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V  Circular 423 A
 VA UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY
_  College of Agriculture and Home Economics
V Agricultural Extension Division
 '· Thomas P. Cooper, Dean and Director ”
‘ I

  
 IZ
REQUIREMENTS Q  4-I`
l. Rural boys and girls between the ages of IO and 18 may en-  
roll in this project.  ’i
2. Enrollment may take place at any time recommended by the   The
p county agent. X  well—eqi
Q 3. Each member or group of members should ask the leader for  j mchmjs
i suggestions with regard to buying tools and materials, organizing il  {jon, Ca
the work, and setting up the workshop. '  hnishihi
4. Each member must finish at least six articles, following in-   made jj
structions contained in this circular. The articles to be made should Z {Ouhd C
be selected by the club member and project leader and approved E give Ch
by the county agent. ;  doing t
5. Each member will keep a record of the materials used and   the hon
their cost, and the time required to make each article. S 
6. Each member should exhibit the Finished articles at a fair or  
show.  =
7. To get the greatest amount of development from 4-H Club   j_ R
i work, a member should attend all meetings of his club and take F  on Pagc
part in its activities. i Q_ B
e  of mate
ORGANIZATION g  and HK
  Althoug
Before beginning this project, _a "project group" should be or- [  Pcctedj
ganized. Iiive or more boys who are ready to start may form the project. ·  deajen
group. They should elect one boy as captain and then lind some older   get reg,
person for their project leader. This leader should agree to help thc   of the Z
individual members with their problems such as getting tools, work- T  g_ A
ing space, and materials, and give advice about the work. The group ii  thinkin
should decide on the articles to be made, and all should work on the *; 4_ L
same kind of article at the same time, if possible. The leader should i Space 3
approve each article as completed before the member is permitted   work n
to start work on the next article. -Space for leader's approval is pm-   Shop W
vided in the record in this circular, page l9. \Vorking in a group E,  mjhng
makes this project more interesting. The project captain will report K SUCCESS
progress of the group at regular club meetings, when asked to do S0  
by the leader. Y 
r {  Ever
T/1i.r circular is ii revision of V  \>CStm€I
Circular 325  
~ 

   4-H Woodworking Project, Unit I
  BY ]. B. Bnooxs Ann E. R. Younc
  The purpose of this project is to encourage club members to have
.  well-equipped farm shops in order that they may learn the funda»
 “ mentals of woodworking, the identification of native woods, the selec-
  tion, care and use of tools, the reading of plans, and the painting or _
  Hnishing of woodwork. Articles have been selected which may be _  
\  made with the limited materials, tools, and equipment commonly  
  found on the farm. Knowledge gained by mastering this project will  
 ¢ give club members more self-reliance and ability in planning and  
A  doing the more difficult jobs of repair and improvement needed in .
 _— the home and on the farm.
  SUGGESTIONS
  l. Read carefully the requirements and organization suggestions
 Q on page 2 of this circular before enrolling in this project.
 ;_ 2. Before beginning work on an article, study the drawings, list
 _ of materials, and directions. The drawings give dimensions, details,
E  and method of putting the parts together into a Finished article. L A
  Although the materials needed are given in exact sizes, it is not ex- l
 i~ pected that the pieces will be purchased in these sizes from a lumbei
  dealer. When selecting materials from which to make these articles. j
Q  get regular stock sizes of such lengths and widths that various parts  
  of the article may be cut out with the least waste of material.  
  3. Accuracy, economy of time, neatness, mechanical skill, and clear  
T  thinking are some of the things to strive for in this project.
  4. Upon completing work for the day, clean the shop or work
  space and put all tools away. Club members will find it pleasant to
E  work in a well-kept shop. The old saying,"Keep your shop and your -
Y  shop will keep you," is a good motto for every club member en-
.  rolling in this project. An orderly work space also leads to greater
  success in reaching the aim and purpose of this project.
<  THE WORK SPACE
  Even though a well-equipped farm shop is a very profitable in-
_  vestment, it is not necessary to have a separate building for a shop in
a  [gl

 4 Exrizxsioiv Cmcur.AR 423  
order to do the work required in this project. Working space may be  
found in a school building, basement of the house, or in one corner   Clul
of a machinery shed, tobacco barn, tobacco stripping shed, or other   hOW tO
outbuilding. Any well-lighted, well-ventilated room having enough   with cl<
- floor area for a bench and work space may be used. Provision should   TOO
  be made for heating the work space, as most of the work on this project YE  b€f1Ch.
I may be done during cold or rainy weather. The brick brooder stove   of the ‘
illustrated in Kentucky Extension Leaflet 44 might be used for this   painted
purpose. `ffe  SIQHCC ‘
if  easily ie
WOODWORKING TOOLS jj  .e,, jj
Which Tools to Get    
Club members will not necessarily have to buy a large number ol    
tools in order to enroll in this project, lor some may be already avail-    
able on the farm. Those that are out of order should be repaired and    
sharpened (see the section on care and repair ol tools o11 page 5). li?   
Il tools must be bought, choose well·known makes, of good quality and    
proper size to use for general repair work on the [arm. Tools made it   
from good materials last longer and are easier to keep in good C0ll·    
dition. If you don’t have the money to buy all thetools you want,   T Y 
buy those you need most. Then buy more after you have more eXp€T·    cf 
ience and undertake more diilicult jobs. I:   
The tools shown in Fig. 1 will be needed in making the articles i»‘_   
described in this circular. They may be placed on a rack as sh0WH   .
in Fig. l. F.
The following is a list of tools which are desirable and should all bencIi?.€
be added to the shop as funds permit. {  bhrk P;
ii 2-3-4
l~l" compass saw Countersink _ 
26" rip saw, 5% point Nail sets   8-9-l~
Back saw for miter box 6" combination pliers . 
Coping saw with metal handle l2" half-round wood rusp   ll-
10" drawknife _ l2" round wood rasp V   l2·
Hand-axe l0" Hat file   i3'
Spoke—shave S" triangular file ’
Sliding T bevel 6" slim tapered triangular lile .` All
8" dividers Oil-stone, 1" x 2" x 7” ol oil t
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-j,      Q       yp — s ’ 2   .~;. 
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   °{?f  °M*’Yi i»—` *     t I  
  . " .~ ' .    
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~   { t . . • __ . :
i Fig. `l.—- Tools needed in Unit 'I, each in its proper place buck of the work I
"'  bench, except the sow which has been token down. Its place is shown with the
  block paint. The tools pictured, and their numbers on the rock ore--
  I. IO" ratchet brace I-4. I Ib. claw hammer
T; 2-3-4-5-6-7, auger bits, IA", %", I5. 6" try square
{      %", t" te. tt" jack ptane liIlcll('§I(l tvootl st‘r<·ws
  SAWHORSE
dj At least two sawhorscs are required in the shop. The sawhorsc
should be made of material surlaced on all sides and edges. Before
  starting to lay out the material, make a careful study of the drawing
*· to determine angle cuts. After sawing and chiseling out slots "A"
in the beam, hold the legs against the beam in the slots and mark the
1 cuts "B" with a straightedge laid on top of the beam. After the
» legs are cut, screw them to the beam holding them at the correct
  Slant. Then mark and cut the four M4" x 5%" x I2" braces "C."

 H l·Lx‘ri·.ssiox (iimttimn 423  
The sawhorse should be fastened together with wood screws. lt is not  
necessary to use paint or other finish on the sawhorse.   _
-‘ so
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Fig. 3.— Suwhorse _. l i RT,
·· . .   Q ~¤ §
MA·rmzun.s lsmznm ron smvnonss   Q U Q
i \ Q
l pc. l%" x 5%" x 42" for bea1n   g` · A
4 pcs. 1%" x 3%” x 201>\v<>mux¢> Prm_y1;(;·1·_ UNH- [ 9
  1¤ ¥ xm.
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  Fig. 4.-Homemade jig saw

  .
l0 Exrrzwsiou Cmcomiz 423 .1;/ 
The jig saw may be clamped to a standard made for the purpose   Whei
as shown in Fig. 5 or it may be screwed or clamped to any suitable ji  bers can
bench, box, or post in a convenient location. The stirrup rope should   can ther
be adjusted so that when the upper saw arm is pulled completely   ~ If a
down to the saw table, the stirrup block just touches the floor.   mountec
g   treadle.
. i jay.;-.? ___» ._ V » A · fg l pc. é
`   r’s  ‘°¤ · ~ -- t l t ’ ’   I PC- f
l»»e·       .   1 pc- I
- . rf  V V ~   ~   ,··_ • K - _   1 PC. 5
il   . ,s \ i ~ . if; I PC- {
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Fig. 5.- Operating the homemade jig saw  
. . .. . l
When starting to make a cut with the jig saw, adjust the hold- _.
down for the particular thickness of stock. To set the hold-down, _(
loosen the C clamp enough so that the hold-down arm can be pushed j
up slightly. Place the piece of wood to be sawed near the blade and ·»
lower the hold-down until it nearly touches the piece of wood. 1
Tighten the C clamp and the wood being cut will then be held on  
the table and not permitted to move up and down with the blade.  
1
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. Y 42 \y PLE ¢ 1 pc.
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ga 4 .· I Q gg   of lath
lj" é lg     gy, ;  fj older cl
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$1;.     l`€(`Ol”l
V Fig. 9.- Tool, noil, ond bolt box  
MILKING STOOLS  
liithcn one ol the two milking stools shown in Fig. ll) may bv  
lmilt. lt should be made lrom hard wood, such as oak, hickory, Ol` _  
gum. ln making the hole in the seat for the one-legged stool, borc `§  
mu us much ol the hole us possible with a 2/1" bit, then complete the _ ga,
operation with :1 chisel. Use 21 l" bit in making the holes for the " I 4
three-legged stool. Block A is temporarily nailed on the under side   E
. /a\ ,’;_ (j§7”
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I  III   `   M/I I .1 dol
  Ala Q I   . {ll Hm; my  
\/ /l/arf/56 L ll Nw 5 ;
Fig. 10- One- ond three-legged milking stools  
l

   IH Woonwomuxt; l)I(()]I-Y(1`l`. [INIT I I5
  of the seat to guide the bit. The ends of the legs that go through the
` seat should be sawed off flush after legs are nailed. Finish the stool
‘ with two coats of paint.
  NIATERIALS NEEDED ron Miutmc Sroor V
i4 A One-legged stool Three-legged stool
  I pc. l%" x 5%/ x lO" for seat I pc. l%" x 9" x lO" for seat
  I pc. l" x 3%" x IO" for leg 3 pcs. MQ" x UA" x l0%" for legs
in 2, 8d finishing nails 3, Sd 'Enishing nails
`A.i CHICK FEED HOPPERS
ig; Two types of chick feed hoppers are shown. The hopper built
  of lath strips can be used for chicks up to three weeks of age. For
  older chicks, the hopper built of ZA" or l" material is recommended.
»Z_ No finish is needed for the feeder made of lath, while a paint Hnish
;,Q is recommended for the larger feeder so it will be easier to clean.
lL l ,··
if _ Q   5  
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.1 Fig. 'I'I.—— Chick feed hoppers ‘ p
i MA'l`ERII\LS N1;t·.1>1·,n I·(>I{ Cuitik l·`1·11;1>I.ks
Q Lath feeder Board feeder
  4 laths %" x l%" x ~18" 2 pcs. %" x 5%" x 6" ends
l 4 doz. 3d lath nails I pc. M" x SI2" x 4S" bottom
l 2 pcs. %" x IM" x 48" sides
  1 pc. l%" x MQ" x 47%/Q" reel
i 4 doz. Gd finishing nails
Q

 IG EX'I`l·`\FI()N (lmrzuii.-xu 423  
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  ` ,__ 3:*   6 pcs.
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Fig. 12.- Bird house   4 Z
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   ri-H \V0()D\\`()RKlN(} l'iu>_]i·<;i. llxii l I7
2 BIRD HOUSE
  (For the Purple Martin)
  Since purple martins nest together in large numbers, a house of
  several rooms should be provided for them. The house shown on
1 page 16 has six rooms each 6" square, 6" high inside, with a 2M2"
  diameter entrance 1" above the floor. More rooms may be added if
  desired. Fasten the house to a pole at least 15 feet above the ground  
  using screws through the back. The front should bc fastened with T
3 screws to facilitate cleaning. Brown shades of paint should be used g
;j{ in finishing the house.
  MATERIALS NEEDED Eoiz BIRD HoUsE _
  2 pcs. M" x GM" x 40" sides 12, EZ" x %" x M1" corner irons
  1 pc. M" x 7%" x 43" front 1/{ lb. 6d box nails .
  l pc. M" x 6" x 43" back Li lb. 4d lath nails
  7 pcs. %" x 6" x 6" floors #1 doz. %”, No. 4 iiat—hcad wood
  1 pc. M" x 5M" x ll" roof screws
  l pc. %" x 6%/’ x 11" roof l doz. l%", No. 6 flat—head wood
  1 pc. 3" x 12" roohng paper screws
  6 pcs. %/’ x S" x 6" perches El, 2", No. 10 flat—head wood screws
  B00i< mus .
  Book ends may be made of oak, walnut, cherry, or other hard
  wood if a natural finish is desired. Soft wood mai be used if the
  >
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l CLOTH s   §{“
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  Fig. `l3.— Book ends _
5
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 18 Exwxaxsron ClR(Zlll..~\l( 423  
book ends are to be given a paint or enamel Hnish. When rounding  
the corners of the pieces, for book ends, plane or saw in the direction   '¢ L F.
shown by arrows A and B in Fig. 13 to prevent chipping the edges. ` mate
Alter all parts are assembled, sandpaper the book ends until they » J Engl]
are smooth, then paint, stain or Hnish them as desired.   L°""
I MATERIALS NEEDED ron Book ENDS  
i 2 pcs. %" x 5%;"   5%" for C 2 pcs. 4” x 5%/’ heavy sheet metal [ 4 
2 pcs. IA" x ERL/fi" x 41 V2 " for 1) 2 pcs. 4” x 5%/ felt or heavy cloth   _
2 pcs. %" x %" x 4" for E -i, %" No. 7 llat—head wood screws llmdc ‘‘‘‘·
1 doz. 1", No. I6 brads ·`lH0urs reqi
FLOWER BOX ’ imc  
The flower box should be made of decay-resistant wood such as __lqOm_s 1
cypress. However, if it is painted and protected during the winter,   _
it may be built of any wood available. Mlhen assembling the parts, "jlfotal hou
the Joints should be painted to make them water-tight and to prevent  
their rotting. The sides should be securely fastened with wood screws Qjfwroved
to prevent warping of the boards. Sandpaper the entire box and Y`?
apply two coats of paint.  
Qilrticle ......
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Fig. `l4.—— Flower box   I"'
·" Tours  
l\lA'lklLl.»\LS NEEDED 1-on FI.()WlZl( Box _
l >c. yi" x 7{/ig" x 285/g" bottom 2 ics. 1y;g" x %" x 9" molding im _
l _ l _ nl hours
2 pcs. M" x Tl/Q" x TSO" sides 2 pcs. M" X %" X 31%_»" moldm: li
2 pts. ini" x T?/Q" x Tl./Q" ends 2 doz. l%", No. 10 wood SCl`€\V$ vppiot-Cd _
2 doz. 6d finishing nails  
i
1
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   4-H ‘VOOD\\I0RKIN(·& I’Ro_ync1; IINIT I lil
:I* REFERENCE MATERIAL FOR LEADERS
, I For a list of books, magazines, and other publications valuable as reference
  materials for leaders of the woodworking project, write to the Agricultural
[ Engineering Division of the College ol ,·\gritIulture and Home Economics,
I   Lexington. ‘
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