

The time to replace it is therefore more difficult to de—

fine because it requires the striking of a balance between
what the public should pay in subsidy, what the tenant can
pay in his rents, and what should be done for the welfare

of the tenant. A repainting schedule should be defined in
the Management Resolution and used in making estimates for
operating costs. There are several operations involved in
the care of painted surfaces; the removal of dirt from the
surface, the filling of cracks, minor patching of plaster,
etc., and the application of the paint material.

In low rent housing, it is proper to expect the tenant
to remove the dirt from the walls, ceilings and trim. The
filling of cracks and other minor repairs should be done by
the project maintenance crew. The application of paint ma—
terials to walls and ceilings may in many localities be
done by the tenant. The saving which can be made in rents
or subsidy by having the tenant assume responsibility for
this labor is in the neighborhood of $0.40 per month for a
4nroom apartment.

The application of paint, stain, wax, or similar ma—
terials to the trim of a room might be done by the tenant; -
but at this time, it is not thought advisable to have him
do it. The skill required and the chance that the work
will have to be done as a protective measure are such as
to make it desirable in most cases to have the work done
by the project main