xt71vh5cc84j https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt71vh5cc84j/data/mets.xml Flagg, Edmund, 1815-1890. 1853  books b92-280-32596682v1 English C. Scribner, : New York : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Venice (Italy) History 1797-1866. Venice (Italy) Description and travel. Venice  : the city of the sea, from the invasion by Napoleon in 1797 to the capitulation to Radetzky, in 1849 (vol. 1) / by Edmund Flagg. text Venice  : the city of the sea, from the invasion by Napoleon in 1797 to the capitulation to Radetzky, in 1849 (vol. 1) / by Edmund Flagg. 1853 2002 true xt71vh5cc84j section xt71vh5cc84j 




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              VIEW uF THE I'LNSI-LA.


 EVErYTWEING abont Venice is extraordinary. Her hbstory Is like a dream-her aspect
 like R romHance.-Dypw:..


            IN TWO VOLUMES.

                     VOL. 1.

                  NEW YORK:



             iEntered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1858, by
                            CHARLES SCRIBNER,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern Dis-
                              trict of New York.

  12 Spruce Street, N. Y.




                     OF LCUISVILLE.

  PERMIT me, dear Prentice, to honor these volumes with your
name. The humblest of Western writers might, perhaps, claim
this as a right of the most distinguished, though nothing were due
to a long and faithful friendship. But there is a claim yet more
undeniable. If to " perpetrate a book " be that crime which the
Preacher would seem to intimate, when he says-" Oh, that mine
enemy would write a book !"-then, for the perpetration of the
present book, it is a question, whether you may not be arraigned,
as hardly less criminal, than the actual perpetrator !-whether, to
all intents and meanings, you may not be deemed, at least a parti-
ceps criminis !-an accomplice not only " before the fact," but " in
the fact," and " after the fact ;" since, very surely, but for your sug-
gestion these volumes would never have been commenced,,and but
with your encouragement they might never have been completed.
Nay, more, but for certain flattering words from your pen, years

ptizatorjl 61'stlt.



ago, when, for the first time, the writer found himself anonymously
"in print," in all the glories of actual type, in the columns of the
" Louisville Journal," he would, in all probability, never at all, here-
tofore, nor at present, have intruded in the line of letters. And,
more yet-but for your own suggestion, with express disavowal of
all political claim, the writer would, in all probability, never have
been honored with that position which has enabled him to prepare
the present work.
  You perceive then, dear Prentice, that it is clearly impossible you
should avoid acceptance of the responsibility now imposed; and, if
you can not find it in your good nature to assume nearer relation-
ship to an adventurer about seeking its fortunes, you will, at 'least,
most benevolently, accept the office of godfather; thus adding one
more to the many obligations of,
                             Most faithfully yours,
                                         EDMUND FLAGG.
  NEW YORK, July 4th, 1853.




1. TIHE PIAZZA,   .    .






Vignette Title

   Page 15

   " 347

   " 427





Page 822

  " 893


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  THESE volumes do not aspire to the dignity of History Should
they supply a deficiency in the Literature of the day, and afford the
future historian a digest of material, they will have subserved their
  That a comprehensive view of Venice as she once was and as she
now is, together with a sketch of her invasion by Napoleon and her
fall in '97 after fourteen centuries of flourishing existence, has long
been a desideratum, every tourist in North Italy is aware; while it
is certainly remarkable, that, among the numberless volumes of
" Revolution Literature" since '48-49, not one has appeared to
record in detail the heroic struggle of the " City of the Sea." Had
such a work in any language appeared, the present would never, pro-
bably, have had existence; although, doubtless, an American pen
can always render events in another land more comprehensible to
an American reader, than could even a native of that land himself.
Thus Botta, for example, has presented the Italian a far more lucid



view of the American Revolution, than could, perhaps, the most
graphic and impartial of American historians.
  Facts being the object of this work, every available source of in-
formation has been called on for its quota-the history-the archive-
the review; the pamphlet-the newspaper-the placard. To the
accomplished historian of the Italian Republics, and to the excellent
Itinerary of Lecomte, the writer has been chiefly indebted in his
Introduction. The works of Thiers, Scott, Botta, Spalding, and
others, have been freely consulted and carefully collated, in absence
of original archives, in Part First; while, to the little volumes of
Debrunner, Garrano, and Contarini, and to the larger ones of Ma-
riotti, Pep6, and Stiles, as, also, to foreign reviews, to journals of
the day and to the writer's own contributions to their columns during
official residence abroad, he has been greatly indebted, in Part
Second. No labor has been spared to render the work reliable as
a reference.
  Despite all efforts, however, errors will, doubtless, have occurred;
though the suggestion may, perhaps, be pardoned, that, considering
deficiency of reliable material and the conflicting character of much
possessed, it is almost as noticeable that errors are so few as that
they are so many.
  NEW YouK, July 4th, 1853.



                    CONTENTS OF VOL. T.


                        VENICE PAST ASD PRESENT.

  VEa-eE in the Sixteenth Century-The Venice of reality and of vision-There Is but
ono Venice-Origin of Venice-Tue Dro, -'I'e clisina of the Grand Council-The Coun-
cil of Ten-Reseniblance to the Vehtine Gericlit-Its benlliti-tR3 terrors-The Golden
B3ook-The Seven Councils-V'ropwrity of Venice-Coototllerec-Mrereantile Marine-
Conquest and glory-ViAress of' the Adriatic-lHer dLaughters Q jeens-T o W'inged Lion
a.siNllilicant symbol-Her po)wer and policy-The -Nicodlitti and the Castellail-Their
sporlts-Mardi Gras-rite lHegutta- I lie A rscna!otti-ibtoric Evsents -Gallileo-P'etrarcls
-Tue Library of St. Mark-Tule Aldili-Thle fIrst ne-wspaper and the firat batik-In-en-
fions--Decline of Venice-The War of Candia-Tihe War of the Succession-The Peace
sf Paassarowvitz-Despotisim and decay-Liherality-Ifenry IV.-France-The last days-  
Luxuiry-License-Licentiousness-The Carnival-The mask-The gondola-Addison'
ruit and descriptioni-Napoleon's invasiki-Sobaisiuent events-P-omantic dissolaticn-
'hi(lde lfarold-''hie Traveller explects to tind a ruin-Venice no ruin-Niobe of the Sca-
IFouiled ott piles fiets of the waves-Leaning towers-Tine's changes--Massive man-
hions-Indicia of decay-l'e desolate picturcsque-M'ore---yronltehley-Poetic Je-
retijals--Submnersion -Regeneration-V isiters--Vsels - lailroad-Nouseums - Monn-
ments-Menrentoes of the siege of '49-Dentoition and degradation or palaces-Practical
util ity-Canal,-','leanlinecs  Sal tibrity-Tlhe  Plague-Clitnate- Market-A  retreat-
_No'ii ail gaiety-Gondola songs-The m,)oolight serenale-Tite Titeatres-Occupations
of iiihabitants-First lmpresslons-Disap)oilttnent--Ciiange the picture-iow to visit
Ventice ariglit-The Cathedral-Thle Ducal PalwCuiTlre Chur!ches-Tlie l'alazzi-Tho Isles
-The Camplianile of St. IMark-Tule Iiaz.a-Adlenda-Adouiters of Vtimcce-Quotations
-13yron's residence at Ven ice'rhe Gaicciol i-The seqael-The Marehioness of Bolossy-
Tlhe Mace St. Mark-Scenes it lats witnessel-Its PalacLus-Tite Clock-Tower-The Bell-
Tou-er-The Coptic Columns-The Stone of nltane-hite Porpthyry Iliadl-The three Sta-
titte-rile Porta della G'arta-Exterior of tle l)ueal P'alace-Giaiit, St-ircease-HIalhl of the
Grand Couneil-Its renihiiiiceices-Hlall of the Bal'lt-1Ptll of the Ten-its scenes-Cabi-
net of the Threeo-Tho h'ionbi-Thlie LozI-Tlie Bridgoe of Sighis-IlalI of the Anmbassa-
T-irn-hlahl of tile St-nate-The ChApel-Ili-totry of the Ducal Palace-J'he churches of
Veraice2-Ier reliitous poi'cy-- Roile's impotent tlndlers-Priests-Cmnalolh)1itca-Tho
Church of St. Peter-The Brides of Venice-St. Mark's Minster-St. Mark's remrains-
St. Mark's niiracles--X Museutm of mosailc-Opulence aild splendor-Tue Salut6 church-
The Jledeairs-S'an Giigio   F'aiorc-Tiio  Irari-Titian--Canova-The Fuseari-Pe-
caro's Torttni-Sairtts John and Paul-Tie pctter Martyr-The equestrisit statue of Col-
eoti-l-Lt. Malrk a stern task ioaster-,.Mwt llwitio of Venice-San Servsolo and San Latz
zaro-Cthurch of the Josaits-The Itialto Bridge-i'ontemnplated improvements-The
Scaizi ehuroh-Other churchos-Their contents and hlstories-San Jacopo di Rialto-The
cburchaes of the Isld-The Lidt-lletrospect, .15


.. .


                          PART FIRST.

                  VENICE EN '96-97. HER FALL.

                             CHAPTE3 I.

 Fr:r,. h Revolation-Inconsistency of Venice-Expulsion of Louis XVIII.-Bonaparte
 eit.rs Italy-Series of trinmph-Enters Venetia-Proclarnation-Reception-Occupies
 Pe:e.ie ra-The Venetian Senate-Diseission-Neutrality alopJted-Embassy to Bona-
 p.rte-Verona occupied-Alliance urged-Second cautpaign-Mantua taken-Venice arms
 -Ea ta error-Declines an alliance, ..59

                            CH APTER II.

                         TIHE VERONESE EASTER.
 N ap,,,leon departs for Vienna-Insurrection-Sensation at Venice-The Conncils-Depu-
 tatioa to Bonaparte-The interview-The menace-Bloodshed and devastation-Dupl!city
-l.insor of defeat-Armistice of Leoben-A thunlering letter-Easter at Verona-mas-
Facre-Bombardment--3ubmission-Outrage at the Lid,  .13

                            CILIPTER      IIl.

  reception of Envoys at Gratz-Their dismIssal-War declared-1 eply of the Senate-
PRevolt of towns-French troops reach the Lagune- 'auseless panic-Darker days before
-r.esource--Dissension-Bribery-Terror of the Council-Commissioners to Bonaparte
-PRcception-Anarhby in Venico-Conciliation,1S7

                            CHAPTER IV.

                                SPOLIATION. '
  The zreat Council-Panic-The last ballot-Anarchy-F.ntry of the Frcnchb-Peception
-Treasy of Milan-Destruction of Insigna-Thc Beretta-The Golden Book-Secret arti-
eles-Napoleon's designs-The Venetian Navy-The spoils-The museum-The Bronze
Steeds-Venetian robbers-The Lion of St. Mark-Family namnes-The Giust1ilani-The
works of Art-Archives-The Piombi and Pozzi-The Count d Entraigues, .  .  20S

                             CHAPTER V.

                             CA5IPO FOREIO.
  Scrni'tion at Paris-Dnmolardfs Speech-Foes of Bonaparte-His Indlgnation-Joeephlne
at Venice-The Court of Montebello-The happiest days-The Preliminaries of Leob- n-
Te'lious conferences-The Directory-Warl ke preparations-Polic7 of Napoleon --Induce-
ments to peace-Snow on the Alps-The la]-t c-rnference-The ultitnatum-The Treaty of
Camupo IForwio-Peparture from Italy, .225




                           CUAI'TER VI.

                               " PERFIDY."

 Tihe Treaty at Venice-Duplicity-Oecupation by Austria-N'apoleon's opinion of
 Italians-Recapitulation-Conduct of Napoleon and of Venice-Thle case of Poland-
 Causes of the cession-The people-The nobles-Retribution-Baseness of Austria-Ma-
 rengo-The kingdom of Italy-Austerlitz-Plus VII-Napoleon at Venice, .  .  241

                           CHAPTER VII.

 Mementoes of Napoleon at Venice-The conscription In Italy-Improvements-Amuse-
 ments-The Abdication-Tho Congress of Vienna-Austria In Italy-Imperial Charter-

                          CHAPTER VIII.

 Naples in 1820-Secret societies-The Carbonari-Mlasonry-Revolution-The Congress
 of Laybach-Byron's contribution-Defeat of Neapolitans-Arined Intervention-Its his-
 tory andl eftects-Piedznont in 1S21-The Papal States-Byron at Ravenna-Journal of
 insurrection-Arrests at Milan-Foresti and his associates-Silvio Pellico,  .  .  270

                           CHAPTER IX.

                           " YOUNG ITALY."
 The two Sicilies-The Bandiera Brothers-Sir James (Grabam-Mazzini-Popery-Mo-
 dena-Partna-Austrian bayonets-PIlo Nono-Influence of his position-Occupation of
 Ferrara-Its effects-Carlo Alberto-Lombardy-Coronation of Ferdinand-The Ocean.
Queen,.                                                                289

                         PART SECOND.

                 VENICE    IN  '48-49.    HER    RISE.

                            CHAPTER I.

                            Rj:TROSP ECTION.
 Government of the Lombardo- feneto-Popnlar Education-The silk culture-The two
 Capitals-Napoleon's foot-prints at Venice-Iler decay-Regeneratlon-Increased value of
 property-Cawue of prosperity-Causes of complaint-Blindness of the oppressor-Tbe
 awakewng& .306
           VOL. 1.-1




                             CIL[I'TER      II.

                               PEVOLUTION !
  Projet of Reform -Nazari at Milan-Manin at Venice-Thfe Athenmsum-Tommasoo and
Manin-Arrest of the patriots-Popular excitemnent-Martial Law-Revolution on the
Contineut-Demonstrations at Niflan-Preparations of Austria-The troats-Agitation at
Milan-Repression-martial Law-Revolt-The Five Days-Atrocities--News-balloons--
Evacuation-Panic and mutiny-Provisional Government-Insurrection of the Provinces
-Expulsion of the Austrians,-Modena and Lucca,.                          322

                            CHAPTER III.

                                  BLOOD !
 sqews of Revolution at Venice and its effects-Demonstrations-Tho Piazza-The Cam.
 penile-The Piazetta-Count Palffy's chamber-Release of the patriots-Speech of Manin
 -The tricolor of Italy-The tocsin-People dispersed-Austrian blunders-I'lacards-As-
 sault on the Guard-Bloodshed by the troops-" To arms! '-A Civic Guard-Menaces of
 vengeance-A Constitution-Conciliation-Fraternization-Ill umlnation-Blunders,  343

                            CHAPTER IV.

                               MAP.INO VIClI.

  Assassination-Re-aetion at Venice-Rumor of a plot-Marinovich-The Arsenalotti-
Intervention of Manin--Conference of the p triots-The Arsenal-Viva San Marco!-
Slaughter of Marinovich-His dereliction of duty-Thle first miracle-Placards-Policy of
the revolutionist&-Captare of the Arsenal-Palffy and Zichy,              360

                             CHAPTER V.

 Municipal conference-Deputation to Palffy-TIis resig-nation-Interview with Zichy-
 Demands and concessions-Convention of capitulation-Proclamnation-Weakness of the
 two governors-Speech of Manin-Firmness of Culoz-Surrender of the forts-Palffy and
 Zichy at Vienna-Republic proclaimed-Provisiornil Government instituted-The Stan-
 dard of St. Mark-Exposition of the Madonna-The American Consul-The policy of a
 Republic, .872

                            CHAPTER VI.
                            " THE HOLY WAR."

  First acts of the Republic-Festa of St. Mark-Deserters-Swiss-Crusaders--Padetzky's
retreat-Proclamation of Charles Albert-Preparations for war-Duplicity-The King at
Milan-Auxiliaries from Rome and Tuscany-Tho veteran Pep6-The Revolution at
Naples-The -Neapolitan Army of Expedition for North Italy-Recall of Pepe-Insurrec-
ti ,n at N'aples-Return of the troops-Pep6 passes the Po-Defect'on of 'iun-Csuses-
D),sturhances of '43-Inconsistency-Comparative forces-Retreat of Radetzky-Austrians
rontedI-Insurrection of the towns-Gorzkowsky at Mantua-D'Apre at Padua-The
'ew Crusade,"  .    .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .    .  .    .   .   89



                            C'JHAPTER VII.


  The Republic of Venice to other governments-Envoys-Sympathy of England and
France-Prontises and proposals of Austria-Ifer holl on Venice--Proposals rejectel-
"1 The Kingdom of North Italy "-Events at Venice-Inaction of Charles Albert-Activity
of Napoleoen-('ontrLst-Loss of the Austrian fleet-Measures of admuinistration and de-
f-nce-Spirit of I'eCvoluti,)n,                 .41

                           ChiPTER VIII.

                           "LA SADA D'ITALrA."

  Patriotic contributions--Padtial-Ciowgi.a-Festa of Pius V.-The monk Gavazzi-Tili
eharacter aud career-Ugo LBassi-IHis end-Gavazzi's ealogy-The Italian Letnion-The
Neapolitan fleet-Combats in the Aips-Skirmish near Viceuza-Decrees of Government-
Second attack on Viceulza-l'lockale-Annexztain-Two parties at Venice-Assembly
convoked-The lking crosses the Mi ncio-Liadetzky burns Castelnovo-Combats at Pas-
trenogo, Croce  hiauca, and Santa Lucia-Suspension of bostilities-Deserters-Advance
of Nugent-Comnbats of Curtatone and Goito-Capittulation of l'eschlera-Tbie fortress and
Its defenee-Inactivity of the King-Activity of l'a'hetzky-Fall of Vicenza-Sweplcions
against I)Drando-Ancient Venice-Fall of Treviso-Obstinate defence-Occupation of
Mt-stre-Naval moveemcnts-Nonfinal blockade of Trieste-Protest of Germany-Her
hostility to Italy-Venetian ileet,.                              .   .   426


  XOTJ;.-Correetnof:, or even uniformity, in the spelling of foreign words, and especially
of proper namned, seems by no means an easy task in an English book. Snbjoined are
thco which appear to have suffered most In these volumes:-Acqua, Pescheria, .o-
cenigo, Moroeini, Cappelo, Conaro, Ticino, Vincenzo, Valegglo, Custoza, Lago, Galateo,
Thsdetzky, Wimpffen, Schwartzenberg, Alessandria, 'Mussulmans, Bevilacqua, Bau.din,
Apponines, trabaccolo, canaletto, ricochet, liaison, gendarnes.


               Ut r   to utiI.


     There is a glorious city in the sea !-
     Thue sea is in the broad, the narrow streets,
     Ebbing and flowing; and the salt sea-weed
     Clings to the marble of her palaces.





I. )


        . .....
- 7'S-4--P,  -,
  Zlf",      c




  IMPERIAL VENICE!   The Ocean Queen !    The throne of a
thousand years 1 The mistress of an hundred isles! Venice, with
her prisons and her palaces-her ducal domes and her dusky dun-
geons-her Rialto Bridge and her Bridge of Sighs! Venice, with
her Piombi and her Pozzi-her leaden roofd and her mystic " wells"
-her racks and her i' Question"-her bronze steeds and her Giant's
Staircase-her Strangling-chamber and the Winged Lion of St.
Mark! Venice, with her monks and masqueraders-her courtiers
and courtezans-her sbirri and signory-her bravoes and beggars-
her fanatics and familiars-her Improvisatori and Gondolieri-her
Doges, her spies, her terrible " Ten 1" The home of Tasso, and Shy-
lock, and the Moor! The city of the gliding gondola and the
moonlight serenade-of snowy plume and sable mantilla-of the
crimson tabarro and graceful zendale-of the guitar and the stiletto !
The city of crime and chivalry-of gloom and gaiety-of mystery
and mimicry-of canals and causeways-of piety and poetry-of


religion and romance ! The city of the Ridotto and the Regatta-
of the Lagune and the Lido-of the Carnival, the Bucentauro, and
the " espoused Adriatic !" The mart of Europe for the opulence of
India! Genoa's rival-Italy's emporium-Rome's last refuge from
"the scourge of God !" Christendom's citadel against the Greek
and the Goth, the Saracen and the Frank ! The sea-city of free-
dom!   The lazar-house of despotism!     " Gehenna of the waters !"
VENICE ! What a flood of associations throng the memory at men-
   It is years since the above florid sentences were first written; and
it was years afterwards before the writer bad seen the Venice he then
so ambitiously strove to represent. Venice in her prime- 'Venice in
the sixteenth Century"-Venice three hundred years ago-they pur-
port to portray; and, though the traits were drawn from       history
and fancy, many of them are scarce less true of her as she is, in the
middle of the nineteenth century, than as she was, in the middle of
the sixteenth. Venice, in many respects, is the most changeless
capital of Europe. Her scenes and localities it is impossible should
change, until, indeed, she fulfil the ancient and favorite prevision,

                 "Sinks, like a sea-weed, into whenco she roe."

Venice is, also, so dream-like-so like a dream-so like " the stuff
of which dreams are made," that, with a few general outlines in the
mind gained from Canaletto, it is not difficult to dream out a
pretty correct panorama of her visionary charms.
   Antonio Canal, or Canaletto, as he has been named, owed, to a groat extent, that
graphic power of his views of Venice, which has rendered him famous the world over, to
the use of the camera. Names are common to Italian artists, based on place of nativity,
peculiarity of genins, or on other like circumstances. Battaglia was called Tempesta
for his skill In representing storms. Bambini owed his name to his genius for painting In-
fants. Padovanino, Veronese, Bassano, Pordenone and Vicentino owed their soubrigmts



                              VENICE.                             17

   "Venice," says Byron, " is one of those places which I know be
fore I see them."
  "I feel as I gaze around me," says Mrs. Jameson, " as if I had
seen Venice in my dreams; as if it were itself the vision of a dream."
  " You should go to Venice," says Willis, " to know how like a
dream reality may be."
  And yet, after all, the Venice of reality never resembles the
Venice of vision; and of no city in the world is the remark of the
celebrated Volney more true: "It is vain that we attempt to pre-
pare ourselves, by the perusal of books, for a more intimate acquaint-
ance with the customs and manners of nations; for, the effect of
narratives on the mind will always be very different from that of
objects on the senses."  Venice is so utterly unlike every other city,
in the world, that no symbols or comparisons are afforded by what
is known of others for its description, or even its idea. No city but
itself can be its parallel, or its comparison. " There is but one Venice
in all the world." Amsterdam, and Rotterdam, and Copenhagen
are intersected by canals spanned by bridges; and Stockholm occu-
pies seven rocky islands and two peninsulas. But here all likeness
ceases.  Who would think of comparing the Flemish, or the
Swedish, or the Danish capital with the City of the Sea, any more
than their respective inhabitants  Everything, therefore, is strange,
peculiar, remarkable in Venice; and the writer who takes up his
pen to attempt to convey an idea of it to distant friends, finds him-
self, at once, "' all at sea" in the multiplicity of novel objects which
crowd upon his mind, each claiming attention; while the confusion
and bewilderment caused by this throng of unusual scenes renders

to the names of the places of their nativity  Cuticello to a wound In the band; Sebastian
del Pio-b- to hi3 office of exciseman of lead under Clement VIE.; Tintoretto to the trade
of his father, a dyer; Glorgione, because very tall, his namno being Giorgio; Zingaro be.
cause a wanderer-whom like Quentin Metays, govr transferred from the forge to the easeL


is                 THE CITY OF THE SEA.

him quite' unable to do Justice to any. He knows not where to
begin; and it is not until he has fixed on a starting point-it is
not until he has decided to take the city in detail-to analyze it, as
it were, and to delineate its objects of interest in classes, that he
finds himself making the least progress in conveying an idea of
Venice. To present a coup d'oeil of the sea-city, therefore, or to
attempt it, and then to sketch the elements of which it is composed,
would seem the only mode of doing her anything like justice; yet,
even that mode would be a hopeless one. In fact, Venice is inde-
scribable !
   Most persons know more of the Ocean-Queen as she was fourteen
centuries ago, than as she is in the present; more of her history for
fourteen hundred years, than during the half hundred years last
past. The reason seems obvious. The annals of Venice, since her
fall, have found no chronicler. That Venice was founded early in
the fifth century, by a body of Italians fleeing before Attila, to
ninety small islands formed at the head of the Adriatic by the debris
of the rivers flowing from the Appenines and the Alps; that, pro-
tected by the locality and their poverty, and supported by fishing
and salt-making, magnificent Venice, rising like Aphrodite from the
sea, in a few centuries almost verified the line of the poet Sannavar-

                   " Men built Rome-the gods Venice !"

that the zenith of her grandeur was reached at the close of the
fifteenth century, one thousand years from her origin, and that then,
the discoveries of Columbus and Gama struck a blow at her com-
merce from which she could never recover-all this is known by every
child who has faithfully studied his school geography and his Com-
pendium of History.
   About the year 400 of the Christian era, Consuls were sent from



Padua to govern the Port of Rivo Alto, the central isle of the
future Queen of the Adriatic. In the library of the Camaldulites
at the Convent of St. Michael, where is now the cemetery of Venice,
is to be seen a decree of the Senate of Padua in 421, ordering the
fugitives, who were scattered upon the isles of the Lagune, to unite
on that of the Rialto, for the purpose of founding a city and con-
structing a fleet. Seventy-three years later, the other islands be-
coining settled and peopled, a Tribune for each was chosen by the
inhabitants. This continued from 473 to 503, a period of thirty
years, when a single Tribune for all the islands was substituted,
which regime lasted for seventy-one years. In 574, the number of
chief magistrates was increased to ten, so continuing for one hun-
dred and thirty years, until 604. when it was again increased to a
dozen, and so continued for ninety-three years, until 697. But
the Tribunes became tyrants and the system  was abolished. A
solemn assembly was convened at Heraciea, one of the islands of the
Venitian Archipelago, by the Patriarch Gradus, and a Duke, or
Do'e, was chosen to govern all the islands of the Lmgufne consoli-
dated into a State. Then began the Doges, Anafesto of Hera-
clea, being the first. He and his successor reigned quietly, but the
third Doge, Urseo, was massacred by the people, and the govern-
ment was again given to magistrates annually elected, called
"Masters of the Militia."  This lasted until 742, when Ziani, the
fifth of these officers in succession, was deposed and deprived or sighti,
and Deodato Urseo, son of the last Doge, and the third of the
Baster8, was elected Prince. But, in 75o, after a troubled reign of
thirteen years he, also, was deposed and deprived of sight. Then
follows for a period of 1043 the long line of Dores, whose Dan-
te8que portraits look down from the walls of the Ducal Palace, be-

             Meaning-" Deep stream"-whenoe Rialto, by elision.



2O                      CITY   OF   THlE SEA.

ginning with the ninth, Obelerio, in 804, and closing with thelast,
Manini, who abdicated in 1798.      The number of families which
furnished Do-es was remarkably small.          The office was in the Con-
tarini family eight times and in the Moncenigo seven. In the year
1612, when the celebrated Angelo Erno was elected, amid         furious
popular commotions, the Doyat had, for a period of more than two
centuries, been continuously held by only nineteen patrician families!
During the first five hundred years a very large number of the
Doges were deposed and deprived of sight, massacred by the peo-
ple, or banished. Indeed, of the first fifty Doges, one-third were
violently dethroned. A large number, also, abdicated; and three of
them, Participazio, in 932, Urseolo, in 978, and Malipieri, in 1192,
" implored peace" in the shades of a cloister. In the Ducal
Palace, only. one hundred and fifteen      of the one   hundred    and
twenty Dosses have portraits; and, after that of MIanini, are vacant
pannels for thirteen more. In the frame which the portrait of the
fifty-seventh Doge should fill, hangs a black veil bearing the words-
Ilic est locus Marini Falieri decapitati pro criminzibus.t
   Thus-from the fifth to the sixth century, Venice was ruled by
 Consuls; from the sixth to the eighth, by Tribunes; and from the
 cighth to the nineteenth, by Doges, Anafesto, the first Doge, be-
 ing elected in 697, and Manini, the last Doge, abdicating in 1798.

  The striking profile resemblance of the Doges of Venice, es shown in their portraits
 in the Ducal Palace, and in their busts upon their tombs, to those of the celebrated Dante,
 Las been more than once noticed. The sharp and aquiline features of the Italian poet,
 with their severe yet serene expression, who that has overseen them on the canvass, or
 in the marble, can forget  The same Dantesque face is that of the Doges of Venice.
 t After the treason of Faliero, every representation of him was destroyed by order of
 the Senafe. Even his portrait in the picture of the conquest of Zara in the Ducal Palace
 Nowas effaced, and a soldier substituted for the victorious gene-ral TLere is, however, said to
 exist one portrait of him at Treviso, which has always been kept very secret and very
 sacred, in a family of which holV was a friend. Am apocryphal portrait of this Doge is, also,
 shown in the Museum of Sanquirico, at Venice.



   The island of the Rialto, which was, at first, the capital of the
Lagline, was soon superseded by that of Malamocco, at the extre-
mity of the Lido; and, though once destroyed by inundation and
once by conflagration, Malamocco continued the capital, until, early
in the ninth century, Pepini, the father of Charlemagne, King of
Lombardy, having taken the neighboring isles of Chiogggia and
Pelestrina, advanced his galleys thitherward with hostile intent.
Powerless to resist, the inhabitants sought safety in the shallows of
the friendly Lagune, where the pursuing galleys were stranded and
burned; and, once more concentrating themselves on the cen-
tral isle of the Rialto, the spot became the settled seat of future
power. The smaller islands, some of them solid and even granitic
in soil, but most of them scarcely firm enough to uphold the weary
sea-bird pausing in his flight, were united to the capital and to each
other by bridges; the interveningy canals were deepened; churches
and palaces were erected; and the mighty march of Venice began.
  For a period of more than three centuries the power of the Doge
was nearly absolute. He made peace or war, commanded the army
and navy, selected his counsellors, appointed officers, condemned or
pardoned the accused, and often designated his successor. In the
ninth century commenced curtailment of his powers, and it continued
from year to year, and age to age, until hardlv a shadow remained.
By his oath of office he engagred to seek no augmenta