xt70rx937t9n_478 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt70rx937t9n/data/mets.xml https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt70rx937t9n/data/46m4.dao.xml unknown 13.63 Cubic Feet 34 boxes, 2 folders, 3 items In safe - drawer 3 archival material 46m4 English University of Kentucky The physical rights to the materials in this collection are held by the University of Kentucky Special Collections Research Center.  Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Laura Clay papers Temperance. Women -- Political activity -- Kentucky. Women's rights -- Kentucky. Women's rights -- United States -- History. Women -- Suffrage -- Kentucky. Women -- Suffrage -- United States. Union Signal text Union Signal 2020 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt70rx937t9n/data/46m4/Box_17/Folder_1/Multipage20696.pdf 1910-1912 1912 1910-1912 section false xt70rx937t9n_478 xt70rx937t9n Uh? ~ Huinn





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Special Articles in This [Ssue
Our Washington Letter, Page 2—The Political Situation in Tennessee, Page 3—Everyday Philanthropy, by
Mrs. Jennie M. Kemp, Page 4—The Traffic in Women, 1., by Mrs. Rose Woodallen Chapman, Page 5——-';
Problems in Parliamentary Law, Page I4. -













May 5, 1910:


Dedication of the New Building of the International Bureau of Ameri-
can Republics—Pians for International Humane Conference—Gfiree
Women’s Patriotic Jocieties Meet— A Liquor J‘cbeme Tbtcmrted

An event which President Taft has de-
scribed as the most important interna-
tional celebration which Washington has
witnessed in many years, took place last
Tuesday, when the new home of the
American Republics was dedicated. This
event marks the completion of a plan
started in the winter of 1889-90, when
delegates from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil,
Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador,
Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico,
Nicaragua, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador,
Uruguay, and Venezuela met in Washing-
ton at the instigation of Secretary of
State Blaine, to discuss with delegates
from the United States subjects of politi-
cal and social interest to the people of
the Americas.

Unlike the Hague conference, the meet-
ing was not called to prevent or limit
war, but was called in time of peace for
a peaceful purpose. As a result of this
conference the International Bureau of
American Republics was founded.

The new building has been described
by one as a “temple of peace, commerce

and friendship,” and another has called it
a “capitol in the capital of the United

States of all the American nations.” Its

architecture is a combination of the clas-
sical and the Spanish, and it is built en-
tirely of white marble. The three-fold
purpose of the building is a library in
memory of Columbus, an office for general
work, and a home for the International
Bureau of American Republics. The
architects have told the story of the Pan-
American union, and striking events in
the history of the countries forming the
union. The building cost $475,000, and is
the gift of Mr, Carnegie.

The bureau which is to occupy the
building is an official diplomatic institu-
tion for world-wide influence, maintained
by the annual contributions made in pro-
portion to population, of the twenty-one
American republics, including the United
States. It is controlled by a governing
board consisting of the diplomatic repre-
sentatives in Washington of these Ameri-
can nations, and its afiairs are adminis-

tered by a director elected by the unan‘?’

imous vote of the governing board. He
is therefore an international officer, and
has the rank of envoy extraordinary and
minister plenipotentiary. The important
and practical work of the bureau is
shown by such facts as these: It employs
a large staff of diplomatic, statistical and
commercial experts; it conducts a cor-
respondence in English, Spanish, Portu-
guese and French amounting to 60,000 let-
ters annually; it publishes a bulletin each
month, describing the progress and con-
ditions of the American republics, which
isagonsidered by some as one of the moSt
instructive and interesting official publi-
cations in the world; it distributes sev-
eral hundred thousand pamphlets, maps,

and other printed descriptive data con-

cerning these countries; it acts as an
agency to make the diflerent governments
and peoples of America better acquainted

{with each other; it holds various confe'r-

Special Correspondence

ences from time to time of the nations
supporting it to consider ways and means
of promoting peace and commerce among
them all, and was directly responsible
last year for a great amount of new busi—
ness in the exchange of trade among the
American republics.

International Humane Con-
f erence
Preparations and plans for the first in-
ternational humane conference ever held
in the United States are being made. This

conference will meet in Washington in
October, and will be conducted under the
auspices of the American Humane Asso-
ciation, which is a federation of societies
and individuals for the prevention of
cruelty, especially cruelty to children and
animals. There have been five held in
different countries, but this will be the
first which will include children in the
scope of its work, the others being de-
voted exclusively to the work of prevent-
ing cruelty to animals. The American
association in itself represents nearly 400
separate anti-cruelty societies, and in-
cludes a great number of individuals in-
terested in the work, but not working
through an organized body.

This conference is called to discuss
practical problems confronting humanitar-
ians everywhere, to exchange views con-
cerning methods and policies now prac-
ticed, to encourage unity and cooperation
among humanitarians, and to promote hu-
mane progress throughout the world.
Then, too, in a broader field, the associa-
tion asks that the commercial side of phi-
lanthropy be considered. It is shown that
if proper preventive means were taken to
shield children from cruelty and neglect,
and to assure to them the proper training
in good citizenship, there would be fewer
paupers and criminals. There is a large
number of paupers and criminals that
must be taken care of at the public ex-
pense, and this expense is met by taxes
levied upon the law-abiding and industri-
ous citizens of the country.

Another practical phase of the question
is presented in the crusade against the
wanton destruction of useful birds. It is
claimed that this slaughter has meant
that millions of dollars worth of grain
and other farm products are destroyed
annually in the United States by insects.
Then, too, statistics have been compiled
which show that the life of the average
horse or mule is shortened by from five
to ten years on account of poor treatment,
abuse and stupid or ignorant handling,
and as there are about 25,000,000 draft
animals in the country, an extension of
their earning capacity for about five
years would mean an enormous economic
saving. Lack of education in the care
of cattle and sheep, and lack of humanity
on the part of owners, loses the country
large sums of money annually. The asso-
ciation advocates the introduction into
the schools of a course of instruction to
train the children in the care of animals,
and it is striving to reach with its influ-
ence the three-fourths of the people of the
nation who are not directly in touch with
any humane society. Among the promi-
nent Americans who are especially inter-
ested in the work of the association are
Dr. William O. Stillman of Albany, the
president, Andrew Carnegie, Cardinal

Gibbons, Dr, Albert Lefiingweli, Mrs.
Caroline Earle White, Edgar McDonald,
Mrs. Mary Howe Totten, and many others
of equal standing.

Women's Patriotic Societies

The atmosphere during the past two
weeks has been charged with patriotism,
as we have had the congress of the D. A.
R., and the meeting of the Daughters of
1812 and of the Colonial Dames. The
latter decided not to have comment by the
press upon everything which occurs at
their‘council and so determined to allow
only members of the society to appear on

the convention floor during the sessions.
Delegates from the fourteen original so-
cieties, including those of the thirteen
original states and the District of Colum-
bia, as well as from the twenty-four asso-
ciate societies of other states, were in at-
tendance. A reception by President Taft,
in the east room of the White House was
one of the features.

Members of the National Society of the
Children of the American Revolution
made their annual visit to Mount Vernon
during the past week to place a wreath
upon the tomb of Washington. Services
were held around the tree planted by the

The Daughters of 1812 held their an-
nual convention, too, this past week, and
had more than two hundred delegates
from forty states in the Union. The Dis-
trict of Columbia society, which has a
membership of over twenty-five, all of
whom are daughters of men who actually
fought in the war of 1812, were the hos-
tesses of the convention.

The National Society of the Daughters
of the American Revolution adjourned
with good feeling “all ’round,” although
they adjourned finally without amending
their constitution so as to authorize the
election of state regents and state vice-
regents to be held in their respective
states or territories. As the law stands
now, the delegation which comes to the
congress elects the state regent, here in
Washington, and the congress confirms
the election. The question has come up
at various preceding conventions, but as
yet the delegates have refused to change
the constitution.

Liquor Scheme Thwarted

During the passage in the House of
Representatives on Wednesday of a bill
authorizing the sale of a portion of the
Rosebud Indian reservation in South Da-
kota, a determined effort was made by
the liquor men to modify the stringency
of the laws protecting the Indians against
the sale of liquor, but owing to the force-
ful opposition of Mr. Burke of South Da-
kota the effort was defeated.


Senator Borah of Idaho presented a pe-
tition for woman suffrage from a number
of the women and men of Texas, an un-
usual thing to do, as the practice is for
petitions to be presented by the senators
of the states in which they originate.
Senator Bailey of Texas remarked of Sen—
ator Borah’s action, “That is a service
the state of Texas is very willing to have
Idaho do for her.”






May 5, 1910



The Political Situativon in Tennessee-


Tennessee seems to be having more
than her share of “politics” just now.
Never in the history of Tennessee, since
the early sixties, has such intense feeling
prevailed over the entire state as now.
Of course the prohibition question is
one of the big issues before the people;
but many other questions likewise are
up for consideratiOn and settlement.

These other questions are the primary
and general election laws; the great
power in the hands of the governor;
the governor’s pardon record; an inde-
pendent judiciary, etC., etc.

These other questions are all more or
less inter-related with the prohibition
question. But I am leaving them in the
hands of the brethren to settle, my chief
concern, and that of the readers of THE
UNION SIGNAL, being the question of re-
taining our prohibitory laws. As all
know, the governor of Tennessee is vio-
lently opposed to these laws, doing every-
thing possible to prevent their passage,
and refusing, absolutely, to do one thing,
or say one word to secure their en-
forcement. Joined with him are the
liquor men and anti—prohibitionists in an
endeavor to elect him governor for the
third time, and to elect with him a leg-
islature that will repeal the state-wide
prohibition laws passed at the last ses-

The Democratic party, as all know, is
the dominant party in Tennessee. It
was expected that in the selection of the
nominee of this party for the governor-
ship and other state offices, there would
be held a primary election, to decide
the matter. But Tennessee has no law
regulating primary elections. Such a
law was passed by the last legislature
but was pronounced unconstitutional on
some technical point. Not having such
a law, it has been customary for the
candidates to get together and agree
upon the manner of conducting this pri-
mary election,

This year, Mr. Patterson, without con-
sulting the other side, called together
the state Democratic executive commit-
tee, which he .dominated absolutely, and
outlined a plan providing for a primary
election for all the state offices. The
plan outlined is so utterly unfair in
every respect, that it is not even re-
motely possible for any other man than
himself and his friends to be elected
under it. Because of its unfairness, not
one state-wide man, running for gover-
nor or supreme judge, or railroad com-
missioner, or state treasurer or any oth-
er state office, will run in it, one and all
absolutely refusing to have a part in it.
It now looks as if the governor and his
friends, one for each office, will run in
the primary without opposition, and so
become the “party nominees,” probably
without the farce of an election.

This does not, by any means, indicate
that the “state-widers” have given up the

President Tennessee W. C. T. U.

fight. They will put out their candi-
dates in the general election in Novem-
ber, to be voted on by all thepeople.
Whether this means a “three—handed”
race, between a state-wide Democrat, a.
liquor Democrat, and a Republican, or
whether the state-wide Democrats will
unite with the statewide Republicans
(all the liquor Republicans will vote for
Mr. Patterson) and elect state-wide men
for these offices, has not yet been deter-
mined. Many believe that the latter
course will be pursued.

The governor’s unfair primary plan
has created such a storm of protest over
the entire state as was never heard in
this state before. The governor’s friends
are leaving him, I think it might be
safely said, by thousands, and lining up
with us in an effort to defeat “Patter-
sonism” in Tennessee. Among them are
many prohibitionists who were deceived
into supporting Mr. Patterson in the last
race, thinking he was, as he said on the
stump over and over again, “as good a
temperance man as Carmac '.” But
there are also a great many anti-prohi-
bitionists, fair-minded men, who are
leaving him because they know his
scheme to get possession of the whole
state for himself and the liquor crowd,
to be one of the most pernicious schemes
ever devised to get and retain complete
control over the affairs of a great state.
They believe Mr. Patterson’s policies are
bringing the state to the verge of ruin,
and that to retain such a. man in power
is a greater menace to the welfare of the
state, than even a state-wide prohibitory

Several of the strongest liquor papers
in the state, big dailies of importance
and power, have likewise lined up
against Mr, Patterson and his policies.
Among these papers are the Nashville
Banner, the Chattanooga Times, and the
Memphis News-Scimetar. None of these
are in favor of our laws, but all are
lined up against Mr. Patterson, and de-
nouncing him and his methods in no
uncertain terms. Indeed, there is no big
daily in the state, except the Nashville
American, that is giving him a hearty
support. The Memphis Commercial-Ap-
peal has not repudiated him, and I sup-
pose will not. But so far it is giving
him a half-hearted support. There are,
besides, about a dozen or so of the coun-
ty newspapers, of the “me, too,” variety,
that follow the American in its fulsome
adoration for our governor and all he
does and says. These, with a few unim-
portant dailies in the larger towns, con-
stitute the support he is getting from
the press of the state. But I think even
his warmest admirers would admit that
a very large majority of the state press
are lined up against Mr. Patterson.

Another thing that has turned Mr.
Patterson’s friends against him by thou-
sands and disgusted hundreds of thou-
sands of people throughout the United

States, was the indecent haste with
which he pardoned Cooper, the murderer
of Carmack. The pardon was written
before the judges were through reading
their decision, and was sent to the of-
fice of the secretary of state for tran-
scription within two minutes after it

-was read. Mr. Cooper knew before he

left the building that he had received
the pardon. The governor said he had
kept up with the trial, read all the rec-
ords, was familiar with the full history
of the case and knew of his own per-
sonal knowledge, that Cooper was not
guilty! He said he had not had an im-
partial trial. Such a slap in the face,
I suppose, no supreme court ever had
since the foundation of our government!

I think there was no newspaper in the
United States of any importance that did
not speak of the pardoning of Cooper,
and only three in all the land have
been found that praised him or apolo-
gized for the action. These were the
Nashville American, and two other liquor
papers, one published in Houston, Texas,
and the other in Mobile, Alabama. The
others denounce Mr. Patterson unspar-
ingly for his action in the case.

Both sides are making unprecedented
efforts to elect a legislature, and the
liquor men’s money _by hundreds of
thousands of dollars will be spent in the
state in the effort to elect the state of-
ficials and the legislature. I do not be
lieve that they will win, but certain it is
that we have a desperate fight before us;
for whatever the money and the well-
known unscrupulous methods of the
liquor men can do to win the battle,
will be done.

There is talk of calling a meeting of
all Democrats at Nashville in May to
reorganize the Democratic party and get.
things in better shape. But in the mean-
time no action will be taken by the state-
wide Democrats to put out a candidate
until after the August election. In this.
election, those judges of the supreme
court, and of the court of appeal, five.
of each, who refused to run before Mr.
Patterson’s unfair primary, who want to
keep our state courts clear of factional
politics, will run for election before the

people against the judges who will be

pronounced the “party nominees” in Mr.
Patterson’s primary. This election will
be a pretty fair index as to the way the
November election will go. For it is as
certain as anything under the heavens
can be, that every Patterson man in the.
entire state will do everything that can
be done to bring about the election of the-
Patterson judges.

After this election, the state-Wide men.
will nominate and announce their other
candidates who will be voted on in the.
general election in November.

May the Lord give us the victory.





May 5, 1910


MRS. JENNIE M. KEMP, Evanston, Ill.

It was an early spring day at the noon
hour on State street. The pavements
swarmed with the hurrying throngs of
shoppers and work people who were hast-
ening to luncheon. The lunch hour is so
short and the necessity for haste so great
that each one rushed along seemingly
heedless of anyone but himself. Just in
front of one of the leading stores, where
the crowd was thickest, there was a sud-
den congestion. I pressed toward the
center, as did others, trying to see the
special object of interest. It proved to be
a tiny boy, seemingly but three or four
years old. Evidently he had invested his
money in a paper sack of gayly colored
glass marbles, and in some way the sack
had become torn and the marbles were
scattered over the sidewalk. As I first
saw him, the plainly clad young mother
was comforting him, telling him not to
cry. He stood with quivering lip, the pic-
ture of distress. And the crowd—every-
one was scrambling about, picking up the
marbles. An old lady a familiar street
vendor—with her basket of shoe strings
and collar buttons, was elbowing her sis-
ter in the carriage gown and sealskin
coat. The young men could not have
been more interested in a boys’ game ef
“keeps.” and I saw one elderly gentleman
of dignified bearing slip something which
looked like money into the pocket with
the “glassies.” The small boy and his
mother were kept busy putting the mar-
bles safely away in the tiny pockets of
the trousers and reefer. The last marble
was secured, and the crowd disappeared.
Not a word had been said; the action
seemed a matter of course. Here was a
child in need of help, and everybody near


it * *

Each beautiful summer morning as I
go to my work I plan to pass a certain
corner upon which stands an artistic
gray stone building. It is not the house



which attracts me, but the narrow strip
of vegetation which lies between it and
the cement pavement. This strip, per-
haps forty feet long, is a magical carpet
on which my mind drifts away to the
isles of long ago. Here are the wild lady-
slippers in bloom, just the kind I picked
forty years ago in Michigan. The wild
strawberries recall the hillside near
Mound City, Kansas, where, in the early
seventies, we school girls filled our tin
buckets with the delicious berries. The
blue violets remind me of the violet-hued
pasture of my Franklin county home. The
wealth of tangled ferns brings to me the
canyons and mountain slopes of western
Oregon. That little strip of luxuriant
green, brightened with flowers, sets my
heart in tune for the day. In the city
directory, the owner is listed as a photog-
rapher. To those who linger as they pass,
he is a philanthropist. His wildwood gar-
den preaches its own sermon. It bids us
each endeavor to brighten other lives, to
make someone else happier and better
because we live.

The field of everyday philanthrOpy
opens wide to our view as we consider it.
Not everyone has the opportunity to stand
as a leader in temperance or social re-
forms. But each individual can practice
total abstinence, stand for the “white life
for two,” and by personal influence ad-
vance every good cause. Worthy of men-
tion is the Baltimore woman who wrote a
volume on Italian literature and carefully
omitted all mention of or quotations from
drinking songs or anything of an immor-
al tendency. We can do our part in help—
ing to popularize all books with whole-
some standards.

We cannot all write books, but each
one can be a philanthropist of the pen.
The cheery welcome letters to the shut-in,
which beguile hours of sufiering; the
prompt reply to the friend who seeks ad-
vice; the unfailing letter to our own from




MRS. J. L. HILL, Jackson, Mich.

Flower Mission Day in the prison at
Jackson, Mich, is always looked forward
to by the prisoners with pleasant antici-
pation, and by the white ribboners of the
city with prayerful interest.

Under the leadership of Mrs. Julia Al-
len, who has been Flower Mission super-
intendent of Third district for many
years, this occasion is a great success.
Last year the Jackson unions prepared
750 button-hole bouquets, each with its
knot of white ribbon and a card with
helpful sentiment or Scripture text.

It is a never-to-be-forgotten sight when
the prisoners, in couples, march upstairs
to the pretty chapel and take their seats.
Some are gray-haired, others little more
than boys in years, fine of face, and with

no trace of wickedness. All ranks and

professions are there, as well as the de-

generate. As the white ribboners look at
these men, and realize that most of them
are in prison because of strong drink,
they are moved to pray and to work more
earnestly for the removal of the great

Visitors crowd the chapel on Flower
Mission Day., The services are opened
with music by the prison choir. Reading
of Scripture and prayer by a white rib-
boner follow. The chaplain gives an ad-
dress of welcome. Another white ribboner
speaks briefly to the men, assuring them
of the sincere interest that’ the W. C. T.
U. has in their welfare. A Varied pro-
gram of music and readings is given.

Last year two men, on behalf of the
prisoners, expressed appreciation of the
kindness of the W. C. T. U., in well-writ-
ten letters. Each/ man wore his little

whom we are separated—these indeed add

much to the sum of human happiness.
* * :8

Each returning May brings us to the
day when our floral offerings pay tribute
to those whose lives were gladly offered
for the preservation of an undivided
country. On this day the highest honors
are paid to those who sleep in unmarked
and “unknown” graves. In the same
spirit, let us today give our tribute of
grateful appreciation to the unknown and
oftentimes unappreciated philanthropic
men and women who seek not for praise
but toil steadily on for the uplift of those
among whom they live. It is much more
inspiring to work for some great object
in the dim distance, or while you are
cheered on by the plaudits of the multi-
tude. We all know how much more inter-
esting and picturesque is the heathen far
away whom we cannot see, than is the
dirty—faced urchin who appropriates every-
thing we forget to put under lock and
key, or the overworked laundress whose
many delinquencies are a constant means
of grace.

Do you say “This is all so common-


“But the sun and the stars are common-

‘ place things,

The flowers that bloom and the bird that

Yet sad indeed would be our lot

If the flowers did not bloom and the sun
shone not.”

And God “Out of commonplace parts
makes a beautiful whole.”

The everyday common duties and
pleasures make up almost the whole of

our lives. The great single opportunities '

come but once in a lifetime—the common
ones are multiplied around us every day.
As we do them in the right spirit, remem-
bering the brotherhood of man and the
fatherhood of God, striving to uplift
humanity everywhere, we are truly every-
day philanthropists.



bouquet, and who can tell what lessons of
faith and love spoke to their hearts in
these tiny bits of God’s beautiful out of
doors? I have seen the bent head and
quivering lips of even gray-haired men
at the mention of “Mother.”

May every mother who reads this, sow
good seed in the hearts of her children
and hedge them ’round with love and
prayer so that outside temptations may
have no power over them.



Bring flowers to the captive’s lonely cell,

They have tales of the joyous woods to

0f the free blue streams, and the glow-
ing sky,

And the bright world shut from his
languid eye; ‘

They will bear him a thought of the
sunny hours,

And a dream of his youth—bring him
flowers, wild flowers.

' . —Mrs. Hemans.


”1.7—: —.~.v.. u 4

; ...mm.i ' 3



May 5, 1910



I. What the Immigration Commission Discovered

It is hardly necessary to state to mem-
bers of the Woman’s Christian Temper-

_ ance Union that there is a traffic in

women, of all colors and all races. As
an organization we have been familiar
with these awful facts for years, and we
have striven to do all in our power to
have the nefarious business completely
stamped out. Today, however, so many
new facts are coming to light concerning
it, that it will be well for us carefully to
review the situation as it is at the pres-
ent time, that our information may be
authentic and up-to-date.

We will not turn to the newspaper and
magazine articles that did so much to
make the terrible situation known to
the general reader, and, therefore, did so
much to bring about the present note-
worthy activity on the part of those
officers who have power to deal with the
evil. Rather we will turn to those au-
thenticated documents whose words bear
the stamp of truth and cannot be dis-
credited by being ascribed to the imag-
inative writers of fiction.

The most thorough oflicial investiga-
tion of this traffic in women has been
given by the special committee of the Im-
migration Commission, which began work
in November, 1907. Its researches were
necessarily limited to the questions of
the importing of women for immoral
purposes and the leading astray of immi-
grants within the legal limit of three
years after their landing. The report
upon this subject was transmitted to
Congress in December, 1909, and a por-
tion of it was printed as Senate Docu-
ment No. 196.

A few quotations from this document
will make clear to every one just what
the situation is at the present time.
Says the report: “The recruiting of
alien women. or girls to enter the United
States in violation of section 3 of the

immigration act, or to live in this coun-

try in violation of this provision of law,
is carried on both here and abroad.”

“In the judgment of practically every
one who has had an opportunity for care-
ful judgment, the numbers imported run
well into the thousands each year.”

“To secure entries into the country
contrary to our law, these immoral wom-
en or the deluded innocent victims of the
procurers are usually brought in as
wives or near relatives of their import-

“Many of these women come through
the port of New York. Of late, many
come by way of Canada. On the Pacific
coast, San Francisco and Seattle are the
chief ports of entry.”

“The prize ofiered to the victim is only
that of higher wages and better eco-
nomic conditions.”

These authoritative statements show
that a traffic in women does exist; but,
judging by the questions raised by some
of the newspapers, the real question to be

Superintendent Purity Department, National W. C. T. U.

decided is the extent and character of
this traffic. The paragraph_that seems
to be most widely quoted by the news-
papers from this report is the one which
states that the commission has been un-
able to learn of any “great monopolistic
concern whose business it is to import
and exploit these unfortunate women,
trafficking in them from country to

Yet the report goes on to state, “There
are two organizations of importance,
one French, the other Jewish, although
as organizations they do not import.
Apparently they hate each other; but
their members would naturally join
forces against the common enemy.”

And again: “In several cities there
are French headquarters—that is, a
meeting place where French importers,
procurers * * * congregate, receive
their mail, transact business, drink,
gamble and amuse themselves in other
ways. Through these mutual acquaint-
anceships, sustained by common inter-
ests and a knowledge of their common
affairs, they assist one another in' the
business. Sometimes small groups Of
individuals are organized to assist one
another for a time, each going abroad in
turn to send or bring girls into the
United States. One combination discov-
ered was formed between a fugitive from
justice in Paris, a man in Seattle, and
another in Chicago, the man in Paris
supplying the girls to the Northwest
through Seattle and Chicago.”

The report is very conservative in its
statements, which should :make more
convincing the facts which it presents.
“To guard against the sensational be-
liefs that are becoming prevalent, it is
best to repeat that the agents of this
commission have not learned that all or
even the majority of the alien women
and girls practicing prostitution in the

United States in violation of the immi-i

gration act were forced or deceived into
the life. * * * They have learned
* * * that alien women and girls in
considerable numbers have been so de-
ceived or taken advantage of by procur-
ers that they have found themselves in
conditions which practically forced them
into practicing prostitution; and that all
of those engaged in the exploitation of
these alien women and girls use every
means of degrading them, in order to
keep them in the life as long as they
are able to earn money.”

The next question that seems to call
for consideration is as to whether or not
these unfortunate women are really
kept in a condition of slavery. The most
prevalent notion for many years has
been that practically all of the women
in the life, whether they went into it of
their own free will or not, remain in it
of their own volition and therefore can-
not be called slaves.

Turning to the report, we find that it
speaks in general terms of “many girls
brought here innocent, betrayed into a
slavery rigid in its strictness and bar-
barous in its nature.” And again, “Most
pitiful for the women and most brutal
on the part of the men are the methods
employed for exploiting these women im~
ported contrary to law, both those com-
ing willingly to lead a vicious life and
those lured into the country as innocent
girls by deception and by their affec-

“The procurer may put his woman into

a disorderly house, sharing profits with
the madam. He may sell her outrigh