xt71ns0kwj6k https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt71ns0kwj6k/data/mets.xml Kentucky Kelley, James B., author Young, Earl R. compiler University of Kentucky. Department of Agricultural Engineering University of Kentucky. College of Agriculture and Home Economics 1964 archival material 2022ua008 S674.3 .K45 1964 English  Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection University of Kentucky. -- Department of Agricultural Engineering -- History Agricultural engineering -- Kentucky -- History Agricultural mechanics -- Kentucky -- History Agricultural Engineering in Kentucky: 1919-1957, 1964 TYPE IMAGE Comprises a typescript manuscript by University of Kentucky agricultural engineering professor James B. Kelley titled "Agricultural Engineering in Kentucky, 1919-1957." Includes original photographs of buildings, experiments, fairs, and field days on the university campus and on Kentucky farms. Note in manuscript says, "Professor Kelley died December 23, 1960 leaving this unfinished. Assembled by Earl R. Young, July, 1964." Photocopy is available in the Breckinridge Research Room. Call Number: S674.3 .K45 1964 1 volume, illustrations, 28 cm. Agricultural Engineering in Kentucky: 1919-1957, 1964 1964 1964 2023 true xt71ns0kwj6k section xt71ns0kwj6k  










by Professor James B. Kelley


Historical Facts About College of Agriculture,
University of Kentucky, 1909—1919

1. Teaching (in chapter 2)
2. Extension Work

History of College Teaching Phases in Agricultural
Engineering, 1919—1957. p, 4,

Dedication of Agricultural Engineering Building. p, 8/\.

Agricultural Engineering Extension Phases - Rural
Electrification and Publications. p, 42.


History and Development of Agricultural Engineering
Curriculum. P. 100.

Agricultural Engineering Staff. P. 106.

Bingham 4—H Club Camp — 1940—1957. P. 110.

4—H Club Camp, Dawson Springs, Kentucky, 1950

The Feltner 4—H Club Camp (Youth) London, Kentucky, 1958
Annual Farm and Home Shows or Conventions, 1920—1956. p, 116_

Farm Machinery Demonstrations as featured at the Annual
Soils and Crops Field Days, 1921. P. 127.

News Items and Radio Talks (This part not found)

(Introduction to tobacco housing and curing studies, 1923, p.143.
Research Phases (Tobacco housing and curing studies, 1936


(Farm Housing Studies, 1941
(Farm Labor Simplification Studies, 1943

Work Done for Experiment Station Farms: P, 150.

Experiment Station, Lexington, Ky, 1927-1955.

Western Kentucky Sub—Station Farm, Princeton, Ky,

Sub-Experiment Station Farm, Quicksand, Ky, 1924—1957
Bryant Farm, Lexington, Ky, 1955-1957

Eden Shale Farm, Owenton, Ky, 1955—1957

Cooperation with other agencies, p, 180,

Statistical Data of Influence of Agricultural Engineering
Work on Kentucky People. P. 188.

(Professor Kelley died December 23, 1960 leaving this
unfinished- Assembled by Earl R. Young, July, 1964)


 Chapter I

History of The Development of The Agricultural Engineering
University of Kentucky, 1908-1919


_,_ it ,,,_

The Agricultural Hall - The Kentucky State Legislature in 1907

“55-" session appropfietefi $35,000 for this building and also'passed aLlaw
to establish the College of Agriculture at the Universznry of Kentucky.





A Brief storv of blue Un_vsrsit' 01 L enti.ck7 Extension Work
Years 1910 - 1919 Al

Firs t exte; sion Lenartnent we organi 'zed j.n rentucky ‘1n 1910
T. R. Bryant, Ass istant .Professor was put in oEarge. At the
the Extension Committee of the Board of Trustees recommended “
denarhnent be created to be knownas the Extension ibpartment.

The following yea r, Is-iiss Arlyn Chinn, who had been placed in charge

of t-e Department of Home Economics began to give assistance in holding

movable schools on butter making, poultry raisins and gardening.

The first farmers' short course was held in the University Gym in
1911. In 1912, the Gene a1 Assembly made the first permanent appropriation
for the Experime1t Station.

In Harch 1912, the first train of 9 cars mak s h stops dej 1y was
ooorated in Aentuch. It was operated 29 days. Helpers on train were
Ars. Joseph? A. Hlfl” of Ohio anekir. E. C. Martindale and.Mis
Knowles of Iowa State College. Mr. H. B. Hen‘rick, poultry; J. H. Carmody
n v GS“ -‘ ..
ior norticult are reported on extens: on wor1:ers on September 1, 1912.

. . e (3
First County Agents ,th

Frankliontgomerv - Madison and Rockcsstle, )eatcnoer 1,1912

Clarles A. Aahan - Henderson, Octooer 1,1912

Nat T. -rame - Jefierson bebrtlary 1913

Dr. Scovell died Au.: :ust 15 1912 H

Dr. Joseph A. Kastle appointed research chemist in 1910 and Director
of Txneriment Station in October 1913. nrs helen Nolcott appointed State

August 1916, Dr. Kastle'was relieved of his duties as Director of
Laocrrneit ”tau on, and died September 2D, 1916.

January 10, 1917, xrofessor Goerge Roberts was made Acting Head of

College and Experiment Station, presented a memorial signed by members of

the staff of th Agricultural College for consideration of Board of Trustees


 of 3he Univor ity on'wuich tne relationship of the officer
‘tion were set forth unfler the organization of the TnIversi v and under the
nrovisions of various laws having to
to the memO‘rAIHW of the understandinc
the University, Dr. 3a1ker anc. Section of Agriculture.
by the Bo a1 rd of frustees January 1917.
A resolution of Joard of Trustees ma sad in 1916 orovide c for an
investigation. fiobert G. uordon was on this committe of investigation.

Dr. Frank L. Holley was made ljresident of the 31111701613133” fall 1917.
Dean Thomas P. Cooper assumed on ties Janua1* 1918

The last agr wltu m.1 train operated by Wxtension DWVlSEOn MIRS July

1 -2h, 191A.

The first boys' Club CaMp, a two-day affair, was held in Ballard
County the summer of 1916.

Fred Hutchler, Superintendent of Extension 191A to 1919.

Dean Cooper, in July 1919, was made director of all phases. Professor



1.. ..arf .,. . ‘
nOOGTtS aSSiSDeé-Dean, stant Dire0tor of ArtenSion ans

Demonstration L*vnts Cctobe er 1
J 3


iiss Gertnude h. Cheyne - September 18, 1919. , esigned August 31,

.. 1;?
WM \i‘rr 13" I”
his: Margaret—Jnitmore, August 31, 1920 to flovember 1920
M r"? ' "
hissh.eldon Ia s appointed June 1, 192A.


Tne u‘ric'itural Adjustment Act of Con ress ani its first in acreage

(1 11‘

adjustment of Wheat crops sown in the fall OJL 1933. Lie Extension Service
over the entire 3. S. was requested to wut the provisions of this act into

,i Ref. - neiaorted in a Hist01v of the “entucky Txtension Work In Ken-
tucryg Egy: rofes sor Eryant


 Chapter II
A History of the Development of Agricultural Engineering
at the University of Kentucky, 1908-1919 (Aug)
vfio7rlfi§7 ?
The catalog of the University for 1907 showed that a two-year course

in igriculture was offered the fall of 1907 withFErofessor George Roberts
as Acting Head of Soils and Crops and Professor/Eaeéleboper in Charge of
Animal Husbandry courseii

That same year the State Legislature appropriated 535.000 to build a
h5'X100‘ 3-Story brick building for an Agricultural Building on the Univer-

sity of Kentucky campus

Period 1908 to August 15, 1919



In 1909 Professor George Roberts became head of the Agronomy Depart—

That the founders of the agriculture h-year curriculum in 1908 were
cognizant of the need of applying engineering practices in agriculture,
is indicated by the fact that the following courses were offered in 1907
under the supervision of Professor Robertsz"

A two-credit—hour course, Land Surveying in the Sophomore Year;

A three-hour lecture and recitation period in Farm Equipment;

A one-hour period in Farm Equipment laaboratory Work.

In the Senior Year:

A two-hour credit course in Rural Architecture, included a discussion
of arrangement, location, construction and equipment of farm buildings,
particularly of stock barns, silos and other structures concerned in the
feeding and management of livestock.

In 1909 (Page hS of CatalOg) the title of Land Surveying course was
changed to Rural Engineering and the FannIEquipment and Rural Architecture

courses were combined into a four-hour credit course, "Earm.Equipment and

Management". It included lectures and practical exercises on the selection

and equipment of the fann, arrangement of farm buildings, and the study of


 the source of power of farm engines, farm machinery, water supply, etc.
Text Book, Farm.Machinery, by Davidson and Chase.

On Page 105 of The Brief History of Development of the Agronomy
Department, Professor Roberts stated, "I took over the teaching of the
courses of soils and field crops and_also the course in farm equipment
which dealt with farm machinery and the course in surveying. I taught
these courses until January 1, 1911 when Professor E. J. Kinney was added
to the staff and took over all the work in 2; d crops".

Although Professor Roberts did not so state, I understand that Professor
Kinney also took over the teaching of some of the farm engineering courses.

Jimes A. Farra was added to the agronomy staff as instructor in 1912
to take charge of the work of farm engineering and served in this capacity
until July 1917 when he resigned, after taking a leave of absence during
1916. .


August 1, 1918, Dean Thomas P. Cooper appointedlur. flark Haverhill
Professor of Farm Engineering but he resigned in July 1919 to accept a
position of Educational Director to train salesmen and dealers for the
Cleveland Tractor Company.

Iéflé '
‘Period, August 15, 1919 to September 1, 1957


James Byron Kelley was employed.August 15, 1919 as Professor in
Agricultural Engineering to be head of the Farm Engineering Section of
the Agronomy Department in charge of the teaching and extension and re-

search phases.

On Page 1 of Professor Roberts’ records and on Page 211 of the 1919

College Catalog are the following statements:

"The work in Agricultural Engineering was placed in the Department
of Agronomy only for administrative purposes". QUOtation from Professor
Roberts' History of the Development of Work of the Agronomy Department.


 g The writer during his administration of the department gave freedom
to the Agricultural Engineering DiVision in detennining the development
of its work.li

The agricultural 3ingineering Department offers instruction to agri-
cultural students in subjects involving the application of engineering
knowledge to the solution of farm problems.

Starting in September 1919, the Agricultural Engineering Section
offered for agricultural students six courses as follows:

1. Farm.Machinery, 3-hours credit, lst Semester

2. Rural Sanitary Equipment, 2-hour credit, lst Semester

3. Farm Construction, 2-hour credit, lst Semester

h. Farm.Motors, 3-hours credit, 2nd Semester

5. Land measurement and Drainage, 2-hour credit, 2nd Semester

6. Shop (Farm), 3 hours credit, 2nd Semester

In addition to the above courses, James 3. Kelley taught a special
short course, spring 1921, for 30 veterans of the First worldear to
train them to become tractor mechanics. As a matter of record, the expenses
of these men were paid from unused fundsflwhich had.been donated for Y. M.
C. A. Activities for the soldiers during the war.

On July 10, 1931, Mr. Howard Matson was added to staff as part-time
instructor and part-time extension specialist. Mr. Matson remained on the
staff until October 193h, at which time, on account of lack of funds due to
the depression, he was loaned to Kentucky Fortestry Department at Frankfort
to assist in organizinf and directing the engineering work done by the C. C. C.
Camps in Kentucky. By the time fundswvere available again at the college
for returninglflr. Matson to the Agricultural Engineering Staff, he had so
thoroughly demonstrated his fine traits of leadership and his knowledge of

the fundamentals of/fingineering, that the Federal Conservation officials at

'Washington D. C. outbid the college, employed and assigned him to Soil Con-

. servation work in Texas, where within three years he was made a district


 engineer to supervise the work in three southern states.
Jesse B. Brooks joined the staff, February 1, 1935 as instructor
and part-time extension specialist, but was transferred to the position
of full-time extension specialist in agricultural engineering on July
1, l9h6, and continued in that position until march l9h8 when he resigned
to enter professional sales engineering work in Kentucky.
He rejoined the Agricultural Engineering Staff on march l, l9h9 as
Assistant Professor. September 18, 1950, he successfully passed the examina-
tion to penmit him to qualify as a Professional Agricultural Engineer in

Kentuc . He was on leave of absence durinm the months of Jul and August

195M and 1955 to complete his work for obtaining a Masters Degree, which

was conferred on him by the University of Alabama,.auburn, Alabama, August
7, 1955.

As an extension specialist, he did outstanding work on farm buildings,
water supply and sewage disposal.

As a teacher, he has been highly appreciated by his students and
associates. He has developed into anexcellent draftsman, an authority on
water supply, sewage and farm buildings. At present, in addition to his
teaching, he is acting as the Agricultural Engineering Consultant and de-
signer of buildings, water supply, etc., for the Experiment Station Farms
at Lexington, and in.Mercer and Owen counties.

Earl R. Young joined the staff as instructor in August 1936;
was advanced to Assistant Professor in July l9hh, and Associate Professor
inj957. He has been an excellent teacher, an outstanding organizer of his
gwrk, an inspiring teacher and a loyal co-operator with all phases of work
carried on by members of the staff.

He especially taught the woodworking and metal working shop courses,
and the farm tractor and power machinery courses.

Although, not employed to do extension work, he has prepared several


 excellent circulars - (see list on pages ).


Mr. Young acted as Chairman of the course scheduling committee, was
in charge of keeping the Agricultural Engineering inventory records of
machinery and equipment and was in charge of the department in the absenowi

of Professor Kelley.


 Chapter III


From August 1919 to September 1, 1931, the Agricultural Engineers
occupied part of one office in the Experiment Station Building. College
classes were held in the Agriculture Building and the Stock Pavilion.
Laboratory work was conducted outdoors and in a small unheated frame
structure, and the space of 3 box stalls in the old mule barn located on
Experiment Station Farm, and a steel structure hO‘xfio' which was erected
at a cost of $h,OO0.00 in the summer of 1920. This steel building was
heated.with one coal stove.

In 1930, the State Legislature appropriated_$7§’000.00 for an Agri-
cultural Engineering Building whichmas completed in 1931 and dedicated
October 28, 1931. /<

The preliminary plans offthe building were drawn by J. B. Kelley5and
the architectural firmsof L.{Qj Frankefi: and John J. Curtis were commissioned
to complete the plans and spéEificatio . The other firms receiving con-
tracts for Various phases were: Building proper 'W. T. Con leton and
Company; Electric Wiring, MooreéYoung Electric éompany of exington, Ky.;
Steam Heating, John H. Scott, Frankfort, Kentucky



 Agricultural Engineering Buildings

An old frame 21v x2h' 2-story header-house mounted on posts
and located at about 50' from the northwest corner of the Live-
stock Pavilion was from 1918 to 1926 used for a laboratory for a

farm woodshop and stationary gas engines laboratory. (Picture not

Bhree Box Stalls, the center driveways of this old mule barn and roadways aroundthe
barn were used for teaching laboratory classes from 1921; to 1931. The Truscon steel
hO'xBO' prefabricated building on the left of the picture, costing $14,000. was built
insummer of 1926 and a 20'x140' frame lean-to shed was built at the rear of it by the
students in 1928. The steel building was heated by a coal stove. This structure was

. used from 1926 to 1931 for laboratory space for wood and metal work, gas engine and
tractor, also sanitation courses.


 $175“ a
1 If.” R 1*?
World War,Veterans Class working on tractors in firem of mule
barn which was the only structure awailable in 1920 for Agricultural
Engineering Laboratory work.

Agricultural stufients working on tractors inside of a DO'XBO'
Truscon steel building built in 1921 for laboraxory work.



 Agricultural Engineering Buildings, continued


The agricultural engineers/C'zshared class room in the second floor
of the Agriculture Building from 1919 90 1931 and offices in rooms of
the Experiment Station Building from 1926 to 1931, .élso the engineers
shared’tlass room in the Judging Pavillion.

New Agricultural Engineering Building dedicated October 28, 1931.
This building was remodeled during the year of 1952 by covering the
center court with two 1'qu monitor roofs, additional wiring, providing
heat for the area, one office, altering hallways and shop areas, Etc. ,
at a cost of $75,000.


 New Agricultural Engineering Building

Mr. Kelley started drawing plans of an Agricultural engineering
building as early as 1920 and by 1929 had some floor plans and suggestiong
on elevations to submit to Dean Cooper when he requested such plans to use
in selling to the Legislature Budget Comfittee the urgent need of appropri-
ating $75,000 for such a building.

I wish as a matter of record also to give credit to Mr. W. E. Difford,
Secretary of the Kentucky Lumber Dealers Association and sever‘wnembers of
the association for going before the Budget Committee to present facts why
they would be justified to recommend inathe budget funds to build an agri-
cultural engineering building at the University in which to train students,

conduct research and extension projects and other phases of agricultural

engineering work.



nf the

O Agrimltural Zfingimm'ing ifiuilhing

fininemitg nf Zfienthkg

flexingtmt, Zfimtutkg

@ttuher28, 1931





Jlgricul’tural Engineering Building
President Frank L. mcDeu Presiding

Invocation: Reverend A. H. Pitzer

Address :


Professor J. B. Davidson,
Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa

. Address:


S. H. McCrory, Chief of the Bureau of
Agricultural Engineering

United States Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D. C.

President Frank L. McVey

Benediction: Reverend A. H. Pitzer

October 28, 1931 Three o’Clock Agricultural Engineering Building




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The College of'Agricultu're at the engineering building will [be dedi- idson, head of the farm engineering
University of Kentucky is now 'eq- cated October 28. The Speakers will‘ work_ at Iowa. (State Cblllege. The
W to teach farm vows how to “swell ‘ fitterrzttreksgssfmst
operate the most modern types of g ‘ g ‘ ng w , -

. . . in the United States Depairtment latest types of farm implements»,
machmerxa Its ’new algpcullturall. of Agriculture, and\Dr. J. B. Dav— I toole and! appliances.

202 Private Uri—1w _ _...._
207 Private Office ‘ _

205 Extension Workers Office

206 Work Room

208 Blue Printing Room

209 Storage for Office


Room No. Concrete Laboratory

Room No. Storage

Room No. Hydraulic and Drainage Laboratory
Room No. Switch and Meter Room



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“if um; ‘ qa'd unnamed 3W 9A1



anmuaquvlnlnxo ‘Lwoowaa VNVIHLNLD 3m. [



11m ma

Tractor and Power flachimry Laboratory
Farm Machinery Laboratory

Stow Room

Farm mp

Farm We: class Room

Entomology laboratory

Tool Rom

Student flash Room

Faculty wail: Boom

Farm Rotors laboratory

Sanitation and Ham Squiment laboratory


Glass Boom and Laboratory for Farm
Buildings mad 13W Courses
Gonna). Otfioe

Private ‘Offioa

Private Office

Extension worhra Office

War]: Room

Blue Printing Room

Storage for Office


Room No. Concrete Laboratory

Room No. Storage

Room No. Hydraulic and. Drainage Laboratory
Room No. Butch and. Meter Boom



 The Development of Agricultural Engineering
(This address was presented by Dr. J. B. Brownlee Davidson, Head of
the Department of Agricultural Engineering, Iowa State College, Ames Iowa
in dedicating the Agricultural Engineering Building on the Experiment Station
Farm, University of Kentucky Campus, October 28, 1931)

For a department of instruction, in a great educational institution, to be
recognized by the erection of a splendid building for its use, such as we are
gathered this afternoon in a formal exercise to dedicate, is a significant event.
An appreciation of the importance of the branch of education so recognized and
faith in the men supervising it in the institution, are affirmed.

It scans quite appropriate in connection with the dedication of a. new agri-
cultural Engineering Building to trace the development of Agricultural Engineering
to outline its contribution to human progress and consider briefly at least, the
future possibilities for its development. I consider it a high honor to be in-
vited to do this.

It would seem desirable in beginning a discussion of the subject to outline
as clearly as possible the field of agricultural engineering. Being one of the
newer branches of educat ion, and representing to a certain extent a reorganization
of older branches, there may be some opportunity for a lack of a common under-.-
standing of the scope and character of agricultural engineering. It is obvious
that agricultural engineering embraces the relationship 01‘ agriculture and
engineering. Furthermore, it must be recognized that any significant factor

in agriculture is endowed with a degree of importance. For agriculture, the

industry committed with the production of food and raw materials used for food,

shelter and clothing, supplies a basic need of mankind. Agriculture along with
education and homemaking are the three primary industries to which all others are

secondary, and subservient.



Turning to engineering, an accepted and conventional definition
for engineering is "the art of organizing and directing men and utilizing
the forces and materials of nature for the benefit of mankind”, In other
words, the engineer is a specialist innlgbgr - "the organization and
direction of men," in power - "the forces of nature", and.materials - "the
materials" of construction and manufacture. Regardless of the branch of
the profession to which an engineer may belong, the motive and objective
of his work is to utilize labor, power, and materials to produce efficently
the goods and services to suppMy human needs, to make life more confortable,
surroundings more pleasant, environment more liveable, facilitate travel,
transportation and communication, and to provide opportunity for recreation,
culture and advancement.

The engineer contributes to these objectives in three ways: First,
by doing a thing so well that it does not need to be done over again for
some time - for instance, water'may'be carried from a well to the house in
a pail and the requirements for water-may be such that the trip to the well
and return.may be repeated several times in a day. By stretching a pipe -
an elongated container from the well to the house introducting a pump to
move the water in the pipe, the container does not need to be moved or re-
placed. The selection of the right kind and quantity of materials makes

the installation permanent.

The second way in which the engineer works is to reduce the waste and
to make effor more effective. The cleaning of grain, removing weed seed,

reduces waste of effort in growing a crop. The building of a hard surface
road reduces the waste due to rolling resistance to a wheeled vehicle.
Artificial silk has an appeal because it obviates the necessity of looking
after:3ilk worms and the spinning of artificial silk costs less in effort

than to unwind raw silk from cocoons.



The third principle field of activity of the engineer is to multi-
ply the output of human effort by the application of power. The process
began when early man subdued an animal, perhaps an ox, and tied it to his
crude plow and the development in the use of power continued to the present
use of fuels and the power of waterfalls. lhe application of power to
conserve labor and increase output is something to cogitate about. Man as
a motor is hopelessly outclassed. A strong man can develop about one-
eighth of a horse power, an insignificant amount when output is desired.

A man may travel with his own energy about 2 1/2 miles per hour. With

power in an automobile on a good road is practicable to travel 60 miles

per hour and 220 miles per hour miles has been attained. The principal

cause for the difference in speed is power.

The output of the worker the world over is directly related to the
amount of power utilized per worker. In China most of the workers work
without any assistance in the way of a motor. The production under such
conditions may be considered unity. In France with the power used per
worker it is estimated that the output is increased 8 1/); times; in
Great Britain 18 times and in the United States 30 times. To use an illus-
tration frequently used, every American worker has the equivalent of thirty
slaves at his command.

A committee of the former Association of American Agricultural Colleges
and Experiment Stations, as far back as 1900, defined the subject of rural
engineering as "the science and art of laying out farms, designing and
constructing farm buildings and works, (including water supplies, irrigation,
drainage, sewage systems and roads) and the construction and use of farm

machinery" .



The American Society of Agricultural Engineers has seen fit to define
its field simply as - "the art and science of engineering related to agri-
culture." This definition indicates that agricultural engineering instead
of representing a splitting off or segregation of a group of specialists
from the parent groups as was the case of civil engineering from military
engineering and later mechanical engineering from civil, and still later
electrical engineering from mechanical, was a bringing together all the
phasas of engineering involved in and related to, agriculture. In this
respect agricultural engineering is like mining engineering or ceramic

As new organized in most education institutions, agricultural engineer-
ing is subdivided into four main subjects, vim:

Land development, including drainage, irrigation, and land clearing.

Farm Structures.

Fem Utilities, the water, sanitary, lighting, heating and ventilating
systems, used in farm buildings and farmsteads.

Power and Machinery.

In tracing the development of agricultural engineering, some attention
must be given to each individual branch because their development has taken
place under different circumstances.

As a member of a Rotary Club, I have listened to many talks by members
on their classification, that is their business or profession, as the case
may be. It seems the customary thing is to begin at the beginning and many

professions take considerable pride in their traditional background. I have

the honor to claim that the agricultural engineer is the oldest-of all pro-

fessions. Tradition relates that before the age of man, when his predecessor
the monkey depended upon the natural products of the forests for food, there
was one year a shortage of oocoanuts, due to drought or some similar cause.

Under normal times the trees dropped sufficient cocoanuts to furnish a



bountiful supplyof food, but this particular year not only were the nuts
consumed which were dropped but those in easy reach were exhausted and
starvation threatened the tribe. One monkey more ingenious than the others
conceived of knocking off the nuts which were ctu of reach with a club

thus saving the tribe from starvation. I contend that here we observe

the first agricultural engineer and that he had invented a "harvester".

The improvement, development and reclamation of land by drainage and
irrigation are old arts and can be traced back into remote antiquity.
Herodotus, the Greek historian, tells of the practice of drainage and irri-
gation by the Egyptians in the Valley of the Nile as early as 100 B. 0.

Many Roman writers refer to these arts. The reclamation of large areas

by the Dutch are of historical importance. Drainage in the United States

had its beginning in 1835 when John Johnston at Geneva, New York, laid his
first drain.

Irrigation was practiced in the United States before the coming of the
white man. The beginning of modern irrigation should perhaps be credited
to the Mormon pioneers in Utah.

Land clearing is distinctly an American practice. Perhaps in no other
country has there ever at one time been such a large area of stmnp lands
left from harvested forests as in America.

At the present time in the United States (1920) Census of the 365
million acres of improved land in crops, 53 million or 114.5 percent have
been made available by drainage, 1? million or 5 percent by irrigation,
and 5 million or 1.1; percent by land clearing.

Ayres and Scoates estimate that the total improved land in farms,

503 million acres, may be increased should economic conditions justify,
by 155 million acres or 31 percent.

Fam structures have grown from the simple buildings of the pioneers

to one of the largest classes of structures in the country.



It is asserted on fairly good authority that under normal economic conditions
to percent of the building construction of the country is on the farms. The
1930 Census gives the value of fem buildings for the United States as 11 1/2

billions or 111.7 percent of the fixed capital of the farms.

No material development has contributed so much to rural life as fem

iitilities. Comfortable homes, heated and ventilated, water supply systems,
proper disposal of wastes, lighting and power systems for the home are the
eamarks of a high standard of living. From simple devices we have advanced
almost wholly during the last century to the point where it is estimated
that in our most advanced sections the majority of the farm homes are equip-
ped with modern utilities.

It is in the application of power to agriculture to modify labor, making
it less arduous and more a matter of the mind and less of brawn, and}/ to
increase the output of the worker, that we find the most fascinating develop-
ment of American agriculture. The development of this phase of the appli-
cation of engineering to agriculture has been so recent and so rapid, that
its story is actually thrilling. From the early beginnings of agriculture
down through thousands of years and including the early experience of our
own fathers, hand methods of production prevailed in agriculture. In the
comparatively short time of three-quarters of a century the output of the
farm worker has been multiplied many times and the character of farm labor
entirely changed. here is an urgent temptation to to to cite statistics
and figures to illustrate just what has taken place but instead I think it
will be more interesting to describe a feature of a pageant enacted at the
annual meeting of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers last June
(1931). In this pageant the development of harvesting machines was illus
trated to an audience assambled'on a grandstand adjoining a rye fibld. All



of the tools and machines used in harvesting were actually demonstrated
from the hand sickle of the ancients to the modern combined machine of

today. Many men who had used hand tools in their younger days were enlisted
to demonstrate the use of these hand tools and the binding of the gain.

It is the last episode of the pageant that I wish now to describe because

it was so impressive as to almost startle the spectators. First came a
laborer with a cradle, carrying a sack containing a small quantity of grain
representing the product of one hour of labor with hand tools in the harvest-

ing and threshing of grain. Immediately following this laborer was a truck

carrying in sacks piled high the product ‘of one hours effort of