xt71ns0ktv25 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt71ns0ktv25/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1946 journals kaes_circulars_004_420 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 420 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 420 1946 2014 true xt71ns0ktv25 section xt71ns0ktv25 · A i
A  cm Circular  
¤/{   ‘ 420 i
i i   \ 2
`. w in 
A ` ¤,lii'i*5Fllii?ui  li ~i i
“  li  ll|l» A
  ]lllli‘l l‘li}l,l ` l
, g M   i.   iris! ii ____
A   gilt i W  ; 1
it  ` ·.·  i   ,©_ P   · 1
r  D D 4 _ i~    l T;<~flik · f;»,_7;°`A· .
i QXQ      * /
i  · r ·*i>J         Will  
- ill ii ,/ _§` ‘ ·‘;¥»f  
  **2 ew- r -   tx  
jig; D UNIVERSITY or KENTUCKY
 €;¤’;; College of Agriculture and Home Economics
#6,46   Agricultural Extension Division
‘ Thomas P. Cooper, Dean and Director

 General Rules for the Beginner .
Start with et good heifer ol a dairy breed.
Make friends with your call. Do not teach it to butt or kick. l
Put a halter on your calf the first week and keep it on. Lead j EX
{ it by the halter every day. ._ heit
A Brush your calf and keep it clean. Keep the stall clean, dry, and ‘ mel
wen bedded. i Call
Clean the n1ilk—feeding bucket after each feeding. Clean the ,  :2;
grain bucket or box once or twice each week. ‘y
Always feed your calf warm milk. Never feed it cool or cold
milk.  
Begin feeding hay when the calf is 2 weeks old. 1 _
Begin feeding grain when the calf is 3 weeks old. y yl
Keep drinking water and coarse salt in the stall all the t.ime. i  
(Live your call plenty ol` exercise. 1 pu
l)ou't turn your young calf out to pasture during cold, wet _ tht
weather. Keep her in her stall.   ing
U l)ou't let your call run with the cows or work stock. 3'E
~ Neyer let your calf suck other heifers, and never let other calves C aw
suck your heifer. l
lieep a record of feed and other expenses, and of the number of K;
hours worked in this project. · lc;
.\ttend and take part in club meetings, dairy meetings, and l
shows. -
or
let
pf
cormanrs gh
l`Bg€ ' (H
Get Stall and Equ•p¤¤e—·1t Feady ........................... L5 . it
Selecting e Heifer .............................,... . .... 4 i nl
Care of Calf until 6 Months f`*l··1 ........................... 5 _ Q;
Care of Heifer 6 to 12 Months Old .......... . .....,....... 9  
Care of Heifer from 12 Months until Calving ................ 13 P
Care of Cow and Calf .................................... 18 Sl
Feeding for Milk Production .... . .....,................... 20  
H

 i j ` M
l
  Dairy Projects for 4-H Club Members
A  By G. ]. Mclimtutzv and Born   \Vtrt;1;t.m  
  EDQPERIENCED DAIRY-PROJECT MEMBERS often buy a bred i
·  heifer or a cow in milk, and do well on the investment, but most y
i  members not over l2 years old should start this project with a heifer  
*  calf and grow into the production project with the calf. Dairymen i
I  have learned that heifer calves need good care and feed if they are to T i
s  become well-grown, heavy-producing cows.
V GET STALL AND EQUIPMENT READY ;
. Prepare a good home for the calf beforehand—a clean dry place
with plenty of light and E5 or 4 inches of straw or other suitable bed-
ding. See that there is a hayrack in the stall that the calf can reach. l
4 Use a feed box that can be taken out of the stall after each feeding. A
· Put a water container in one corner of the stall and nail boards across ,
the corner to hold the container in place and keep tl1e calf from foul- W
ing the water. Keep the container well filled with clean W3.l€l`. Use a ;
3-gallon bucket for feeding milk to the calf after it has been taken
* away from the cow. g
  A halter and a blanket will be needed. Either get a strap halter _
A which can be adjusted to fit the calf as it grows older, or make a rope
‘ halter for it. Put the halter on the calf when it is a few daysold, and E
lead it by the halter every day from then on.
. l
_ Vlfhen the calf is several weeks old and is used to handling, make l
I or buy a blanket for it} f ·
i V i‘F0r a small calf a very satisfactory blanket can be made from an old grain or A
feed sack. Rip the sack down one side and across the bottom. Tie the calf to a
» post or ring while you are fitting the blanket. Lay the material lengthwise along
_ the back of the calf. The blanket should reach from just behind the tail setting to
H place on the neck just beyond the shoulders, and below the shoulders and flanks
. on each side. lf burlap is used, a double layer is better than one thickness because
, it keeps the calf cleaner and the hair in better show condition.
` Sew 2 straps to the front end of the blanket, one on each side about 12 inches
`_ above the front corners, to tie under the neck. Sew another pair of straps, onehon
, each Side 12 to 15 inches behind the from corners, to tic under the body just behind
p the front legs. Sew a long strap on one side and a short one on the other, about li!
lo I5 inches in front of the rear corners. Before sewing the straps on, pin them in
place and try the blanket on your calf to be sure the straps make the blanket fit
mugl)', not too loose nor too tight. Then sew the straps on either the outside or
underside of the blanket. Use heavy thread and sew 8 or *10 inches of each strap
to the blanket. Get the most capable person in your family to help with fitting
and sewing. Try the different straps for length before cutting them off.
3

 4 EXTENSION CnzcULAiz 420
SELECTING A HEIFER " ’ *
Choice of q breed.- For "efl·iciency in production" there is little T
or no difference between the breeds of dairy cattle. Generally, the wi]
breed you like best is a good one to have. ··d]
Registered or gr¤de,—·A registration certificate shows that the b€f
_ animal is registered in a breed association, and that its sire and dam Sht
Q were registered animals of the same breed. A good registered cow is itS
more likely to have good offspring than a grade cow which might be
just as high-producing as the registered cow. Registered animals there- Hf!
fore generally sell for higher prices than grades. Since the first heifer is
owned may be the foundation for the future herd, it is usually best .
to have a registered heifer. I0
Age of heifer to geI·.— Start with a baby calf if you are not over dr
l2 years old. If you are older, start with either a calf or an older an
animal. d.
However, if you buy a dairy animal, it usually is best to buy a {.1
heifer between 6 and 12 months old. A younger calf may develop ly
faults in type later that make her undesirable. If she is older than 12 di
months, there is more danger of getting one which has recently become
infected with Bang’s disease. On the other hand, a heifer 18 to 24 UI
months old gives the best indication of her future development, and A
you have to wait but a short time before you get a return on the invest- Su
ment. The amount of money and feed available should be considered y
also. It is always better to buy a good calf than a common yearling.  
Pedigree.- The points of importance in the pedigree are: W
Records of milk and butterfat of half sisters and full sisters.
Milk and butterfat records of the dam. H
Milk and butterfat records of the sisters to the sire and dam.
Milk and butterfat records of the grand—dams.
What is the classification of the close ancestors (Excellent,
» Very Good, etc.)? I,
Qualities of ¤ good heifer.- ln selecting a dairy calf look for the S1
following traits: . d
Head erect, refined, feminine. ` ll
Iiye large, alert. prominent, placid. is
Neck long. straight, refined. 1)
Withers refined. not coarse, thick, or open. h
Back straight, strong. V
Body long. deep, and wide. ` H
Rump long. level, and wide, with level tail setting. C
Thighs wide apart, thin, and incurving.
Legs well placed, fine-boned, straight. ti
Large for her age. )
Color and type characteristic of the breed. it

 DAIRY Pxojrcrs rox 4-H CLUB Miauamzs 5  
p CARE OF CALF UNTIL 6 MONTHS OLD Q
lc lf you are expecting to use a calf produced on the home farm you j  
le will do well to make friends with the cow before the calf is born, or i  
"dropped" as dairymen say. You should feed and care for the cow  
1C before she calves. This will make the cow easier to work with after ‘i
m she calves. As soon as possible after your calf is born, put iodine on ,;
is its navel to avoid infection. } V
be Let the baby calf nurse its mother (its "dam") for the first 3 days    
·g. after it is born. This allows it to get the lirst milk (colostrum), which i
ey is very necessary to the health of the calf. A
zst , On the 4th day keep the calf away from its mother and teach it V
to drink milk from a bucket. At feeding time get it, if you can, to L
Cr drink about half a gallon of fresh, warm milk. Use a clean bucket
Br and keep the bucket clean. Wash it after every feeding.
To teach the calf to drink, straddle its neck, back it into a corner, L
K dip one hand into the milk, and let the calf suck the milk on your f
jp lingers. Then push the calf’s head down gently but firmly into the A
12 bucket. Let it suck the milk up between your fingers. While it is y
nc drinking draw your lingers from its mouth. Do this at each feeding
24 until the calf learns to get along without your fingers. {
nd lf the calf doesn’t take much of the milk the first time, don’t let it
Sp suck the cow again. Let it go hungry until next feeding time.  
Cd lf the milk gets cool while you are trying to teach the calf to drink, 4 y
lg. warm it until it is as warm as milk fresh from the cow. D0n’t feed
your calf cold milk! Remember that if your hands are cold, cool milk y
will feel warm to theml
Keep the calf alone in the stall or in a separate lot. Don’t let it i ·
run in the pasture with the cows.  
How Much to Feed ¤ Calf
Milk.- Don’t give the calf too much milk. lt needs only 1 pound
for each l0 pounds it weighs. (l pint : l pound.) A 60—pound calf
he Should have 3 pounds of whole milk at each feeding, two feedings a
_ day. An 80—pound calf would need 4 pounds at each feeding, twice
at day; and at 90—pound calf 4% pounds twice a day. \Vhen the calf
is 4 weeks old begin to change gradually to skimmilk (if you have it)
by substituting l pound of skiinmilk for a pound of whole milk the
lust and second days, 2 pounds the third and fourth days, and skim-
.  milk only by the fifth day. Then increase the znnount fed by I pound
every 10 days until the calf is getting l5 to 20 pounds a day.
Continue feeding milk until the calf is at least 6 months old. Most
calves in Kentucky don’t get enough milk during their hrst 6 months.
Many of them get too much during the lirst few weeks, and too little
when they are 3 to 6 months old.

 6 Exriznsion Cnzcutaa 420
If you don`t have skimmilk, feed whole milk until the calf is 6 ,
months old, feeding l pint of milk for each 10 pounds the calf weighs, · sho,
or use one of the commercial calf meals or calf starters according to W whe
the directions of the manufacturer. lf there are no directions with {me
the calf meal or starter use this schedule: When the calf is 2 weeks ‘ blm
old start giving it a handful of the starter at each feeding. Don’t cut the
1 down on the whole milk during this time. When the calf is 4 weeks V YC];
° old, if it is eating the starter well, add a pint of warm water to the milk l ( ,
the first day, 2 pints the second day, and so on until the calf is getting and
no milk. Then give the calf all the starter it will eat twice a day until ( gm-
it is getting 5 to 6 pounds of dry grain feed each day by the time it is V
6 months old. Don’t feed more starter than the calf will clean up. V MP
Keep the feed box clean. _ cali
Grain with 5kimmiIk,-- Begin feeding a little calf meal, or a mix- ·
ture of 2 parts ground corn and l part bran, when the calf is 2 weeks you
old. Don’t feed more than the calf will clean up.
\»Vhen you begin feeding grain, don’t feed any until the calf has WC,
had milk. At hrst your calf may not pay any attention to the grain. ; Sta,
If this happens, rub some coarse—ground grain on the calf’s wet mouth i
and let it get used to the taste by licking it off, or put a handful into A {O,.
the calf`s milk bucket with a little milk to moisten it. After a while can
the calf will smell or muzzle the feed bucket and soon will be eating.
The amounts and kinds of grain needed by calves of different ages A Sm
i and of different breeds, with little or no pasture, are shown in the V ha,
following table: ‘ '
GRAIN MIXTURE AMOUNT ‘
Ace or CALF BY wmcur DAILY fm
2 to 3 weeks 2 parts corn Mg pound, if eaten m
(with whole milk) 1 part bran . fg)
3 weeks to 3 months 2 parts corn l pound, if eaten C
(with skimmilk) l part bran _
jersey or Guernsey, xm
3 toV6 months 2 parts com l to 2 pounds V W}
(with skimmilk) l part bran Holstein or Brown Swiss,
2 to 3 pounds i
6 to 8 months 4 parts corn jersey or Guernsey, ~ EN
(no milk) 2 parts bran 5 to 6 pounds · U
l part oilmeal Holstein or Brown Swish »  lm
6 to 8 pounds V HE
\/Vhen the calf is eating grain readily, start weighing the feed and an
follow the feeding table carefully. Weigh a quart can or other small
measure that holds at least a pound of the feed. Mark the can OY
measure at the place for a half pound of feed and also at the pound , to
level. It will then be easy to feed a half pound or as many pounds HS st;
the table calls for. _

   A AA
1
DAIRY Pnojizcrs ron 4-H Cum Mmmmts 7 ,
F A good calf meal, if it is used instead of the corn-bran mixture, .
· A should contain cornmeal (preferably from yellow corn), ground oats,  
) wheat bran, linseed oilmeal or soybean oilmeal, steamed bonemeal,  
I A fine-ground limestone, and salt. Some calf feeds also contain soluble  
S blood flour. If you buy commercial feed, study the tag to see what l
l the feed is made of——and don’t waste your money on feed that has a .
S , yellow tag. E
< Q Some calves need more grain than others to keep them growing   A
S A and in good flesh, but don’t get your calf too fat. Dairy calves need to l ‘
1 , grow, but not to fatten like beef calves. i
S . Some calves stop taking milk before they are 6 months old. If this A
’· j happens, add about half a pound more grain at each feeding if the
. calf will eat it all. Don’t feed more grain than the calf will eat. ·
1- — lf your calf’s hair is bright and shiny and it is strong and playful
.s you and your calf are doing a good job.
Huy.- Put a little clean, bright, leafy hay in the rack the first _
*5 week and keep fresh hay in the rack at all times as long as the calf Z
‘· L stays in the stall. Put fresh hay in the rack at least once each day.
ll _ Legume hay, such as good leafy alfalfa, clover, or lespedeza, is best l
O for young, growing calves. At first, however, the hay is less likely to ,
-€ cause scours if it has some grass in it. l
i' _ Each morning, remove the droppings and wet bedding from the A V
is stall and replace with dry bedding. Any stemmy, coarse part of the  
lc · hay left in the rack can be used for bedding. ‘
_ S¤It.-— Salt is very necessary to the calf. lf salt is not in your calf I
meal, get your calf used to eating it by placing tt level tablespoonful
" in a box. Do this about twice each week until it leaves some salt in the .
A box. Then it will be safe to keep coarse salt in the box all the time. ~
·· Don’t put salt on the ground. Feed it in a box. `
Siluge.-— Until your calf is 3 months old, don’t feed silage. After
— = it is 3 months old some may be fed—l pound a day for the first few
weeks and gradually more until the calf is getting 3 to 7 pounds a day
SSA when 6 to 8 months old.
» Grass.- Until after the calf is 4 months old, don’t let it have
‘ A much grass. Turn the calf out for exercise and, of course, some grass,
A but give it a full feed before turning it out. Young, growing grass is
S5, .  best. Even after the calf is on pasture most of the time, however, it
` needs more feed than the pasture can furnish, so continue your milk
  ‘ and grain feeding until the calf is 6 months old.
ill Diseases and Insect Troubles S
OY scours.-— Some baby calves have scours which may be caused by
id A too much feed, a dirty bucket, cold milk, irregular feeding, or a filthy
HS stall. lf your baby calf scours, reduce the amount of feed for a day

 8 Exrausrou Cnzcur.AR 420
or so. If the scours continue for several days, drench the calf with a tied
mixture of 2 ounces of castor oil and l ounce of cod-liver oil. You will
can have the mixture made up at a drugstore or you can measure and   I
mix it yourself. Two ounces of castor oil would be 5% tablespoonfuls, in ]
and one ounce of cod-liver oil would be 2% tablespoonfuls. Pour the ° 1 pc
castor oil into a soft-drink bottle, add the cod-liver oil, shake well, and — blog
  drench your calf. If after two days the scouring continues, drench the _ I
` calf again. This amount may be used when needed until your calf mga
is 2 months old. unl,
After the scours stop, begin increasing the feed slowly until you V it is
have the calf back on full feed after 3 or 4 days. W'atch your calf for you
signs of further scouring. lf it does not stop, see your veterinarian or _ can
your county agent. app
Ringworm.— lf you should notice a brownish scale or scab on to o
your calf it very likely is ringworm. Often this occurs on the side of ono
the face, near the eyes. The treatment is simple. First wash the scab ’  you
to soften it. Then lift the scab with the point of a knife blade and j mo;
paint the place with iodine. Treat with iodine daily until the trouble t hou
clears up. Two or three treatments should be enough. Disinfect the are
stall, hayrack, and feed box thoroughly with stock dip or other stand- ` are
ard disinfectants to prevent further infection.
Lice.-— Lice are especially common on cattle during the winter. , 
lf you brush your calf once or twice each week it will not be likely I
to have lice. But if it rubs much and its hair begins to look stiff and
dry, look for lice. lf you find any, don’t delay treating the calf for 4  mo
them. Dust rotenone powder (the same as is used in the garden fOr · Hrs;
bean beetles) on the affected parts, and repeat in 12 to 14 days. ra
Warts are unsightly and should be removed as soon as found. A { §L (
long, hanging wart can be removed by tying a strong thread tightly mg
around it, so as to shut off the blood circulating to the wart. Leave L um
the string on until the wart drops off. lf the wart does not come Oli. T [eel
try soaking it with oil and keeping it soaked. ap}
Blout.- For ordinary cases of bloat give a drench of 2 to 6 ounceS of
of mineral oil or % ounce of formalin in l quart of water. lf the  1
bloating goes down, then give a calf under 6 months old a drench of · the
M, pound of Epsom salt dissolved in water. lf bloating does not SLOP .  Shc
after the first treatment of mineral oil or formalin, do not give lhff Z he]
Epsom-salt drench but repeat the mineral oil or formalin drench ¤0¤   Soc
more than l hour later. Then after the bloating goes down, give the
Epsom-salt drench. lf you cannot give mineral oil or formalin, force
a stick about as large around as a broomstick between the calf’s jaws _,
(crossways, like a bit) and tie it with a strong cord over the top of lh€ ; “P
head and behind the ears so as to hold the stick in place. Walk the ` SF2
calf uphill if possible, for at least an hour. It is best to leave the stick y  $0

 . 2 i ;
DAIRY Pizojecrs ron =l-H Cum Miaxnnans 9  
tied in the calf’s mouth until you are certain no further bloating AE
will occur. ;  
  For a cow or grown heifer the dose of formalin for bloat is % ounce y   W
in 1 quart of water, given as a drench. When bloating goes down give .  
¢ W l pound of Epsom salt as a drench. Feed and graze lightly following l
. · bloat. V
  . BI¤ckIeg is a very serious disease which may be found in all cattle Q
? regardless of breed. An epidemic of blackleg can kill an entire herd  
V unless checked by vaccination. lf you buy a dairy animal, be certain { i
' it is from a farm which has had no recent outbreak of blackleg. When
i you take the animal home, keep it in a vacant lot away from all other f
f — cattle for at least 3 weeks. Then if any disease, such as blackleg, .
appears in the new animal, it will be easier to keep it from spreading V
1 to other cattle on the farm. In case of blackleg, call a veterinarian at t
f once. Keep diseased animals away from all others, and have all other
> i  young cattle vaccinated. If an animal gets blackleg there is no treat- §
Ll j ment to cure it. Vaccination of calves after they are 6 months old, l
8 I however, will prevent it. Calves can be vaccinated for it before they y
B are 6 months old, but they should then be vaccinated again after they V
l- i are 6 months old. 2
;_ V CARE OF HEIFER 6 TO 'I2 MONTHS OLD V
2; . Weuning the Calf .
V1, .  When you start weaning the calf from milk, do it gradually. Give V
VY _ more grain to take the place of the milk the calf has been getting. The
first day, feed lquart less milk at each feeding and add yl pound of V
A V grain at each feeding. The next day feed 2 quarts less milk than usual
V T at each feeding and add l pound more grain than usual at each feed- y .
VY ing. Reduce the milk still n1ore the third day, and feed more grain,
F °  until at the end of 3 to 5 days, the calf is getting no milk and you are
l' i feeding 3 to 5 pounds more grain per day than before. lf your calf’s
appetite fails, take out only l quart of milk each day and add % pound
ES of feed. V
IC  I Gradual weaning of your calf is one of the most important jobs in V
Of ` the dairy project. If you have kept your calf coming along nicely, you
)P ’  Should not upset it by a sudden change of feed. Too many good
lf? V heifers are starved by being turned otn to rustle for themselves as
of § Soon as they are weaned.
ie
U, Huy V
vvs _ At weaning and afterward, feed your calf all the hav she will clean
he t  up each day. Good alfalfa, lespedeza, or clover hay not only saves
he ’ grain but helps develop bone and muscle and the welldeveloped body
ck so necessary to a good dairy cow.

 10 Exriaxssion Ciactimx 420
Grain Feeding
If you wean your calf in the fall, continue grain feeding through
the winter, along with hay and silage, if you have good-quality silage. lilll
Start with a little silage and gradually increase it until the calf is wit
getting 5 or 6 pounds daily during the winter. Get
. If you wean your heifer calf in the spring, don’t turn her out to is l
t grass and quit feeding grain. Continue the grain and hay 3 or 4 weeks i Y
and then gradually reduce the grain yl pound daily until she is getting Veil
only 2 or 3 pounds of grain each day. As long as the grass is growing .
and tender, continue feeding 2 or 3 pounds of grain each day and all 0i`
the hay the calf will eat. lf your calf is on good lespedeza or clover 3*1*
pasture, you will not need to increase the grain until killing frost;
then increase it gradually. If pasture fails, however, increase the grain hai
to 4 to 5 pounds daily. Us
In fall and winter a good rule to follow in feeding a dairy calf hw
6 to 12 months old is to give her 1 to 1% pounds of a good grain mix- 1116
ture for each 100 pounds she weighs. If you have good leafy hay or mt
good hay and silage, 1 pound of grain for each 100 pounds she weighs
will be enough. If you have timothy or a mixed grass hay, she will
need more grain. Y/Vatch your calf and if she begins to grow fat, give . of
her less grain. Keep her in good condition, but not fat and lazy. my
A good mixture for your calf from weaning until she is 12 months Ca,
A old is made of equal parts (by weight) of corn, oats, and bran. Coarse- ut
crack the corn so that it is about the size of the bran particles, and it S0,
will be easier to mix the feed. Another good mixture is equal parts nb
of corn, barley, and wheat, all coarse-cracked and mixed. To each up
100 pounds of your feed mixture, add 2 pounds of bonemeal and l Ca
pound of coarse salt, and mix thoroughly. If you buy commercial of
feed, study the tag carefully to see what the feed is made of. D0n'i [H
waste your money on yellow-tag feeds. ily
Some club members don’t take enough care in weighing and mixing
their grain feed. They depend on a measuring cup or bucket I0 M
measure the amounts of the different feeds, and of course not all H].
feeds weigh the same per cup. So weigh separately each feed that g0€$ U.
into the mixture, and then mix the feeds thoroughly together. l U
ln addition to the salt and bonemeal in the feed, it is good praCtlC€ Sly
to keep salt and bonemeal in your calf’s stall all the time. Keep them _ D
in separate boxes. _ Cl
In grain feeding you can save time by using a eup or bucket whiCll · cl
holds 2 or more pounds. Be sure to mark this cup or bucket at the il
l-pound and 2-pound levels. Always know how much you are feeding.
Guesswork seldom produces a good dairy animal. If you feed YOUY .
calf in a stall or shed with other calves, see that she gets her share of K
the feed. C,
A

 i i  
a
Drum PRO_]EC'l`S ron 4-H Cuts Mrsixtsms ll   .
Pusture for Your Heifer y
t From the time your calf is 6 months old, pasture is the most impor-  
. tant single feed for her. So start your pasture plan early enough. Talk W  
s with your father and your county agent about it, and then get ready.  
Get your pasture program started, if you can, about the time the calf  
s is born, or before} She will need very little pasture during her hrst y
S 4 mouths, but from 6 months on you should have the best pasture  
g ready for her.   i
g _ A good pasture for young growing animals is young, growing grass   ‘
1 or legumes. After grass has grown old and tough it has less protein
y and is less helpful to the calf. l
.; lf you have a small lot which you can use for a pasture, you can y
n have young growing grasses or legumes practically the year round. '
Usually l to 1% acres will be needed for l calf. If your growing heifer
if has enough fresh, growing pasture, she will need little or no com-
;. mercial protein feed from the time she is 6 months old until 2 or El y
.1— months before time for her to calve.
t5 The following pasture plans are for l calf. ,
ig Pasture plan Nc. 'I.-- Sow % to l acre of small grain and % acre
of crimson clover. Wheat, barley, balbo rye, or common rye may be 2
used. Of these, balbo rye is most wint;er hardy and will produce the
is earliest pasture. Sow the small grain in late August or early September, l
f` at the rate of 2 bushels to the acre. This will furnish late fall pasture, _ ,
ll some winter pasture (especially balbo rye), and spring pasture until
E about the first of April. When the small grain is seeded, or shortly ¤
’l afterwards, sow timothy and redtop on the small grain, 5 pounds of
each per acre. Sow 15 pounds of lespedeza in the small grain the hrst ‘
Q1 of March or as soon after that. as the soil begins to warm up. lf late  
it freezes kill the young lespedeza, disk the ground lightly and sow
_ it again.
E . Sow the crimson clover in August; or early September, at the rate
lll ol 30 to 40 pounds to the acre. Or sow 20 pounds of crimson clover
and l0 pounds of timothy to the acre. The heavier the stand of
cs crimson clover the less likely it is to freeze out during a hard winter.
Ce USQ the crimson clover, or the crimson clover and timothy, for late
lh Spring pasture after the small grain and before the lespedeza is  eady.
. l)on't let your calf or any other livestock or cluckens graze the crimson
ch Clover during fall and winter. Grazing or walking on frozen crimson
he tilover kills it. After your crimson clover goes to seed, doubledtsk it
lg' tn August and it will reseed itself. I V
ur This pasture plan suits most parts of kentucky. lf you can use
of if ‘F0r more detailed information about pasture crops and seeding methods, see
Kentucky Circular 402, "Seeding Meadow and Pasture Crops," and Kentucky Ctr-
· eular 318, "Crimson Clover and Other Winter Legumes.

 12 Exrtansion Cixcumk 420  
limestone and phosphate where needed, you will have better pasture q careft
for your calf. lf you have manure to turn under, so much the better. very `
Before turning your heifer on the pasture give her the regular i  wild;
grain and hay feedings, and let her graze only an hour, morning and i (l
afternoon, of the first day. Then let her graze longer each day until   garlic
she can graze as much as she wants to, without scouring. Then let i buy.
_ her stay on the pasture during the day, but bring her to the stall and , that :
¤ feed grain and hay night and morning. After the calf is used to graz- » (T
ing all day, you can gradually reduce the grain feeding, but still feed l up tl
at least 2 pounds of grain daily and all the good legume hay the _ narrt
heifer will clean up. T
Let the heifer stay on the small-grain pasture until the first joints V with
appear in the plants; then turn her onto the crimson clover and mow — dock
the small grain or let the cows or horses clean it up. If thesmall grain and
heads out, it will shade the lespedeza and keep it from coming on as J enou
fast as it should. As soon as the small grain is completely eaten down,
take the cows or horses off and let the lespedeza make its growth. f  .
The crimson clover should furnish pasture until the first or middle P \
of May. lf the season is late and the lespedeza is not ready, you will 1 mm,
probably have bluegrass or other pasture to turn the calf onto until ” Wm.
the lespedeza is ready. Usually by the first of june the lespedeza is 2 ` mm
or 3 inches tall, and will furnish plenty of pasture from then until fall. i  S,) 0
lf your small—grain and crimson-clover pastures are not separated ·
by a fence, tie or stake the calf so as to keep it grazing where you · _
want it. You will need about 15 feet of rope. -  Sho]
Pasture plan No. 2.- This plan calls for M2 acre of a good stand V lwei,
of old bluegrass pasture and % acre seeded to 1 bushel of wheat, barley. 506
common rye, or balbo rye, and 5 pounds of timothy. Then sow 10 A Im
pounds of lespedeza in the small grain the following March or April,   hm]
and 5 pounds of lespedeza on the bluegrass. Bluegrass furnishes good Q lm
grazing in the spring and late fall, but the older bluegrass during the ` P0,
sunnner is not very good feed for a young, growing calf. (See Plan _ mo
No. 1 for hay and grain feeding on pasture.) g hci
Emergency pusture.-— If for any reason you fail to get a stand of   {Vg
lespedeza for midsummer grazing, one of the best "catch crops" for  
Kentucky is sudan grass. Sudan grass should furnish your calf OT _ hej
heifer plenty of pasture through the hot, dry summer. A rm
'l`o get a stand of sudan grass rework the topsoil, where lespedeza .  gm
failed, until you get a good seedbed. Then about june l, sow Suda!] t,[
grass at the rate of 25 pounds of seed per acre and cover to a depth of on
%, or 2% inches. After the sudan grass is mature, cut it for hay before , M
it seeds i11 September. i qq]
Keep weeds out of your p¤sture.-—- As the pasture y0u start will s  IU
be used by your heifer when she is producing milk, you must be VEYY . gi

   Dnnw Pizojacrs ron 4»H Cum lwmtamts [3 L
J careful to keep it free from wild onions, because these give milk a T
- very bad flavor. In keeping your pasture free from wild onions or s
wild garlic there are two things to watch:  
U {1) Buy and sow seed that contains no seed of wild onions or wild  
s  garlic. Read carefully both sides of the tag on every bag of seed you  
`_ buy. lf the tag lists seed of wild onion or wild garlic, don`t buy T
1  that seed.  
‘ (2) Dig every wild onion or wild garlic plant in your pasture. Dig  
i up the whole plants-—bu1bs, root, and t0ps—and burn them. A sharp  
— narrow spade is best for this digging. ` i
There are other bad or noxious weed seeds which may be mixed
*  with the seeds you wish to sow. Some of these are buckhorn, dodder,
l dock, oxeye daisy, sorrel, Canada thistle, corncockle, johnson grass,
_ and quackgrass. Try to avoid seed containing any of them. You have
‘  enough weeds at home without buying and planting more.
  . CARE OF HEIFER FROM 12 MONTHS UNTIL CALVING S
Q When 12 months old, your calf is called a yearling. From 12 to 18
  months she is a junior yearlingg from 18 to 24 months she is a senior a
,. yearling. After she is 24 months old she is, of course, a 2-year—old and
_ from then on the age is given in years, as 2—year—old, 3-year-old, and i
_  so on.
.  Record of Weight and Feed . f
  Your heifer, if she has had enough feed, hay, pasture, and water, 1
i should reach at least the average weight for her age. The following
weights are good averages at 12 mon