xt71c53f1j6k https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt71c53f1j6k/data/mets.xml Augusta, Georgia Georgia Federal Writer's Project 1938 Compiled and Written by Augusta United Federal Writers' Project in Georgia Works Progress Administration; Sponsored by City Council of Augusta; 218 pages: 1 leaf, illustrated, includes music, folder, maps, 24 cm; UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries; Call number F294.A9 F4 books English Augusta, Georgia, Tidwell Printing Supply Co. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Georiga Works Progress Administration Publications Augusta text Augusta 1938 2015 true xt71c53f1j6k section xt71c53f1j6k                          
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{ AMERICAN GUIDE SERIES 1
COllI[7I[(?(l and I/V-rittcaz by
A U G U S T A U N I T
— FEDERAL WRITERS PROJECT IN GEORGIA
WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION
 
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S;‘>b1z.v0r0d by
CITY COUNCIL OF AUGUSTA
I 1938
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  Copyright 1938 by the
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  Augusta, Georgia
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AUGUSTA is one of the publications written by members
Q . . . . , . .
3x of the Federal \A”1`1tCI“5, Project of the \\’orks Progress Adminis-
` \ . . . . .
{ QQ tration. Designed primarily to give useful employment to needy
i A unemployed writers and research workers, this project has utilized
their experience and abilities in the preparation for the American
people of a portrait of America — its history, folklore, scenery,
cultural backgrounds, social and economic trends, and racial
factors.
Many books and brochures are being written for the American
Guide Series. As they appear in increasing numbers we hope
the public will come to appreciate more fully not only the unusual
scope of this undertaking, but also the devotion shown by the
workers — from the humblest held worker to the most accom-
plished editor engaged in the final critical revision of the manu-
script. The Federal \\'riters’ Project, directed by Henry G.
i Alsberg, is administered by lillen S. \\loodward. Assistant Admin-
il istrator.
l
HARRY L. HOPKINS
l ADMINlSTRA'l`(.)R
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   r
  I I
if   
  FOREWORD
in \Vhen, as Mayor of the City of Augusta, I was hrst ap-
 I proached with a view t0 the City’s sponsoring the AUGUSTA I
  GUIDEBOOK, I was lukewarm to say the least. However,
  as time went on and one conference followed another, I became
  impressed with the sincerity and earnestness of the workers who
  were developing this project. I had felt for a long time the
  need, in Augusta, to preserve its history and stories in a con-
  cise handy form. I began to realize that these people were going
  about their task in a thoroughly earnest manner, checking data,
  assembling facts, digging back into little known, old and musty .
  records, and combining all the various facts and results of their I
  findings into a complete, concise, running history of the City  
ji  of Augusta from its founding up to the present time, and that ’
  this history would not only serve as a means of information to I
  all the citizens of Augusta, but would be, in the best sense of »
  the word. a guidebook for visitors to the city and friends of I
_i'  Augusta throughout the land. I
  It was when I read the completed manuscript that I was I
  won over entirely to this book, and aided in a very small measure
  by adding a few facts of Augusta history that had somehow
  stuck in my memory from tales long forgotten or from things
  long since read. I consider the text of this book completely
  authoritative, and while concise, completely full in detail and
 I knowledge in addition to being pleasantly conceived and delight-
  fully written.
  - Too late, Augusta is beginning to realize that she has dis- g
 I sipated and thrown away many of the mementos and treasures IA
  * of her past, but now, I think that the city is aroused to the fact  
  that pride and faith in its future can be engendered by the I
. traditions and relics of its proud past, and this book will, in my I
{ mind, serve not only as a guidebook to Augusta’s history, but I
` , as a guide to her splendid future.  
Li  RICl.l)\l{l) Ii. ALLEN, ]r.,  
  Mayor of Augusta. I
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l Paemce
i The Federal `\Vriters’ Project is a part of the works pro-
* gram instituted by act of Congress in the spring of 1935, for the
treble purpose of providing gainful employment for the un-
employed, developing and retaining skill of workers, and achiev-
ing intrinsically useful ends. Wiriters unable, because of econo-
mic conditions, to hnd adequate markets for their productions,
were put to work on projects throughout the country.
{ To preserve records, impressions, and stories, both of the
{ past and of the present, and to bring to residents and visitors
j a complete picture of this country in all its aspects, the Federal
j \Vriters’ Project was authorized to write a series of guidebooks
1 to America. The American Guida containing material from
I each of the forty—eight States, is still in process of compilation.
[ More detailed guides will be published in the various States
and still more intensive studies in a number of localities.
ln Augusta, the VVriters’ Project was set up November 16,
1935. For more than a year writers, research workers, and
clerical workers have been engaged in the task of finding and
sifting material, writing and re-writing copy. Old books and
p long untouched archives have been reopened; hundreds of per-
sons have been interviewed; long and painstaking check of re-
ii cord against record has been made. This volume is the result.
1 Its authors hope that between its covers readers may {ind the
j true story of Augusta, past and present.
l
j Space does not permit the enumeration of all the men and
j women who have contributed to this book. To all of them the
l Federal \Vriters’ Project extends thanks. Especial acknowledge-
j ment is made to the Young Men’s Library Association for valua-
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   ble sources oi information in books and old newspapers; to Dr.
  Eugene E. Murphey for permission to use his poem, “Always the
  , River"; to E. Lynn Drummond for the essay on architecture and
  to P. P. Scroggs for authoritative architectural information; to C.
  i G. Cordle, Mrs. Bryan Cumming, and Morton L. Reese, historians;
  to Dr. John S. Plaxco and Jouett Davenport for data on archeolo-
  gy; to Mrs. P. J. A. Berckmans, Jr. as consultant on flora; to Miss
  Maude lilarragan for permission to use her musical setting for i
  "My Life is Like the Summer Rose"; and to the Chamber of
  Commerce for much information. For illustrations the project is _ — } ·
  indebted to the following persons and organizations: Chamber
  of Commerce, Augusta C/zroniclc, S. I3. Appleby, Mrs. Ed.
  ;_ Burwell, Mrs. Charles I. Mell, Bethlehem Community Cen-
  ter, St. Paul’s Church, Dr. Eugene E. Murphey, Mrs. Hinton
  J. Baker, University llospital, l\lrs. George C. Harding, Mrs.
    l\larion Jones, Mrs. Craig Cranston, H. P. Crowell, John Stelling,
 9 and Paine College.
  FEDERAL 'WRI'l`ERS’ PROJECT
    Augusta, Georgia
J »
  ‘ l
2.] · it

 CONTENTS
Page
EORE\\IORD ................................................................................ IV
A PREEACE ..................................................................................... V
. LIST OE ILLUSTRATIONS., ................................................ IX
  LIST OE MAPS .......................................................................... X
“AL\\'AYS THE RIVER" by Dr. Eugene Edmund Murphey 1
` GENERAL INFORMATION .................................................. 5
_ I Transportation ................................................................. 5
` Tralilie Regulations ........................... . ............................. G
Accommodations ............................... . ............................. 7
Recreation ........................................................................ 7
Shopping ............................................ . ............................. 8
Street Order and Numbering ......... . ............................. S
Calendar of Annual Events .......................................... S
Information Service ......................... .. ............................ 9
Radio Station ................................................................... 9
AUGUSTA TODAY ....................................... . ........................... 11
NATURAL SETTING .............................................................,. JT
SPORTS AND RECREATION ............................................... 19 _
ARCHITECTURE ......................... L ......... Q ..... . ............................. 29
INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE ............................................ 33
LITERATURE .............................................................................. 37
THE NEGRO IN AUGUSTA ................................................... 46 T
  HISTORY ........................................................ . ............................. 51 .
l Stone Age and Indians .................................................. 5]  
I Trading Era .................................................................... 52 °
Colonial Days ..................................................................    
Revolutionary Period ....................... . ............................. 59  
Alter the Revolution ........................ . ............................. G3 ,
Religion ...................................................... _ ...................... GT I
Advance Under the Old Regime ................................ Tl) A
vii I
I A.
l IQ

 ‘Vv. CONTENTS (Continued)
  Page
  The \Var Between the States ...................................... 80
  Reconstruction ................................................................. 84
  The Close of the Century ............................................ 90
  In Our Day ......................................,.............................. 91
  CHRONOLOGY ........................................................................... 101
  ToURs ............................................................. . ............................. nz
  Tour of Downtown Augusta ....................................... 112
  Tour of "The I·Iill" ...................................................... 140 A
  Tour of Negro Section ................................................. 155
  Environs Tour 1 ............................................................ 160
  Environs Tour 2 ............................................................ 165
  Environs Tour 3 ............................................................ 171
  Environs Tour 4 ............................................................ 177
 }; Other Points of Interest in Environs ........................ 180
  TALES OF AUGUSTA ............................................................. 186
  ~ The Haunted Pillar .......................... . ............................. 186
  A Suicide’s Curse ........................................................... 188
  y A Revolutionary Rescue ................................................ 189.
  Skinny, Skinny, Don’t You Know Me? .................... 191
 { An Aide to Santa Claus .................i.............................. 192
  . A Lost Treasure ............................................................. 193
  T The Gold Hunters ....... . .................................................. 195
  A Modern Tommy Tucker .............. . ............................. 196 '
 `_ The Romantic Robber .................... . .................. JL ......... 197
  The Poetic Press ...................,........................................ 197
ji Big Steve ......................................................................... 201
  BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................,....... . ............................. 205
; A INDEX ............................................................................................ 210
  vm
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  1 1
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 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Page
Gates of St. Paul’s ............................................................ Frontispiece
The Savannah River Near Augusta ............................................ 1
Sce11es on Broad Street ................................................................ 10
Augusta’s Three Resort Hotels .................................................. 12
Gardens, Home of H. C. Crowell ................................................ 11
On an Augusta Golf Course ...................................................... 19
Tennis at Forest Hills ................................................ . ................. 22
Barbecue Scene .............................................................................. 21
Silhouette by joe Cranston jones ................................................ 26
Portico of Old Medical College .................................................. 28
\VO1TlEll1,S Club Building, Showing Early Architectural
iI.`1'€l1(l i11 Augusta .................................................................. 30
Musical Score: “My Life Is Like the Summer Rose" ............ 38-39
Scenes at Bethlehem Center ........................................................ #16
Paine College ...............................................................................,.. 50
St. Paul’s Church .......................................................................... 68
First Presbyterian Church ............................................................ *71
Chimney of Old Confederate Powder \Vorl;6.; _ I; ~ Apr} Q 1"y;JL}
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THE SAVANNAH RIVER NEAR AUGUSTA
Always the river runs beneath our thoughts.
The Town is river—b0rn —— born 0n that distant day .
When nrst the weary pirogues thrust their prows .
` Against the mud-bank underneath the bluff
Wvhich was t0 be Augusta and the cramped pioneers
Slithered their way up the slick bank ·
Until they gained the top where under spreading oaks *
They flung their limbs at ease. t
There they found Indians who owned the land A
And shifty traders who each year f
Rode the long trail from Charlestown
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Thr0u<>‘h the dense cv Jress and the Hats into these hills
b ./ r
And looked with sullen eyes which saw i
That Government had come.
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  i The river was a noble limpid stream, its slopes  
  Thick set with hickory and oak and pine `
** VV hose fallen leaves were woven year by year g
  Into a thick enduring carpetry.  
  But in a few short years land—hungry yeomanry
  Laid bare the hills, seeking for that security
  VVhich every Briton craves —— to own his own.
  So now each year the river, once so blue, .
  Beneath the scourging of the autumn rains
  Runs redly with the life—blood of the hills. ,
  It was a Godless land, no steeple reared its crest
  To Heaven like a hand upraised in prayer . _
  Until at old Saint Pauls upon the river’s brink V
  The Church of England prayed in English-wise.
  _` And then great Wesley came whose burning zeal
  Singed the grey-moss which decks the oaks at Yamacraw,
  _ Shook the rough sinners in their raw-hide boots i
  And left their children to this day
  A bit too certain of the next world’s imminence
 _; To take their joy in this.
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    Upon her bosom Mother-River bore our trade
  From the dim, distant mountains to the sea.
  Stout voyageurs in pole boats and bateaux
  Laden with goods and hopes and fears
  y Went ever singing gaily to and fro. 3
  And then came steam -— when echoes new and strange _
  Broke the primordial silence of the swamps.
  So we grew prosperous then and fat
{ Through traffic with the growing wagon-trade
i Until men laid two lines of steel
if VVhich flanked Her to the sea
{{  And with their tariHs and their rates
  Ended Her long supremacy.
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 l Anon we harnessed Her and set Her strength ;
To turning wheels in monstrous factories »_
VV herein the peasant farmer might forget his plow =
The hill-1nan see no more the pageant of the hills ;-
And children lose the joyance of their youth. ,
But even so — it may be better far to stand  
And watch the busy, whirring spindles turn  
Than to wear out one’s heart in Fighting wasted land i
So feeble that it does not feel the prodding of the plow,  
So spent that no caressing rake or hoe J
Can make it smile with plenty. i
Patient, serene and slow the river waits, as might _
Some mother when her children are beguiled by toys, i
But when each day we call for water, Dives like, .
From Her breast’s amplitude she slakes our thirst, ,
And when at night the darkness sinks upon us like a pall y
· Her might transmuted into Light sustains us ’til the dawn.
* »= =z= =s<   =r
But say you that she has her times of rage
In which she scourges us and all but slays? -`
l ask “Had you borne children such as we t
\Vould you not feel the urge to drown them too ?" `
. And so because her waters flow within our veins `
Her rhythms are incorporate in our souls j
VW e river—folk are like her, quiet and unperturbed  
But with a iixity of purpose and of aim l
From which no dam or wall has turned us long aside. {
XV e have been shaken with the rocking earth  
Been seared with {ire ‘
Suffered from all chicanery and greed that men lllfly know
But holding still the creed we learned from her
Press onward in our course to our desire.
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  \’\’e have built altars to strange Gods
°¤~  `Which now we know were clay, and as we sit
-¤? Stirring the embers of a burnt out foolishness
  · Sucking our thumbs well burned with bonds from far Peru
  Viewing the shrivellcd stocks we would not sell,
  There comes a soft insistent murmur in our ears —
  The sound of water lapping round the willow trees.
  \\’e turn again to Her, neglected and forgot
  See what she was and is and yet may be;
  And like the vagrant prodigal who fed on husks
  \Vend homeward once again.
  The wider vision of maturcr minds bids us to dream once »
  more
  And with Her aid become the thing we might have been.
 l »=   ¤= =:= >z=
  I dream of forests on the gutted hills — of gullies hlled
 l'}? - And all the naked skeletons of waste
 yi Covered once more with greenery —- and timid
  \Yoo
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  i’ ..,,. at at , r e

 GENERAL INFORMATION ‘
TRANSPORTATION : I
Railroad Station: SOO block KN/alker St., facing Barrett Plaza.
Georgia Railroad, Georgia and Florida Railroad, Southern  
Railroad, Atlantic Coast Line, Central of Georgia, Charles-  
ton and \Vestern Carolina Railway. f
Airport: Daniel Field. On \Vrightsboro Road and \Vhee- `
less Road. \Vestern limit of Augusta. Taxi rate 50¢ per {
person, 20 minutes from town to Airport. A munieipally R
owned airport operated under lease by Southern Airways, a
Inc., used by the Delta Airlines, connecting linlc between
Charleston and Dallas. This line is under Government con-
tract, and handles passengers, mail, and express. Connec— i
tions are made here for any point in the country. Daniel ¤`
Field has repair service and full equipment for servicing
planes, night and day. Student instruction is given. Three Q
licensed transport pilots and licensed mechanics; 5 to 10 ‘
sightseeing planes, rates varying with length of trip. j
Bm Station; Southern Finance Bldg., TOO block Broad St. _
Atlantic Greyhound Lines, Bass Bus Lines, Southeastern
Stages, Inc., Southern Stages, Inc., Carolina Scenic Coach ,
Lines, 58 schedules daily, to all points North, East, South ..
and \\Iest. .-\ privately owned bus line operates between I
Augusta and Belvedere, S. C., through North Augusta. °
Taxis: Rates 25¢ First Zone; 5()¢ Second Zone. First ‘
zone extends from Fast Boundary to Baker Ave. and Eve ·
St. and from Savannah River to \\lrightsboro Rd.; seiond I,
zone all area from first zone to city limits. Yellow Cab €
Service, Augusta Taxicab, ]oe’s Taxicab, Union Station Q
Taxi Company, Overton-Green Taxi Company, Safety Cab
Company.  
Strains/zijv Pier: Municipally owned. Fnd of Sth St. to 2
right of jeliierson Davis Memorial Bridge on Bay St. The V
City owns no boats. Only privately owned freight boats  
operate on the river. No passenger service. >
Lora! Bus .S`v1·2¤1'r¤r: Georgia Power Company operates bus I
service from Fast Boundary on Ilroad. l\’IcI{innie (13th) `
Sts. and VValton \\'ay to Forest Ilills section and .·\irport. ` 
Busses run to the Ilill via l{oIlo l< (llth) St., Gwinnett I 
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 a St., Oglethorpe Ave. and Monte Sano Ave. Another line
"‘  runs up Broad St. t0 ]ulian Smith Park, and from Broad
1*  and jackson  Sth) Sts. to Turpin Hill and return. Some
  busses on 20—minute schedule; others 10—minute. Extra
  busses at rush hours. No sight—seeing lines.
  TRAFFIC REGULATIONS:
  (21) Passing School grounds at recess or while children are
  going to or leaving school grounds ................ 15 miles {ver hour.
  (la) 100 ft. of grade crossings of steam, electric or street A
  railway lines .................................................,.. 15 miles per h0m*.
  (c) Any business district or residence district
  ............................,....................................... 20 miles per heur.
  (d) Broad St. from East Boundary to 5th St., from 13th
 il- · St. to city limits. \\”alton \\lay from 13th St. to city limits,
  4 except when traveling east from Milledge Rd. to Baker
Q  Ave. where speed limit is 20 miles per hour. Oglethorpe
 It Ave. from 15th St. to Monte Sano Ave., Tth St. from
  Greene St. to Milledgeville Rd. and Savannah Rd. Savannah
  Rd. from Twiggs St. to city limits. Milledgeville Rd. from
  ,· Twiggs St. to city limits. 15th St. from Oglethorpe Ave.
  to city limits. Milledge Rd. from Broad St. to \Valton
  . \\lay. Monte Sano Ave. from \\lalton XV ay to VVrightsboro
  V Rd. \VrightsI>oro Rd. from Monte Sano Ave. to city limits
  T .................................................................... 30 miles per hem.
X .
  (e) Turns may be made in either direction at intersections
Qt of all streets, except where traffic officer or traffic lights
   . direct otherwise. Traffic lights at all principal streets. Warn-
  ing lights at dangerous intersections. Vehicle to right has
*» right of way. Wlatch street signs for parking limitations;
—* no charge. Parking all night prohibited on all paved streets.
  Brake tests required by law.
¤ One parking lot back of Marion Building — Charge 10¢.
Q;  No parking regulations for trailers. hut traffic oHicers ask
  that they he parked parallel to curl). and that they not he
  parked on the 700, 800 and 000 hlocks of Broad St.
  [Gl
'x
:· I
-· •

 Acco11MoDAT1oNs: ;
Three tourist hotels in the Hill residential section. aggrega-  
ting 850 rooms. One apartment hotel in Hill section. One I
300—room commercial hotel and four smaller hotels in down- ‘
town section. Also one family hotel.  
R12cREAT1oN:  
(a) Golf: Municipal Golf Course, \\’heeless Road, greens ·
fee 50¢; Augusta Country Club, Milledge Rd., greens tee  
$2.00; Forest Hills Hotel, in Forest Hills, greens fee $2.00; l
Augusta National, \Vashington Road, greens fee $4.00; guests A
admitted on a member’s introductory card. t
(li) Tcmzisz Country Club, Milledge Rd., courts for use I
of members and out—of—town visitors; May Park, 3rd and y
NVatkins Sts., sl public courts; Allen Park, 15th St. and V\'al—
ton \\’ay, 0 public courts; Hickman Park, 000 block Hickman .
Rd., 1 public court; ]ulian Smith Park, west end of Broad E
St., 10 public courts; Richmond Academy Park, VValt0n .
V\7ay, public courts; U. S. Arsenal, v\Valton \Vay, 2 courts V
for sole use of persons attached to reservation and their
guests; Forest Hills Hotel and Bon Air Hotel, private courts. U
tc) Trap and xkect .v/motizzgz A privately owned field, open "
all the year. opposite Municipal Golf Course, marked Augusta "
Gun Club. ·
(ld) Studio where sporting events are held: Richmond li
Academy Stadium, \\'alton \Vay and Russell St. Municipal _
Stadium, Allen l"ark, \\'alton \Yay. i
(e) T/zmtcr District: between ith and 0th Sts. on Broad, `R
at motion picture houses, no legitimate theater. Negro motion , 
picture house 11720 ilth St. j
(f) Suj>cr2»i.red Play G7'O1HId.S`Z May Park, Fourth and {
VVatkins Sts. jennings Park, \\’rightsboro Rd. near V\7hee— l
less. Allen Fark, \Valton \Vay and ]5th St. Hickman Park, j
Hickman Rd., Meigs St. and Ansley Place. Chafee Park, Q
Sibley Mill district, Pearl Ave. These are municipally owned.   Y
(g) S1t·1`11z1111`11g {mais: in the Y.M.C.A., and the Y.\V.C..\. ·'
Municipal Beach at julian Smith Park, western extremity ·
of Broad St.
[Tl  
· A

   i
s i
in  .
  E (11) Palo: o11 Su11day afternoons ]anuary througl1 March,
2. € at Municipal Polo Field o11 VVrightsboro Rd.
  { (i) Baseball: South Atlantic League — games at Municipal
  Stadium A ril tll1`Ol1 l1 Au ust.
  P g S
  (j) Football: eacl1 Saturday October and November and
  on Thanksgiviiig Day, between Richmond Academy and visit-
  ing SCl100l5. Academy Stadium.
  (k) Riding: Cross Country Riding Club, Saturday after-
  noons, Nove111ber to May, by invitation only.
  (l) U/restliizgz Coliseum, Ellis St., \lVednesday nights. _
  SHo1>1·1NG:
  Main shopping district, Broad St. from 'Yth to 1Otl1 Sts.
  south side of tl1e street (011 north side is located tllé banking
  7_ district, a11d principal office buildings). Small exclusive
·=? {3 sl1ops operate during the winter in and 11ear tl1e resort l1otels.
  _ Several antique sl1ops 011 soutl1 side of 600 block Broad St.
  STREET ORDER AND NUBIBERINGZ
  Streets llL1llll)€l`€(l 1101'tl`l a11d south to 15th St. Originally
 ( all these streets were ll2l.lU€(l. Their 11a111es as well as the
  W . llL1llll)Cl`S are 011 sign posts. From 15th St. tl1