xt71g15tb330 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt71g15tb330/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1947-08 bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Building a Program for the One-Teacher School", vol. XV, no. 6, August 1947 text 
volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Building a Program for the One-Teacher School", vol. XV, no. 6, August 1947 1947 1947-08 2022 true xt71g15tb330 section xt71g15tb330   


0 Commonwealth of Kentucky 0





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U. of K.

Published by


Superintendent of Public Instruction





. , Entered as second-class matter March 21, 1933, at the post office at
* Frankfort, Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.

Vol. XV August, 1947 No. 6












Picture on Cover Page

‘XU dfihhfnlfibnlfhxtgradethrough1hc Mghfllaru
brought together in a “family group” To listen to a











This Bulletin deals with the organization of the one-teacher school
program. In keeping with a recent State Board of Education regula-
tion, the practice of organizing programs in the one-teacher school by
alternating the fifth and sixth grades and the seventh and eighth
grades will be discontinued altogether by the beginning of the 1948—
49 school term. This Bulletin is offered as a guide to teachers in build-
ing and organizing a better program of learning in these small schools.

Today approximately 138,000 children are saying “good morn-
ing” to 1800 bus drivers who take them to consolidated schools; yet,
approximately 100,000 Kentucky children are attending 3573 one-
teacher schools. Jonsolidation which brings about an improvement in
the learning situation is an achievement. There is value in consolida-
tion when this goal is reached, but due to road conditions and topogra-
phy of sections of Kentucky, many schools cannot be consolidated for
years. Kentucky children will continue to attend one-teacher schools
for many years to come. It is important, therefore, that the one-teacher
school which does remain be maintained at the highest level of effi-
ciency possible. This Bulletin represents one effort toward building
more effective programs in these schools.

The Bulletin was prepared under the leadership of Murray State
Teachers College, in cooperation with the State Department of Educa-
tion. It is my hope that every teacher of a one-teacher school, and
every school superintendent will read it and find it helpful.

Appreciation is expressed to the following committee which pre-
pared this Bulletin:

Dr. E. J. Carter, Chairman, Head Department of Education,
Murray State Teachers College

Miss Lottye Suiter, Training School

Miss Rubie Smith, Assistant Professor Elementary Education

Doctor Annie Ray, Training School

Miss Mattie Sue Trousdale, Training School

Mrs. Dorothy Rowlctte, Training School

Mr. Josiah Darnell, Training School

Dr. R. E. J aggers, State Department of Education

Mr. Sam Taylor, State Department of Education

Miss Louise Combs, State Department of Education.

Superintendent Public Instruction
August, 1947









I. THE SCHOOL HOIVIE AND ITS CARE ..........................................
III. READING ............................................................................................
IV. REST AND RECREATION ................................................................
V. ARITHMETIC ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
VI. THE LUNCH PROGRAM ................................................................
VII. LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE .................................................
VIII. SPELLING AND WRITING ..............................................................
IX. THE SOCIAL STUDIES ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
X. SCIENCE ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
XI. ART ________________________________________________________________________________________________________
XII, MUSIC ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
XIII, THE DAILY PROGRAIVI ____________________________________________________________________
XIV. THE SCHOOL YEAR ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,















A democracy presumably guarantees to all of its citizens equality
of opportunity, but on every hand there are glaring inequalities in
the educational opportunities of“ children. One of the greatest chal-
lenges facing Kentuckians is that of providing for children equal
01’)portunities in education. ln order to do this a great deal of atten-
tion must be given to the rural school and its program. The small
rural school is one of the early landmarks of public education. Today,
more than ever, it is a challenge to the teacher to make it an attrac—
tive place where children can grow physically, mentally, socially, and
spiritually. Equally important is the challenge to make it a community
center where all the people can grow.

The organization plan and teaching techniques described in this
bulletin were developed as a result of certain beliefs about children,
how they live, behave, grow, and learn. Children learn in the same
way regardless of the size of the school they attend. They are full of
energy; they want to work with their hands; they like to explore, to
experiment, to express their thoughts and feelings; and they like to
plan and to share with others. They learn from their entire surround-
ing. The woods, the fields, the streams, and the sky furnish rich teach—
ing materials. Learning comes more easily when there is a. measure of
success and when the teacher is sympathetic and understanding.
(.‘hildren learn by doing. Children learn by repetition and by prac~
Tire. They learn to cheat by cheating, to love by loving, to hate by
hating, to destroy by (lOStl’irfi'lllg, and to think by thinking. Many
learnings come through unconscious imitation. The child speaks the
language of the community, and he adopts the attitudes of his parents.

The small rural school plays an important part in the educational
experience of many boys and girls. It was the desire of the committee
that the following bulletin would help teachers develop in these
SChools the kind of program which would meet the needs of the chil-
dren and the community and make for abundant living.




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Madge Evans sat in the back of her small schoolroom and sur-
veyed it with evident satisfaction. The softly tinted walls, clean muslin
curtains, attractive bulletin board, and the library corner with its low
shelves of brightly colored books helped to make this a place where
children were living and working together happily.

Miss Evans had just finished making the first monthly report of
her fourth year at Caney Bend and was pleased with the good attend-
ance. She recalled that it had become increasingly better each year.
Her thoughts wandered back to that August morning when, as a
beginning teacher, she had seen this room for the first time. A sense of
depression had weighed down upon her as bare walls, soiled floors,
and begrimed windows stared uninvitingly at her and she had wanted
to run away. How glad she was that she had not obeyed that first
impulse! No, she had resolved then to try out some of those theories
she had been absorbing with such enthusiasm only a few weeks ago in
Teachers’ College. She would not try to do everything herself nor,
would she attempt everything at once.

Madge knew that her first problem was to lead the children to
see their needs and then to guide them in improving their surround-
ings. That night she tossed and turned in troubled dreams, subcon-
sciously seeking a solution to her problem. The next morning as she
walked to school with Jack and Judy they talked about the lovely
things they saw along the way and of how clean and fresh last night’s
shower had made the grass and trees.

”I like pretty clean things,” said Miss Evans.

“So do I,” said Judy.

“Wouldn’t it be nice if we could stay outside today?” Jack
thought aloud.

”Yes,” answered Miss Evans, “but I wonder if we could bring
something like the beautiful outside into our schoolroom.”

“We could at least make it clean and bring some flowers in,”
suggested Judy.

. ”That is a fine idea,” said Miss Evans, thrilled at the possibili-
ties Judy’s remark held.

At the opening time that morning Miss Evans told the other boys
and girls about her conversation with Jack and Judy. They had not
been accustomed to talking things over with the teacher; so, they
ell‘tei'ed into the discussion rather timidly. Encouraged by a pleasant

smile and appreciation of their ideas, they were soon expressing them-
selves more freely.



















The outcome was that the next day several of the children ap- cc

peared with rags, buckets, and soap. The transformation they 8110- u]
ceeded in making was very gratifying to Miss Evans. The results were d(
so pleasing to the children themselves that they began talking pos-
sessively about “our room” and voluntarily assuming the housekeep-
ing duties necessary to keep things clean and orderly, and attractive.

Children are happy in accepting responsibility for the care of the to
school home.

As Miss Evans now thought back over that first year she recalled (hm
that, while progress was made, everything didn’t work as smoothly we
as she had hoped. Sometimes there was a bit of friction about who me
would do the most desirable tasks, and frequently Ted complained
that Tommy wouldn’t do his part. The children often had to be re— 5 int
minded of their duties and sometimes there was too much confusion. 001
These were problems that caused her much concern. How could she f01
bring about a keener sense of responsibility and group cooperation“? n10

During the following summer, Miss Evans read an account of see
how one teacher had succeeded in getting the children to form a club lib:
and organize into committees for sharing the housekeeping tasks and ‘ Cal
checking the quality of work done. When a similar plan was pre- ute
sented to the Caney Bend children the following autumn, they ac— g'ir



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ecptcd it readily. They named their club the “Happy \Vorkers” and,
under the guidance of their teacher; listed some things that should be
done by the group as:

Keep the floor clean

Keep blackboard and erasers clean

Dust furniture, window ledges, and woodwork
Arrange and water flowers and plants

Empty wastebaskct and burn trash

Keep the fire goingr (when needed)

Keep the toilets clean

Keep paper picked up from grounds.

Madge remembered that. as improvements had been made other
committees had been added to take care of the library and lunch.

This plan was a great improvement over the disorganized pro-
cedure of the previous year but Miss Evans had to lead the children
into constructive criticism of the work done. It, was a slow process.
Even that second year she was still reminding some of? the children
that they had forgotten to do their part.

“Perhaps,” she thought, “children really do forget easily,” so
she had made a work chart and placed it where each child could see
and be reminded of his assignment.

Each new task presented a new learning situation. The relation-
ship between clean windows, more light, and relieved eyestrain was
clearly evident. The knowledge that danger from germs lurks in dusty
floors and insanitary toilets resulted in decisions to keep these places
well swept. and scrubbed frequently with soap and water. Information
about how colds and communicable diseases may be carried from hand
to mouth motivated the scrubbings ot' desks and doors.

As the year passed, Madge was gratified to observe that the chil-

dren seemed increasingly able to practice inner control, that they
Were improving in work habits and attitudes, and that there existed a
more wholesome relationship among the groups.
. By the third year, the connnunity was sharing the children’s
Interest in making the school plant a center for enriched living. A
community club of patrons, interested citizens, and children had been
formed and was meetng regularly and planning improvements. With
money netted from pie suppers they had painted the walls, turned a
Section of the blackboard into a bulletin board, made shelves for a
llbl'al‘y corner, and arranged a place for wraps. They had built corner
Cabinets~one where cleaning supplies were kept and others for
“FQHSHS used in preparing a hot lunch. Mothers had assisted the older
girls in selecting materials and making the window curtains.









The grounds had been cleaned) gravel paths made, and the few
simple plantings from rooted cuttings the children brought from home

were beginning to beautify the .lamlst‘alw.

Last year a sandbox for the little lots had been placed outside,
see—saws and swings had been made, and balls and bats purchased.

Already plans were underway for this year. Movable furniture
would be added; lattices would screen the toilets; some small shrubs
and evergreens would be transferred to the schoolground from the
nearby woods; and a few additional pieces of playground equipment
would be built. It looked as it this were going to be the best year yet.

Madge glanced at her watch and closed her register. She straight—
ened her desk. Judy ’s blue bowl of marigolds sent her thoughts hurry—
ing again to that first August morning three years ago! How Judy
had developed!

“No, it hasn’t been smooth, easy sailing all the way,” mused
Madge, “but it has meant growth for the children, for me, and for

the community.”

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Angelo Patri said : “All, people have within them a religious
feeling, a reverence for the things that are not seen, a devotion to the
Power that has created this earth and all that dwell therein. . . .

“Children need to know the comfort and joy of religious feeling,
need to be taught the good way of life, and too often they are deprived
of that teaching because of their neglect.”

The teacher of children continually should be seeking: to bring
boys and girls into a satisfying relationship with God; to instill a
spirit of reverence; to foster a feeling of gratitude and love; to convey
the idea of clean living and good citizenship.

A teacher should plan her program with the knowledge that all
ehildren have a natural religious tendency and that they need to know
God as naturally and as gradually as they come to know their mother.
’l‘hroughout the day teacher and children live together in an atmos-
phere of freedom, 01" friendliness, of kindness, of unselfishness and of
thoughtfulness to others. To get the day going right or to create the
atmosphere for happy living together a brief but lovely devotion may
be given by the teacher or by one of the children.

This is no new thing. Ever since there have been schools and
teachers there have been devotions of some type. Today there comes
a challenge to all teachers to improve the daily devotions so that they
may be rich in meaning. The following suggestions may prove to be
useful :

The teacher may tell a Bible story in the very best way she can.
Story—telling is coming into its own again, but it is not until we know a
story thoroughly and feel it deeply that we are best able to interpret
it. The choice of a story is very important. There are some stories for
children in the Bible which are more interesting than others and the
teacher should use judgment in making the selection. After the story
has been chosen, the teacher should learn it so well that there is no
faltering or stumbling over words when it is told to the children. It is
best to form a circle of chairs so that the story-teller can see the face
of every child in her audience. If this arrangement is impossible the
children may sit in. their seats or in a circle on the floor.

After the story, the Lord’s Prayer may he prayed in unison, a.
"““llllls' prayer may he sung or the children may compose their own

prayers. The following are examples of prayers WhiCh children enjoy
learning and praying:







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“Dear Father in heaven,
Our thanks now we bring
For food and clothing
And every good thing;
Oh, give of Thy blessings
To all who have need
And teach us to love Thee
In word and in deed.”—-Amen

“Father, we thank Thee for the night,
And for the pleasant morning light,
For rest and food and loving care,
And all that makes the world so fair.

“Help us to do the things we should,

To be to others kind and good;

In all we do in work or play

To grow more loving every day.”—-Amen

It is not practical or desirable that all the Bible stories or Bible
thoughts be told in story form. Some of them may be read quite as
effectively because they have such beauty of language. The main point
to remember is to read so well and so naturally that the reader and
the listeners forget all else.

All the Pslams are lovely, but some are more appropriate for
children than others. The following ones are beautiful in thought,
easy to read, and easy to learn through choral work: Psalms 1, 15,
23, 24, 46, 47, 67, 98, 100, 117, 156.

As was first stated, not all the devotions need to be or should be
led by the teacher. Children should be allowed and encouraged to lead
devotional exercises. Better programs will result if they are planned
and discussed by the group before permitting the children to assume
full responsibility for their production. They may tell or read the
stories, lead in prayer, participate in a series of sentence prayers, 01'
be responsible for planning, rehearsing and rendering special musical

To add zest and variety the teacher and children may give Bible
quotations or riddles based on the Bible. Roll call may be answered
with names from the Bible or with portions read from such books as:
Nathan, by Amy Norris Lillie; Beggar Boy of Galilee, by Josephine
11H“ : .Irss'iva’x First Prayer, by llesba Stretton.

Perhaps some days there can be short talks or discussions on such
subjects as “\Vhy “'e “'orship God,” “The Jewish \Vay,” “The
Catholic \Vay,” “Jesus and His Followers.” From such topics chil-
dren can gain a better understanding of the religious feelings and
customs of others and a tenderness toward their neighbors of whatever

There can be discussions too. on such subjects as “We, Need
Kindness," “How to Make Friends,” “\Vays of Showing- Thought-







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fulness.” Thanksgiving, Christmas, Easter, Independence Day,
and the birthdays of such persons as Washington and Lincoln offer
excellent opportunities for worthwhile devotions.

Packing Red Cross boxes, arranging baskets of flowers or fruits
to be used as gifts to ill or needy persons may truly be a religious

Although the beginning of the day is usually set aside for devo—
tions, there may be times when the service may come at noon with the
blessing for the food, or in the middle of the afternoon when the group
goes to a hillside to study the flowers or to see and hear birds. We have
an opportunity for religious experiences whenever there is an inner
feeling which seeks an outlet through expressions of thankfulness,
reverence, or joyful sharing of emotional beauty.

The devotions period is one of the best opportunities the teacher
has to train children to live together in a happy group. It may become
the foundation of a good program in character education. The excel-
lent teacher recognizes this and gives to the children the best effort of
which she is capable.

Books You Will Find To Be Helpful

The King James and Revised Standard Versions of The Holy

Snyder, Harvey A. Boys and Girls of the Bible
Fitch, Florence Mary. One God, and the Ways We W (”ship Him
Hurlburt, Jesse Lyman. Life of Christ for Young and Old.







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Among the problems which confront any teacher when organizing
her reading program are how to group the children, how to provide
worth while learning experiences during independent reading periods,
and how to select materials and activities which lend themselves to
pupil growth in all the areas of reading.

No single method has been proved best for teaching reading.
There may be several ways which are equally good.

The Lower Elementary Groups

Perhaps the most difficult problem facing the inexperienced
teacher is 110w to begin with the children who have entered school for
the first time. It seems that a good procedure would be to spend a
week or two getting acquainted with these six-year-olds. She may tell
stories and lead them to tell stories to her. She may play games with
them, and draw them into conversation about their pets, the baby at
home, pictures, and brightly colored story-books. She will observe
them with the purpose of discovering their interests and abilities. Even
though she has no reading readiness tests, she will soon discover a
wide range of interests and abilities. Some appear eager and alert,
anxious to find for themselves what the story is about, while the atti—
tude of others may vary from mild interest to complete indifference.

By the close of the first or second week of school, the teacher will
probably have noted that the children fall naturally into two or more
groups. Those who are ready to read will form a group which may be-
gin learning through experienee charts or pre-primers. The beginning
teacher, in particular, should be guided by suggestiOns for daily pro-
cedure which the manual for the basal text provides.

Another great difficulty is that of finding helpful iii-between-
class activities for these beginners. If possible they should be seated
comfortably at tables and given some choice of materials with which
to work and play. These may consist of large sheets of newsprint 01'
wrapping paper, crayons, magazines, paste, large puzzles, number
games, picture-books, scissors, and clay. Scrap-books of pictures of
their pets, cats, dogs, and of babies may be made.

It will be necessary at the outset for these small children to under-
stand that they must walk and talk quietly in order not to disturb the
work of others. The teacher will give them suggestions but allow them
freedom to work out their own ideas in creative expression. An oppor-
tunity will be given at some time during the day for sharing and
evaluating results.





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A second group may be composed of those beginners who have
shown little or no desire to road. The teacher will seek to find reasons
for this lack of readiness. Are there apparent physical defects such as
faulty vision, which may be remedied? Are some of these children
unduly shy? Are there evidences of poor auditory discrimination? Are
others physically or mentally immature? Or does it seem that they
appear deficient because of poverty or lack of good background?

Whatever the difficulties, the teacher will begin a remedial pro-
gram, an important phase of which will be enrichment of experiences
which may include activities such as:

Listening to stories and answering questions about them

Learning Mother Goose and other rhymes

Talking about pictures of children and animals which show

Dramatizing simple stories

Playing games and learning songs

Naming all the objects in view

Drawing free-hand and coloring

Examining picture books

Constructing simple objects

Carrying out oral directions

Tracing or counting from left to right

. Talking about group experiences which may lead to the mak-

ing of first experience charts.

Other children belonging in the primary grades may be divided
into ability groups. Some should read with more than one section or
move from group to group as the need is indicated for drill in phonics
and word study or other skills.

This group may work independently on scrapbooks with materials
relating to loeal resources, foods, community helpers, activities of their
fathers and mothers, or any subject of interest integrating with their
social studies. They will enjoy illustrating stories.

Workbooks which are written to supplement the text can provide
educative in-between-class activities if directions are understood be-
fore the child is left to work unsupervised and if provision is made
for frequent checking.

The library table should contain books which are interesting and
sufficiently easy to be read just for fun by these children.

The Upper Elementary Groups

Grouping for reading in the upper grades will differ from their
Ql'Onpmg for the social studies where several or all grades share in














work on a 00111111011 problem. Not all ehildren ol’ this stage 01? their
development have 111astiered the skills requirml for reading with
fluency and understanding. Many, perhaps, will continue to need
drill in the 111ccl1anies of reading. The flexibility that exists in a one-
1'00111 school where all children are under the supervision of the same,
teacher makes it relatively easy For a pupil to move from one group
level to another in order to meet his speeil’ie needs.

Many reading speeialists think it highly desirable to keep children
in the same age—level groups and to take eare of individual differences
within the group. A block of the daily schedule is given over to read-
ing, at which time the teaeher takes care ot‘ three or more classes
through daily alternating a library group, written assignn’1e11t‘s, and

the class whieh she teaches.

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Older children often can read independently while the teacher works
with another group

Those children who have accepted a written assignment under—
stand what they are to do so that. they can work alone, The lesson
should have a definite purpose such as: to increase ability to organize
111aterials; to select the main ideas in paragraphs, or in a, complete
selection; to become efficient in the use of the dictionary; to develOp
judgment. and draw eonelnsions; to deepen comprehension; to develop
better methods of word attack; and to enrieh the voeahnlary.




 then. The good teacher will not employ a. child’s time by having:r him

With copy paragraphs from a text just to keep him occupied, but will make
need exercises purposeful with given objectives in mind. A few illustrative
one— (‘xamples follow:
1mm 1. For developing ability to organize materials
l. \Vritiug the main idea, expressed in the story as a whole,

.dren or as expressed in each of several paragraphs
ences 2. \Vriting new titles for a selection
read- 3. Dividing a story into parts and writing a, title for each
asses part

and -t. Arranging, in proper sequence, the main ideas in a. com-

plete selection
5. \Vritinw a summarizing niran'ra )h
b . z-i
(5. Making a simple outline.
ll. Using a dictionary efficiently
b . 1

l. Looking up unfamiliar words

2. Using word lists included in texts

3. Finding a word in the story that means, eg. very old

-l. Arranging word lists in alphabetical order

a. Filling blanks with the correct words
6'. Making- original sentences with new words.
lll. Developing judgment and drawing conclusions
l. Answering how and why questions
a. Making comparison of characters
3. \Vriting a different ending after changing certain con—
-l. “\Vhat: would you have done” questions
0. Which character is most likely to succeed? \Vliy?

l\'. Increasing comprehension


l. Answering thought and factual questions


orks i 2. ("ompleting sentences
1‘ 3. Making questions
mdel‘- ‘ ~l. lleading related materials
]ess011 ‘ 5. Following directions of increasing difficulty
galliZC l3. Summarizing the, story:
nplete t V. Increasing ability to attack new words and strengthen
evelOP voc, abul a r y
GYelOll } l. Making new words by adding prefixes and suffixes

2. il’lakiug compound words






3. Dividing into syllables
4. Finding the little word in the large one
5. Using a word in several ways as—

He fell down the bank.
I keep my money in a bank.
We bank our fire at night.
6. Making lists of words that are opposite or similar in

The teacher’s ingenuity and her knowledge of the pupils will
enable her to give the reading program variety when pupils are al~
lowed to listen to someone read a poem or story he has found enjoy-
able, or when they decide to get into small groups and read to each
other out under the trees while older boys and girls share the respon-
sibility of helping the younger children.


Valuable materials which are inexpensive include:

My Weekly Reader. 25 cents a subscription per semester. Pub-
lished by American Education Press, Inc, 400 S. Front St, Columbus
15, Ohio. (All grades.)

Hcetograph Primary Sealwork. Published by the Hamilton
Publishing Company, Platteville, \Visconsin. 24 Master copies can be
made from each book, priced 60 cents, plus postage. Topics listed
include Food, Clothing, Indians, Pioneers, Transportation, Pre-
primer, Story Reader I and others.

Unit Study Books. Published by American Education Press,
1110., 400 S. Front St, Columbus 15, Ohio.

Pages from old readers may be cut up for matching descriptive
sentences with pictures.



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Rest and'recreation are as vital a part of the school program as
is work. A tired child can do little effective work. Relaxation is
necessary if one expects to have good health. In a period of rest the
child secures an emotional release and rids himself of tensions, both
physical. and emotional. lradually he learns to relax, thus acquir—
ing a very desirable habit, particularly important in this modern

That is what Mary Brown, who has taught several years in a
one—teacher school, learned in one of her summer school courses at
college. Miss Brown is an alert person and is now considered an un-
usually good teacher, but it took her a long time to learn that children
need carefully planned rest and play periods. In her earlier teaching
experience she had provided no period of real. relaxation for the chil-
dren during the school day. She had simply turned them loose at the
noon hour and at recesses to run, jump, wrestle, or play in any way
they saw fit. At times she had been with them on the playground, but
at other times it seemed to be necessary for her to get ready for the
work that was to follow the play period. Sometimes when she was
not with them there were quarrels and fights. Constantly there were
children coming into “tell on” others. Occasionally there was an