xt70rx937t9n_429 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt70rx937t9n/data/mets.xml https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt70rx937t9n/data/46m4.dao.xml unknown 13.63 Cubic Feet 34 boxes, 2 folders, 3 items In safe - drawer 3 archival material 46m4 English University of Kentucky The physical rights to the materials in this collection are held by the University of Kentucky Special Collections Research Center.  Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Laura Clay papers Temperance. Women -- Political activity -- Kentucky. Women's rights -- Kentucky. Women's rights -- United States -- History. Women -- Suffrage -- Kentucky. Women -- Suffrage -- United States. Forth - The Spirit of Missions text Forth - The Spirit of Missions 2020 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt70rx937t9n/data/46m4/Box_17/Folder_14/Multipage18850.pdf 1939-1940 1940 1939-1940 section false xt70rx937t9n_429 xt70rx937t9n  



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Shrine of the Episcopal Church in the United States' 15 historic Christ church Philadelphia.
where the First General Convention was held in 1785 and also the Third Convention in

1789 when the Prayer Book was adopted. Below right is shown part of the cover of the
Master Book of 1892. printed by the late J. Pierpont Morgan.







OCTOBER, 1 939
The 150th Anniversary of the Adoption of the

American Book of Common Prayer

“One hundred and fifty years ago next
October, the American Church adopted the
first edition of its Book of Common Prayer.
Thus she attained one of the greatest treas-
ures in her history, and it is fitting that the
Church of today take proper note of the

“The House of Bishops at its meeting in
Memphis, November, 1938, resolved that

steps be taken for the celebration of the 150th
anniversary of the Prayer Book and provided
for an anniversary committee. As the date of
the anniversary is October 16th, I am fixing
on Sunday, October 15th, as the day for
special celebration and recommend that all
parishes observe it.”


Presiding Bishop.


“This is one of those rare books which you cannot help

but finish once you get started. There is a lure about it
which is irresistible, and a



Over 100,000 copies of this book have been sold.

“The Prayer Book is gone through from beginning to
end in the form of question and answer. It gives exactly
the information which one un—
familiar with the Church and


charm which cannot be with— I‘llhrlm-nnm-


stood. It is not at all con- '
cerned with the minutiae of
Prayer Book History or with
the analysis of the various
services which are contained in
it. But far more important, it
helps one to breathe the devo—
tional atmosphere out of which
it came, and gives vivid and
moving pictures of some of
the great souls who have con—
tributed to it, such as John
Chrysostom, Leo the Great,
Gregory the Great, and Thomas
Cranmer.”——Findings in Reli—
gious Education.

Illl'llll lllll'lll ‘ll



Price, $100 ..Il|llIllllllllllllllllllll


“We now have a brief and readable book on the Prayer
Book which everybody can buy and we hope it has a wide
salc.”—Tlle Episcopal Pulpit.

“It contains precisely the things the informed Church—
man ought to know about our book of worship.”—Angli—
can Theological Review.

Price, $.30



“With the smallest possible amount of commentary and
explanatory matter, the author has presented the teach-
ing of the Prayer Book in a most convincing manner . . .
One can learn from this book what the doctrine of the
Prayer Book actually is, and not what any one person
may think it is.”—H0ly Cross Magazine.

Price, $.75




The aim and purpose of this work book is
to acquaint young people and adults with
the content and use of the Book of Common
Prayer. Set up in thirty—six sheets compris-
ing a full year’s work it is especially adaptable
for class use by groups of young people or
adults. Some work sheets carry line drawings
illustrating the architecture, furniture, and
ministry of the Church.


5 her services wants, and in so
doing supplies much that. our
own people often need and are
ashamed to ask for. We. com-
mend the little volume highly.”
—:lmerir‘an Church Monthly.

Price, Paper, $.45


lili‘i lll :lll llll lid lill ll‘l T'll ? ll lbi lil‘ I‘ll.


32 mo—Page Size 5% x 3%

860 Black Cloth, round cor-
ners, red edges, gold cross,
two purple ribbon markers.

Price, $1.00.

861 Red Cloth, round corners.
red edges, gold cross, two red ribbon markers. Price, $1.00.

llii .‘l

..‘l Jill

Price, $.60

NIHl[IlllllHiIIIIHIIHIIll'lllllll'l‘llll‘llll‘llll Hllllll‘ilstml “mum.

862 Black Moroccoette, round corners, gold edges, gold
cross, two purple ribbon markers. Price, $1.50.

863 Red Moroccoette, round corners, gold edges, gold cross,
two red ribbon markers. Price, $1.50.

864 Black French Morocco, round corners, gold edges, gold
cross, two purple ribbon markers. Price, $2.50.

865 Red French Morocco, round corners, gold edges, gold
cross, two red ribbon markers. Price, $2.50.

868 Black French Morocco. round corners, gold edges, gold
fillet, leather lined, gold cross, two purple ribbon mark-
ers. Price, $3.50.

869 Red French Morocco, round corners, gold edges, gold
fillet, leather lined, gold cross, two red ribbon mark-

ers. Price, $3.50.



Postage Additional
14 East 4lst Street New York City



October, 1939







ffie sake of


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,9, 9,9999,

9,, M992 9,9974%Wn/9/ 9,9

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Kiwi org/Migrations

Volume CIV OCTOBER. 1939 No. 10

(Right) Autumn in a country road, its beauty enhanced
by a riot of autumnal colors and a quiet peacetulness.
Photo by Wesley Bowman Studios, Chicago


The Rt. Rev. Henry St. George Tucker, D.D., Presiding Bis/2012'


The Rev. Charles W. Sheerin, D.D.

Treasurer ' Secretary
Lewis B. Franklin, D.C.L. The Rev. Franklin J. Clark
Assistant Treasurers Cashier
James E. Whitney, Richard P. Kent Frank A. Zubrod

Department Executives .

Domestic Missions . . . . . The Rev. George A. Wieland, S.T.D.
Foreign Missions . . . . . . John W. Wood, D.C.L.

Christian Education . . . . The Rev. Daniel A. McGregor, PH.D.

Christian Social Relations . . . The Rev. Almon R. Pepper
Finance . . . . . . . . Lewis B. Franklin, D.C.L.
Promotion . . . . . . . Joseph E. Boyle

National Council Members

Mrs. James R. Cain Col. Leigh K. Lydecker

Hon. Blaine B. Coles William G. Mather

Miss Eva D. Corey Miss Elizabeth Matthews

Rt. Rev. Cameron J. Davis, D.D. Rt. Rev. Herman Page, D.D.

Rev. F. S. Fleming, D.D. Philip S. Parker

Thomas J. Fleming, Jr. William G. Peterkin

Robert V. Fleming Mrs. Henry Hill Pierce

Robert H. Gardiner Rt. Rev. Clinton S. Quin, D.D.

Rt. Rev. Henry Wise Hobson, D.D. Very Rev. Paul Roberts, D.D.

Rev. Everett H. Jones Very Rev. Claude W. Sprouse, D.D.

Warren Kearney, D.C.L. Rt. Rev. W. Bertrand Stevens, D.D.
Rev. Addison E. Knickerbocker, D.D. Rt. Rev. George Craig Stewart, D.D.
Rt. Rev. William Appleton Lawrence, D.D. Rt. Rev. Robert E. L. Strider, D.D.

A. J. Lindstrom Rev. Albert R. Stuart


Executive Secretary——Grace Lindley, LITT.D.

Executive Board
Chairman—Mrs. Fred W. Thomas
Vice-Chairman—Mrs. Robert G. Happ
Secretary—Mrs. John E. Hill

Mrs. Paul H. Barbour Mrs. James Keeley
Mrs. J. V. Blake Mrs. Norman B. Livermore
Miss Helen C. C. Brent Mrs. Henry J. MacMiIlan
Mrs. Franklin S. Chambers Mrs. Walter Mitchell
Mrs. Charles P. Deems Miss Mary L. Pardce
Mrs. Kendall Emerson Mrs. Clinton S. Quin
Mrs. John E. Flockhart Mrs. Kenneth C. M. Sills
Mrs. Charles E. Griffith Mrs. H. E. Woodward

October, 1939

,ican Book of Common Prayer.”



THE COVER: William White has
been called the “Father of the Amer—

Whether or not that title is correct,
it is true that he had much to do with
the fashioning of the Book of Wor—
ship adopted in 1789 which was to
serve the Episcopal Church in the
United States for a century. Bishop
White is shown at the top of the
cover, the photo being one of the
Gilbert Stuart portrait made in 1796.
“The Organization of the American
Church” is depicted at the bottom.
This conception is contained in a
stained glass window in Christ
Church, Philadelphia, where the first
General Convention met in 1795. in
Christ Church the American Prayer
Book was adopted in 1789.


CIIANttl-l oiv ADDRESS must reach us by the first
of the month preceding issue desired sent to
new address. “Ulll the old and the new ad-
dress should be given when requesting change.
liliMl’WI‘ANCEH should be made payable to THE
Seiiti'i‘ or MissioNs preferably by cheek or
money order. Currency should be sent by reg-
istered mail. Receipts sent. when requested.
Please sign your name exactly as it. appears
on your present address label.
Animuss C(lMMltNlt'A’l‘lUNS ’l‘t) 'l‘llli) Heiiri'r oi-‘
MissioNs, Church Missions House, ‘38] Fourth
.\venue, New York.
ltI-;.\tl’l"l‘AN(‘lcs for all missionary purposes
should be made to Lewis lt. Franklin, 'l‘reas-
urer. 28] Fourth Avenue, New York, N. Y..
and should be clearly marked as to the pur-
pose for which they are to be devoted.

'l‘iii". Seiiii'i‘ oiv MISSIONS, ()etobei'. ltlilti.
\'ol. loll. No. lo. Published monthly by the Do-
mestie and Foreign Missionary Society of the
Protestant I‘Ipiseopal (‘hnreh in the U. S. A.
Publication oiliee. 100 Liberty St. lillt'll, N. Y.
Editorial. subscription and executive oftiees,
(‘hiireli Missions House, 28] Fourth Avenue,
.\'e.v York, N. Y. 'l‘en cents a copy. $1.00 a
year. Postage to Canada and Newfoundland
25c extra. Foreign postage 50c. Entered
Uctobcr 2, 1926, as second class matter at
l'tica, N. Y. Acceptance for mailing at special
rate of postage provided for in section 412,
Act of February 28, 1925.





Ewing Galloway Photo

“WOMEN and children are paying the greatest penalty in this war.” Thus
wrote a newspaper correspondent from Europe a few days ago after
witnessing the ravages of battle there. The same may be said of the war in
China—war anywhere. In the Far East, the Church is bravely struggling to
relieve suffering and want of thousands like the above mother and child. The
Church’s missionaries are at work day and night, working against seemingly
insurmountable difficulties. They are carrying on in your name.


. 9—.“ «m‘ R”...


.4 «a. A.

,.._-c.,r.c._.____.__..___. a...“ fl“. I: I -0.





apt. CW


WE are celebrating this month the one-

.hundred and fiftieth anniversary of
the American Book of Common Prayer.
This does not of course mean that a cen—
tury and a half ago our Prayer Book was
composed and used for the first time on the
American continent. From the establish-
ment of the first permanent colony of Eng-
lish people at Jamestown in 1607, the Book
of Common Prayer has been in continuous

It is well perhaps that we should remind
ourselves that while certain alterations
were made in the Prayer Book, yet there is
a real continuity between the Book which
we now use and that English Book of Com—
mon Prayer which was brought over by the
first colonists.

As the Preface to our Prayer Book
quaintly expresses it, the aim of those who
were responsible for the composition of the
American Prayer Book was “to keep the
happy mean between too much stiffness in
refusing, and too much easiness in admit-
ting variations in things once advisedly

The Preface further declares that a com-
parison of our Prayer Book with that of the
Church of England will show that the
founders of the American Church were far
from intending to depart from the Church
of England in any essential point of doc-
trine, discipline or worship—further than
local circumstances required.

During the recent visit of the King and
Queen of England to this country, the King
was said to have been agreeably surprised
at finding that our service resembled so

closely that of the Church of England. At
a time when there is so much conflict and
misunderstanding among the various peo—
ples of the world, it is helpful to remind
ourselves of the unifying influence that is
exerted by the reading of a common Bible
and by the use of common forms of worship.
The Bible is translated into many hundreds
of different languages. The Prayer Book,
which was bequeathed to us by the Mother
Church of England, is now used on every
continent and in most of the islands of
the sea.

If the Bible and the Prayer Book furnish
this unifying influence, should we not strive
to know them better and to let our lives be
more truly moulded by their teaching? At
such a time as this we might well use daily
the beautiful prayer for “The Unity of
God’s People” (page 37 of the Prayer

“O God, the Father of our Lord
Jesus Christ, our only Saviour, the
Prince of Peace; Give us grace serious-
ly to lay to heart the great dangers we
are in by our unhappy divisions. 'I‘a/ce
away all hatred and prejudice, and
whatsoever else may hinder us from
godly union and concord: that as there
is but one Body and one Spirit, and one
hope of our calling, one Lord, one
Faith, one Baptism, one God and
Father of us all, so we may be all of
one heart and of one soul, united in one
holy bond of truth and peace, of
faith and charity, and may with one
mind and one mouth glorify thee,
through Jesus Christ our Lord.”



October, 1939





STRANGER who knew nothing

of the Book of Common Prayer
and little of Church history could
read the calm notice of ratification on
page iv of the Prayer Book without
the slightest idea that it grew out of
two or three centuries of turbulent
Church history. Of course it grew out
of the whole previous history of the
Church; there is no dividing line
where any one event begins; but the
three centuries after 1500 were de-
cisive in the life of the American
Prayer Book.

While the stormy work of Church
reformation was proceeding on the
continent, and in England the Eng—
lish Church was increasingly restless
under papal oppression, certain Eng-
lish scholars were quietly at work
reforming the Church service books.
They needed to be simplified in their
over-intricate services, purified as to
statement of doctrine, and translated
from Latin into English. Prelim—
inary work went on until, in the reign
of young Edward VI, in 1549, the first
English Book of Common Prayer ap-
peared. the result of long and careful

This first Prayer Book of Edward
VI was in agreement with all that is
best in the most ancient Liturgies of
the Church and is now acclaimed the


Prayer Book is the



Samuel Seabury (left) with William White made up the House of Bishops
which met in Philadelphia in 1789 and adopted the American Prayer Book.

Bishop Seabury presided at the session.

Below may be seen the actual re-

visions made in the "Prayer for the King's Majesty" in the English Book

finest of Prayer Books, a clear light
shining over scenes of turmoil and
controversy. But this Book was not
to continue in use. Fanatics and ob-
jectors, irreconcilable for various rea-
sons, succeeded in having it set aside.
Other and inferior Books appeared
but more than a hundred years went
by before both Church and State
authorized another Book, in 1662, far
inferior, authorities say, to the fine
Book of 1549.

Another century passed and the
year 1785 found the Church of Eng-
land in the American colonies being
transformed into a national American
Church. The Prayer Book needed
some revising to fit the new condi—

Every good Churchman should give
thanks for the averting of a disaster
at this point, 1785. Apparently with
undue haste or with more zeal than
judgment, an attempt was made to
put out an American Prayer Book
which was faulty to a degree. It was
duly rejected.

OW see how neatly things can

happen in history though they
seem so discouraging at the time.
When the Rev. Samuel Seabury was
sent from Connecticut to England to
be made a bishop, the English bish-
ops would not consecrate him because
he, as a good American, could not take
the oath of allegiance to the English
King, which was part of the consecra-
tion service. He turned to the bish-
ops in Scotland who did not require
the oath and there he was conse-

crated, Nov. 14, 1784. The Scottish
bishops in 1637 had issued a Prayer
Book closely resembling the Book of
1549, especially in its Office of the
Holy Communion, which was the
finest part of that first English Book.
When they consecrated Bishop Sea—
bury it was with an understanding
that he would try to have the Scottish
Office adopted in the American
Church, and so he did.

The third General Convention met
in Philadelphia in two sessions in
1789, the first from July 28 to
August 8, the second from September
29 to October 16. No one was pres—


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Work of Centuries


The title page of the master Prayer Book of 1892 is shown at the right.

A Standard

Book is issued after each revision and all publishers must have their editions certified
as conforming to it. Dr. Iohn W. Suter. Boston, is Custodian of the Standard Book.
I. Pierpont Morgan (below) had the Standard Book printed for the Church atter the 1892
Revision and his son, the present I. P. Morgan, did the same for the Revision of 1928.
These Standard editions are considered examples of the finest printing

ent from New England at the first
session and the chief reason the Con-
vention adjourned was in order to
invite Bishop Seabury and his Con-
necticut clergy to meet with them in
the autumn. Bishop Seabury had
wanted to come but had refrained
because of reports that his consecra—
tion in Scotland had not been ac—
ceptable. Church unity was a vital
subject for action in those days but
what they meant by Church unity was
the union of the Church in Pennsyl-
vania and the South with the Church
in far far—away New England. This
unity was achieved and Bishop Sea-


bury was assured of a welcome.

On Oct. 3, 1789, he and Bishop
White of Pennsylvania, consecrated
in 1787, proceeded to hold the first
meeting of a House of Bishops, sep-
arate from the House of Deputies.
Bishop Provoost of New York was
counted 3 member but he was ill and
absent. Bishop White persuaded
Bishop Seabury that the senior in
order of consecration should be the
Presiding Bishop and that rule pre-
vailed for the time.

NYONE who thinks of General

Convention in terms of the more
than 700 laymen, clergy, and bishops
who will gather in 1940 would have
to look twice to see the General Con-
vention of 1789 for it consisted of
2 bishops, 20 clergy, and 17 laymen.
Even these were not all together at
once for some who attended one ses-
sion were not present at the other.
In the Convention of 1937, Massa—
chusetts and New Hampshire were
represented by 25 men; in 1789, by
one, the Rev. Samuel l’arker, l).D.,
rector of Trinity Church, Boston.
The other states represented were
Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland,
Virginia, South Carolina, Connecti—
cut, and the still hyphenated New-
Vork and New-Jersey.

It was a young group, compara-
tively. Dr. Parker was 45; Dr. Ben—
jamin Moore, assistant minister from
Trinity Church, New York, was 41:
the Rt. Rev. William White, pre-
siding over the first session, was 41.

Besides all the newness and uncer-


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tainty in the life of the young country
just emerging from its first revolu—
tion, this must have been an anxious
time for the young ('hurchmen. ()f
the three bishops two were absent
from the first session. The Rev.
David (‘xriffith of Virginia who was
to have been consecrated the fourth
American bishop became ill in Phila-
delphia and (lied there while the
Convention was meeting.

The Prayer Book proposed by the
previous (,‘onvention had been a
failure. Bishop White could not fore-
see the long life of the Book he shep—
herded through the deliberations of
1789, nor that, he himself would pre-
side over the House of Bishops in
fifteen more (‘onventions and act as
a consecrator for 27 bishops.

Bishop White is also the chief re-
porter of this time, aside from the
brief and neutral record of the (‘on-
vention journal. Thirty years later
he wrote his Memoirs of the (‘hurclr
In his first account. he disposed of the
Prayer Book of 1789 in exactly 44
words but. later he enlarged his story.

The Houses were not afraid of
Work: they met from 9 to 2 and
reassembled at 4. 'l‘heir sessions were
devoted almost wholly to the Prayer
Book. Recently, when this matter
happened to be mentioned, a news-
paper man at once asked hopefully,
“Was there a fight?”

No, it can hardly be said there was

(Continued on page 1])


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THROUGHOUT the world this month the 150th Anniversary

of the adoption of the American Book of Common Prayer
is being celebrated. For use in commemorating the occasion,
Dr. Phillips E. Osgood of Boston, wrote “The Great Book,” a
symbolical office published in the September issue of THE
SPIRIT OF MISSIONS. This drama was staged for the first time
at Evergreen (Colo.) Conference under direction of the Rev.
Canon Winfred Douglas. On this page are characters from the
drama. At the left, is the Hebrew Elder, portrayed by the Rev.
William Read, Chicago. At bottom left, is the American Pa-
triot, portrayed by Samuel Summons of Evergreen. Below cen-
ter, is the Greek “Apostle,” taken by Robert Fowkes, Chicago.
Below right, is the Latin Friar in the person of Placido Abaya
of Denver, and directly below is the Anglican Bishop in aca-
demic gown, taken by John Ward of Faribault, Minn. Copies
of “The Great Book” may be had without charge by writing
this magazine. Photos by Whitney, Morse, and Scheidt.







an , , 1'
32%;}?! “35’ eri‘
fl ' 0'..ka

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(Above) A scene from' 'The Great Book, " symbolical office commemorating the 150th Anniversary of the adoption of the Prayer
Book. At the extreme left is Canon Douglas who directed the staging of the drama at the Evergreen Conference. Reading left
to right in the central group are: the Latin Friar. the Hebrew Elder, the American Patriot center), the Greek' 'Apostle " and the
Anglican Bishop. The parts are taken by: Placido Abaya, William Read, Samuel Summons. Robert Fowkes and John Ward

a fight, but things were taken seri—
ously and differences of opinion were
met with becoming dignity. At the
beginning, “an incident happened,”
Bishop White says, “which had an
unpropitious influence” on what fol-
lowed. Dr. Parker, it seems, expected
that the English Prayer Book would
be the ground on which the new
American Book should be based;
others, unnamed, felt that the new
Book should be formed without refer-
ence to any Book already existing,
starting from scratch as it were, to
prepare a whole new Prayer Book.

Bishop White thought the latter
idea “very unreasonable”; it assumed
that the clergy were bound by no
Book at all until General Convention
created one. Suppose, he said, that
when the prayers for the English
royal family became inappropriate
after the country became independent,
the clergy had argued that therefore
the whole Prayer Book had been
invalidated. Such an idea “would
have tom the Church to pieces.”

Bishop White does not detail the
arguments by which the question was
settled. In the House of Bishops,
he says, “owing to the smallness of
the number and a disposition in both
of them to accommodate, business
was despatched with great celerity.”
“To this day,” he wrote, 30 years
later, “there are recollected with sat-
isfaction, the hours which were spent
with Bishop Seabury . . . especially
the Christian temper he manifested
all along.”

October, 1939

TO follow through one subject

only: Bishop Seabury and New
England generally wanted the Atha—
nasian Creed included and believed
that its omission would hazard the
reception of the Book. Bishop White
intended never to use the Athanasian
statement himself but thought it
should be inserted with a rubric per-
mitting its use. The House of Depu—
ties, however, “would not allow of the
[Athanasian] creed in any shape;
which was thought intolerant by the
gentlemen from New England, who,
with Bishop Seabury, gave it up with
great reluctance.”

The only other subject in Morning
and Evening Prayer which occasioned
much discussion was the clause in
the Apostles’ Creed, “He descended
into hell,” discussion still reflected in
the rubric on pages 15 and 29 of
today’s Prayer Book.

In the service for the Holy Com-
munion Bishop White expected oppo-
sition to the changes desired but “no
such thing happened to any consid-
erable extent.” In the other services,
“there was so little difference of opin—
ion, that nothing interesting is recol—

What is most notable in reading
Bishop White’s record is the great
care and thoughtfulness with which
the subjects were treated. They were
dear to the hearts of the men handling
them, close to their deepest convic—
tions. Their days were barely re-
moved from active warfare and blood—
shed, and also vivid in their minds

were the passions and controversies of
the two preceding centuries. Never-
theless, out of the Convention of
1789 came the Prayer Book that was
to serve for a hundred years and
which with no great changes is in use
today. On the closing day of the
Convention, October 16, the Prayer
Book was ratified and authorized for
use after October 1, 1790, as the
statement on page iv indicates.


Anniversary Prayer

(Prepared by a Committee of the
[loam of Bishops and authorized by
The Presiding Bishop.)

GOD, by whose spirit the whole

body of the Church is governed
and sanctified, we give Thee hearty
thanks that by Thy holy inspiration
Thy Church hath from its foundation
ordained rites and ceremonies, prayers
and praises, for the glory of Thy name
and the edification of Thy people.

More especially do we thank Thee
that when, in the course of Divine
Providence, these American States be-
came independent, this Church was ,
moved to set forth the Book of Com- ,
mon Prayer in a form consistent with
the Constitution and laws of our
country, yet in agreement with ancient
usages, and adapted to the spiritual
needs of new times and occasions.

We beseech Thee to help us so to
read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest
Thy teaching as set forth in this Book,
that Thy name may be glorified, Thy
Kingdom hastened, Thy Church in—
creased, and Thy people strengthened
in faith, courage and devotion to
Thee. All this we ask through Jesus
Christ our Lord, to whom with Thee
and the Holy Spirit be all honor and
glory, world without end. Amen.







Glebe House.

Glebe House is Historic Church Shrine


AYS when the Church underwent

severe persecution and when at
least one of her clergy was dragged
from his pulpit and roundly beaten
because of his determination to carry
on in the face of strong opposition
are recalled in connection with the
150th anniversary of the adoption of
the Book of Common Prayer.

A figure which will always remain
prominent in the records of the early
days of the Episcopal Church in the
United States is that of Samuel Sea-
bury. He was one of the two bishops
who formed the first House of Bish-
ops which met in Philadelphia and
adopted the Prayer Book. He played
a prominent part in the fashioning of
the Book.

Back of his consecration in Scot-
land as the first Bishop of the Church
in America is a fascinating story. It
centers in Glebe House, at Wood-
bury, Connecticut. which is one of
the most precious shrines of the Epis-
copal Church. For here, on March
25, 1783—six years before the Prayer
Book was adopted—ten clergy of the
Church in Connecticut met and elect-
ed Samuel Seabury as the first Amer—
ican bishop.

Exciting and troublesome days
those were for anyone who adhered
to the Church of England, especially
anyone living in Connecticut. The


Congregational Church was “estab-
lished” there. All residents had to
pay taxes for its support. All must
conform to it, willy nilly. The very
people who had fled from England to
worship God in their own way stead-
ily, ungraciously refused to grant the
same right to others. And they espe-
cially disliked the Church of England
with its formalities, its white surplices,
its lordly bishops, and all the rest.
Then certain things happened. One
was the amazing conversion to “Epis-
copacy” of seven Congregational min-
isters. Among them was Timothy

Cutler, rector (he would now be called ,

president) of Yale College. That
was in 1722. Thereafter Cutler was
“excused” from further services as
head of the young educational insti-
tution. This relatively large defec-
tion was a severe blow to Congrega-
tionalism. By the same token and
ironically, it lifted the Church of
England into higher favor.

Another significant occurrence was
the “Great Awakening” of 1740—42.
This was an emotionally religious
revival that rocked Congregationalism
to its foundations. It arrayed parties
in the Congregational Church against
each other and attracted hopeful
attention to the less distraught Epis-
copal Church. To avoid the fanat-
ical extremes that marked the awak-

ening, many took refuge there.

It was during these troubled days
that a number of Connecticut Epis-
copal parishes were formed. Wood-
bury was one. To it came in 1771 as
the first resident rector the Rev. John
Rutgers Marshall. The Revolution
was brewing. Feeling ran high. When
war actually broke, it knew no
bounds. More than once Mr. Mar-
shall was dragged from his pulpit and
twice was roundly beaten and left
in the road to care for his battered

Many, within and without the
Church, believed it as good as dead
in those days. But the clergy of
Connecticut did not believe so.
Despite indifference abroad and
clearly defined objections at home,
Marshall boldly held a meeting of the
Connecticut clergy at his rectory,
Glebe House in Woodbury. That
was on March 25, 1783. Mystery
surrounds the gathering. But there
was no mystery about the result—
the election of the primary American
bishop. Jeremiah Leaming was first
choice. Age and infirmity prevented
his crossing the ocean for consecra-
tion. Samuel Seabury was next and
he accepted the honor. Seabury was
Connecticut born; his father had
turned from Congregationalism and

(Continued on page 31)



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Presiding Bishop, Nov. 5


PROBABLY the most important
declaration from the Presiding