xt71zc7rng7f https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt71zc7rng7f/data/mets.xml Galvayne, Sydney. 1912  books b98-45-42333950 English Bailliere, Tindall and Cox, : London : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Horses Training. Horses Physiology. Polo.Galvayne, Fred. Treatise on training ponies and playing polo. XXth century book on the horse  / by Sydney Galvayne ; also A practical treatise on training ponies and playing polo / by Fred Galvayne. text XXth century book on the horse  / by Sydney Galvayne ; also A practical treatise on training ponies and playing polo / by Fred Galvayne. 1912 2002 true xt71zc7rng7f section xt71zc7rng7f 














THE XXTH CENTURY BOOK ON
       THE HORSE

 
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THE XXTH CENTURY BOOK


             ON THE HORSE





                               By
                   SYDNEY GALVAYNE
.4uthor of "The Horse, its Training and Management:" 'Horse Dentition;" "The Points of the Hors-
Ladies on Horseback," 'c.; : War Horses, Present and Future; " Remount Life in South Africa," &C.


                   With nearly 2oo Original Drawinga



                          Also a practical



TREATISE ON TRAINING PONIES AND



PLAYING POLO



            (19 Original Illustrations)
                   BY
FRED. GALVAYNE (Manager, Societe du Polo, Paris)



THIRD     X k      _


        (I_        0



EDI TION



                 LONDON
BAILLIERE, TINDALL AND COX
   8, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN
                  1912
               [Alt rights eservd]

 
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   THIS WORK IS DEDICATED

       (BY PERMISSION)

              TO
MIAJOR-GENERAL VISCOUNT DOWNE,

       K.C.V.O., C.B., C.I.E.

 
This page in the original text is blank.

 


















         PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION

THE Second Edition has been out of print for some considerable time,
      and as there has been a steady demand for the book ever since, we
have ventured to reprint it without alteration. The author had intended to
add a chapter on Riding and Driving, but owing to continuous ill-health
during the last two or three years he has been forced to relinquish the
attempt. Beyond this addition it was not his intention to make any change;
the book is therefore substantially the same as if it had been revised under
his supervision.  We sincerely trust that when another edition is called for
the author may have sufficiently recovered to enable him to extend the
scope of the work in this direction.
                                                 THE PUBLISHERS.

    Ml1/to 1912.



ix



1)

 
















        PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

LITTLE did I think when I published the First Edition of this work
     that in so short a space of time (a few months only) I should be
writing a Preface to the Second Edition.
    I have gone most thoroughly through the First Edition, and have made
such alterations and additions as appear to be necessary, which I hope will
enhance its value.
    I take this opportunity of thanking the Press for their kindly interest
in my work. It has been extremely gratifying to me that they have been
so unanimous in their expression of approval, recognizing in it a book of
" great originality and practical worth," the result of a lifetime of personal
experience with horses in various parts of the world, under most varied
circumstances on sea as well as on land.
    The success attained by my most serious attempt at authorship induces
me to write a companion volume, to be called Practical Horsemanship:
Training, Driving, Riding, Saddle and Side Saddle, which is dedicated by
permission to His Grace the Duke of Portland, K.G., G.C.V.O., P.C. I trust
this work will be equally well received by the public and also by the Press.

                                              SYDNEY GALVAYNE.
    December, i906.



T

 
















PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION



IN presenting to the interested public of Great Britain THE TWENTIETH
CENTURY BOOK ON THE HORSE-my latest, most comprehensive and
complete work on the subject-I trust the reader will pardon me for indulg-
ing in a few preliminary observations of a purely personal nature, inspired
by a reference I have just made to the date of publication of the first edition
of my work entitled The Horse, its Training and Management, which was
dedicated by permission to His Grace the late Duke of Westminster. I
observe that this book is dated i888, sixteen years ago, and four years after
my arrival in this country from  Australia.  It was with considerable
diffidence-a commodity of which the typical Colonial is not usually con-
sidered to possess a superabundant supply-that I then ventured to publicly
claim ability to teach the horsemen of Great Britain, who have enjoyed from
time immemorial a deservedly high reputation for skill and proficiency in
equine matters, anything new and valuable respecting the management and
treatment of the horse. I naturally felt very dubious as to the nature of the
reception which would be accorded a stranger who claimed to practically
revolutionize an important section of the theory and practice of a science in
a country in which its pursuit has been followed for centuries with keenness
and enthusiasm. But my fears were entirely groundless. I was received
with more appreciation, kindly feeling and genuine hospitality by all classes
of English society than, in my wildest dreams of anticipation, I hoped or
expected to receive. I feel sure that in no country in the world but England
would such generous toleration have been shown, and such a reception have
been accorded, under the circumstances.
    The feeling of satisfaction with which I am filled when I indulge
in a retrospective view of my early experiences in Great Britain is con-
siderably damped when I realize how many of those who were most con-
spicuous by their kindness and hospitality towards me have now "crossed
that bourne whence no traveller returns."
                                    xi

 





Preface to First Edition



   For the benefit of those of my readers who belong to the present genera-
tion, and who may not therefore be acquainted with the nature and scope of
my work in the " eighties " I may state that my object was the intro-
duction of an entirely new method of breaking horses based upon what I
designated the " humane and scientific " system, as opposed to the ordinary and
sometimes violent and abortive methods hitherto in vogue; and, secondarily, at
the diffusion and advocacy of new ideas relative to the general management
and treatment of the horse. Had I contented myself with theoretical ex-
positions of the new methods I advocated, there is no doubt that the result
of my efforts would have been far different and much less satisfactory-and
rightly so. But I did not confine myself to theorizing. As is well known to
those who are old enough to recollect my first visit to this country, I prac-
tically demonstrated, on hundreds of occasions in public, and in every town
and city of importance in Great Britain, that, beyond all possibility of doubt,
my system was not only more in accordance with modern ideas of humane
treatment of the lower animals, but also infinitely more efficacious in its actual
results than the systems practised up to that time. I gave hundreds of lec-
tures and public exhibitions in every part of the country, and conducted
classes in every great centre of the population-classes which comprised in
the aggregate many thousand members-for the purpose of expounding, popu-
larizing, and demonstrating the efficiency of my new methods and ideas. My
success was striking, immediate and indisputable. In face of the palpable
proofs I afforded of my ability to subdue and break any horse submitted to
me, however vicious, brutal and apparently intractable it might be, in a
minimum of time and without resorting to methods involving violence and
exhaustion, it was impossible for the most prejudiced to retain their preju-
dices and deny the soundness, efficacy and superiority of my system. The
hundreds of testimonials I received from some of the most eminent personages
in the land afforded gratifying proofs that my efforts were appreciated by those
competent to judge, and a perusal of them will enable the reader to form an
idea of the measure of the success I achieved. Among the distinguished
noblemen and gentlemen who attended my lectures and demonstrations, and
publicly expressed their complete and hearty approval of my system, were
the late Duke of Westminster, the late Duke of Northumberland, the late Duke
of Teck, the late Duke of Manchester, the late Duke of Sutherland, the late
Lord C(,mbernmure, the late Marquis Talon, the present Duke of Northum-
                                  xii

 






Preface to First Edition



berland, the Duke of Wellington, Lord Middleton, Colonel Anstruther-
Thomson. M.F.H., Major-General Viscount Downe, Sir Thomas Barrett Len-
nard, the late Principal Williams, F.R.C.V.S., Edinburgh, and very many
other eminent men whose approbation and endorsement it was very gratifying
and encouraging to secure.
    Among the hundreds of professional attendants at my classes and ex-
hibitions may be mentioned the following :-the late Dr. Geo. Fleming, C.B.,
F.R.C.V.S.; Prof. J. W. Axe, Lecturer, R.C.V.S., London; Prof. T. Wi alley,
M.R.C.V.S.; Prof. MI'Call, Prin. Vet. College, Glasgow; the late Capt. B.
Russell, F.R.C.V.S.; G. T. Pickering, F.R.C.V.S.; Vet. Capt. Mt. Horace
-Hayes, late of the A.V.D.; Professor Dewar, Royal (Dicks) College.
    I may also be allowed to mention that in September I887 (Jubilee Year)
I had the very distinguished honour of appearing at Balmoral Castle by
command of Her Late Majesty Queen Victoria, and of giving exhibitions of
my " humane " system before Her Majesty, the Princess Beatrice, and other
members of the Royal Family.
    One of the most valuable portions of the work, although occupying a
relatively small amount of space, is that on " Horse Dentition." It contains
an exposition of an entirely original system for ascertaining the age of a horse
or mare at any period of its life, by an inspection of the animal's teeth. In
view of the fact that until I elaborated and published this system it was re-
garded as practically impossible to correctly estimate even the approximate
age of a horse over seven years old (from the appearance of its teeth), it will
be readily admitted by all who are interested in equine matters that any
method which infallibly indicates the exact age of any horse from foalhzood up to
the age of thirty years or more, and which is so easy of mastery that the merest
tyro can acquire a practical knowledge of it in the course of a few lessons, is
one of considerable importance and real utility. For proof that my system
actually accomplishes this I refer the reader to the facts embodied in the
treatise itself, and also to the indisputable fact that, out of the many
hundreds of exhibitions of age-reading I gave publicly in this country, tlw;,
is not on record one single instance of failure or mistake on my part.
    I would like here to remind the reader that for two years, during the
late Boer War, I held the position of Director of Breaking to the Imperial
Army in South Africa; that, in the discharge of my duties in that capacity,
I had to deal with horses from almost every country on the face of the globe,
                                    xiii

 





Preface to First Edition



some of them afflicted with practically every conceivable vice; and that out
of the thousands that were treated by me, on the lines indicated in this book,
only sixteen were ultimately rejected by me as being unfit through vice for
active military service. To those who know anything whatever about horses
this fact will be eloquent and conclusive testimony to the soundness and prac-
tical value of my system.
    I may, in conclusion, make special reference to the treatise on Polo, and
the selection and training of the Polo Pony, by my son, Mr. Fred Galvayne.
He assisted me during the whole of my tour in Great Britain, at the termination
of which he went to India with horses for H.H. the Nizam of Hyderabad.
On his return to this country he associated himself with an extensive estab-
lishment for the supply of Polo Ponies and Hunters, ultimately devoting
himself entirely to Polo Pony training and to the practice of the game itself.
He was subsequently offered, and accepted, the management of the SociWte du
Polo, Paris, which position he still occupies. It was entirely at my suggestion
and earnest request that he consented to embody his ideas relating to that
game in literary form for submission to the public. Personally I feel that he
was quite justified in taking such a step, as the information he gives is essen-
tially practical, and is not to be found in any other single work on the subject.
I hope and believe that the treatise will prove of interest and real utility to
all who practise the fine and deservedly popular game of Polo.

                                               SYDNEY GALVAYNE.
  February, :1905.



Xiv

 



















                             CONTENTS

                                                                        PAGE
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.   .    .    .   .    .   .    .    .   .   ix
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION .    .   .    .        .   .    .            X
EXPLANATIONS OF VARIOUS TERMS AND SPECIAL APPLIANCES USED BY THE AtUTHOR . XXiV
THE MANAGEMENT OF THE COLT    .   .    .   .    .   .    .   .    .     3
THE BASIS AND PRINCIPLES OF THE "GALVAYNE " SYSTEM OF TAMING AND TRAINING  I6
THE ART OF " GALVAYNING  .    .   .    .   .    .   .    .   .    .   .   23
THE MANIPULATION OF THE LONG-REINS IN THE RING  .   .    .   .    .   .   33
CATCHING A COLT AND TEACHING IT TO LEAD.   .    .   .    .   .            42
THE "GALVAYNE" SYSTEM OF "GENTLING" AND " MOUNTING" A COLT  .   .   .  50



BITTING A COLT THE FIRST TIME
MOUTHING AND BENDING
TRAINING THE COLT TO OBEY THE Blf
TRAINING THE COLT TO THE COLLAR, BREECHING, AND SHAFTS
EDUCATING THE COLT TO NOISE
TRAINING A COLT TO MANAGE A VEHICLE
TEACHING THE COLT ITS PACES
TEACHING THE COLT TO JUMP   .
How TO PUT A VICIOUS HORSE IN A STRAIGHT JACKET
THE RAREY SYSTEM
TRAINING A COLT OR HORSE TO STAND FIRE.  .
TRAINING A COLT OR HORSE TO STEAM OR MOTOR-CAR
USEFUL HINTS WHEN HANDLING COLTS
BITS AND BRIDLES
XENOPHON ON THE MANAGEMENT OF TILE HORSE
CURIOUS FALLACIES CONCERNING THE HORSE
EVERYDAY MISMANAGEMENT OF THE HORSE
BAD HABITS AND VICES-THEIR CAUSES, PREVENTION. AND CURES
THROWING
TYING A HORSE TO PREVENT IT FROM BOLTING WHEN UNATTENDED
HOBBLING, KNEE-HALTERING, PICKETING, RINGING, AND TETHERING
THE GALVAYNE " HUMANE " TWITCHES AND GAGS



            57
            59
            67
            72
           74
           78
           84
           93

  . . 100
         992
           IO02
           I04
           Io8
     . .  110
  . . "I9
    .   .  I21
         . 123
           I26
        3 13
           i65
           i66
        I74



TWO EFFECTIVE GAGS TO FACILITATE THE EXAMINATION OF THE MOUTIH, OR FOR
   PURPOSES OF OPERATION ..  
COLOURS AND DESCRIPTIONS .    .   .    .   .    .   .   .
                                   xv



i85
i86

 
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Contents



                                                                             PAGE
THE GENERAL CONFORMATION OF THE FORE-LEGS             .   .    .    .       . I9I
CONFORMATION OF HOCK-GOOD AND BAD             .       .    .   .    .       . I96
THE EXAMINATION OF A HORSE WITH REGARD TO SOUNDNESS .        .    .    .    . 199
HORSE DENTITION. The Galvayne Method of correctly ascertaining the age of a Horse
    by its teeth, from foalhood to old age..                 .     .        . 212
BARRENNESS IN MARES .      .    .           .      .    .    .    .    .   . 239
MARES FOALING. Their Symptoms and Treatment and the early management of the
    Foal.                   ..                          .    .    .    .   . 240
STABLES        .    .   .    .    .    .    .      .    .    .    .    .   .  244
FEEDING AND STABLE MANAGEMENT, ETC.         .      .    .    .    .   .    . 246
MANAGEMENT AND FEEDING OF STALLIONS KEPT SOLELY FOR SERVICE PURPOSES     . 249
SHOEING, ETC.    ..                                .    .    .    .    .    . 253
CASTRATION       . ... . .                                                    259
HINTS ON THE PREVENTION OF DISEASE AND INJURIES    .    .    .    .    .    . 262
ADVICE TO THE EQUINE NURSE             .    .    .      .    .    .    .      264
DISEASES AND AILMENTS OF THE HORSE          .      .    .    .    .    .   . 266
       Balling - Drenching - The Pulse - Temperature - Bleeding - Colic or Gripes -
   Flatulent Colic-Diarrhoea-Dysentery or Scours-Inflammation of the Bowels-Fever
   or Chill-Influenza-Founder of the Feet, or Laminitis-Constipation-Worms--Cough-
   Strangles-Lampas-Cracked Heels and Grease-Mudfever--Corns-Thrush--Canker-
   Stringhalt-Navicular Disease-Sprains-Rick, or Chink in the Back-Mange-Ring-
   worm-Wounds-Sore Shoulders-Broken Knees-Brushing-Sitfasts and Warbles-
   Lymphangitis, Weed, or Monday Morning Fever-Splints-Sidebones-Ringbone-
   Spavin-Curb-Glanders and Farcy-Horse Sickness-Biliary Fever-Ticks-Medicines.



xvi

 
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THE POLO PONY    .
    Good mouth
    Bad mouth
    Good temper .
    Riding
    "Riding Off"
    Practice game .
    The Polo Ground
    Goal posts
    A back line
    The thirty-yard line
    The centre line .
    The eight players
    Plan and dimensions of a polo groux
    Hurlingham rules and regulations
HURLINGHAM RULES AS DECIDED ON
THE GAME
    No. i player
    No. 2 player .
    No. 3 player .
    No. 4, or " Back"
A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENI
        THEM
    Off side forward
    Hitting out to an angle of 450 to th
    Off side back-hander
    Hitting under the tail from right to
    Hitting under the neck from right t
    Hitting under the body from right t
    Near side forward
    Hitting under the neck from left to
    Near side back-hander
    Hitting behind and across the pony'
UMPIRING     .   .
A SYSTEM OF SCORING
MANAGING THE GAMES



POLO

                                          PAGE
                                          293
                                        . 295
                                        . 295
                                        . 296
                                        . 296
                                           300
                                        . 300
                                        . 301
                                        .304
                                           304
                                           304
                                        .304
                                           304
                                        . 304
                                           304
                                           305
                                           3IO
                                         . 3O
                                           3I3
                                           3I4
                                        . 315



ES USED IN POLO, AND HOW
       . . .
       . . .
       . . .
       . . .
       . . .
       . . .
       . . .
       . . .
       . . .
       . . .
from left to right .
       . . .
       . . .
       . . .



A PLAN OF A GROUND FOR THE GUIDANCE OF UMPIRES
                                       Xvii



TO MAKE
       . 32I
          321
       . 322
       . 322
       . 322
       . 325
        325
     . 325
       . 326
       . 326
       . 326
        329
       . 332
          335
        33(

 













                        LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


                (In many drawings the proportions are purposely wrong.)
PLATE  I. Portrait of the Author         ..                      .frontispiece
                                                                                  PAGF
PLATE  2. The Points of the Horse                                                    I..  .          .    .    .  
PLATE  3. The Unbroken Colt                        .     .    .         .     .      5
PLATE 4. The Author's patented Single Skeleton Brake                  .    .    .    5
PLATE  5. The Author's Long-shafted Exercise Brake                                   9..  .     .  
PLATE 6:-          ..                                                 . . . 13
            Diagram I. A double hitch
            Diagram 2. A slip knot for holding a leg when thrown
            Diagram 3. Halter with a choke knot in the shank
            Diagram 4. A true lover's knot, will not slip
            Diagram 5. A granny-the above wrongly formed-will slip
            Diagram 6. The slip bow knot tying the Galvayne strap.
PLATE  7. How to fix the tail cord on a long tail:-         .         .    .     .   24
            Diagram 7. Doubling the tail preparatory to putting the half hitches
                on with the plain end
            Diagram 8. The hitches tied
            Diagram 9. The portion' of the tail doubled up with the hitches on,
                showing the half hitches made with the looped end
            Diagram Io. Showing the plain knot in the tail and the hair divided
                ready for the " Galvayne " strap
PLATE  8. A Colt in the " Galvayning" position                        .     .    .   27
PLATE  9. A Colt being " Galvayned " and third-handed from behind  .  .    .   27
PLATE IO. A vicious Horse, when in the " Galvayne" position, trying to attack
                the trainer .    .     .    .         .     .              .    .   39
PLATE II. A Colt being taught to lead by the author's method          .     .    .   39
PLATE 12. The hair, or leading rope, when adjusted     .              .     .    .   43
PLATE I3. A Colt being taught to lead under the old system            .     .    .  47
PLATE 14. Broken loose and waiting to be caught again       .               .    .  47
PLATE 15. The correct position, when mounting a Colt        .         .    .    .
PLATE I6. The incorrect position when mounting a Colt                    .       .   53
PLATE i6A. The body raised in position previous to striding    .     lacing p.  56
PLATE i6B. The Colt Mounted        .         .6
PLATE I7:-    .    .                                   .    .         .     .    .   6I
            Diagram iI.   A good-tempered Colt with its mouthing just completed
            Diagram I2. A jointed bar snaffle
                                          xviii

 








List of Illustrations



PLATE 17 (continued):-  .       .
            Diagram I3. A 4-ring half-moon snaffle
            Diagram 14. Another method of tying the tai
                reliable as the other described
PLATE i8. The Colt with mouthing tackle on
PLATE io. The Colt being exercised in the ring with rur
                of the whip only .



PAGE
  6r



I cord on, but not quite so



ining reins on, by contr,



20. The Colt being taught to obey the bit .
2i. Training the Colt to " shafts "
22. Educating the Colt to noise .
23. Training a Colt to manage a vehicle
24. Training a Colt or kicker, the first position of the poles.
25. Training a kicker, second position of the poles
26:-   .     .    .    .
     Diagram  I5. The cord "gag" twitch
     Diagram i6. The side bar
     Diagram I7. NO. 2 twitch off
     Diagram i8. The ordinary twitch



27.  No. 2 tvitch applied for the purpose of grooming a biter or kicker
28. The vicious race horse, "North Riding," with No. 2 twitch on
29. Curing a halter-breaker, or training a horse to a motor-car or steam
30. The runaway twitch
3I. The runaway twitch when applied .
32:-   .    .    .     .    .    .    .     .    .    .    .    .     .  
     Diagram i9. Showing how to fix the cord and pulleys on one or two fore-
         legs, as used with rearers, etc.
     Diagram 20. A Horse with a cradle on
     Diagram 2i. A rearing or runaway twitch as fixed to the saddle
33. The author's method of curing a kicker in the stable
34. Training a confirmed "jibber"
35. A Horse prepared for throwing with hobbles.
36. The Horse just about to fall, when being thrown with hobbles
37. The Horse prepared for throwing single-handed, by one of the Author's
         methods
38. The Horse down, head extended   .
39. The head pulled round to the surcingle so as to prevent it rising
40. A method of tying, the whole process only requiring one man
4i. A Colt prepared to be thrown with side ropes
42. Another of the author's methods for single-handed throwing
43. The author's method for confining both fore and hind legs
44. The author's method for shoeing a kicker, holding the leg backwards
45. The author's method for drawing the leg backwards and forwards
                                    xiX



. 63

 63
- 69
.69
 75
 75
 8i
 8I
  .85



9'
9'
105
I05
I27
I32






'4'
I4'
I5'
151


'55
I55
'59
'59
163
163
167
167
I71



PLATE
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List of Illustrations



46. The author's method of confining a Horse in a straight jacket
47. A quick and effective method by which to cure a " kicker " or " bucker "
48. One of the author's South African "friends" coming for him while in the
         ring



PLATE 49. Another South African "friend"
PLATE 50. The author's method of tying a saddle horse to prevent its running away
                when left unattended
PLATE 5i. An old acquaintance from Australia
PLATE 52:-       .    .    .       .                    .    .
            Diagram 22.  A strap and hooks to prevent a horse running away, also for
                 locking the wheels of the vehicle
            Diagram 23. The " ball" gag.
            Diagram 24. The " Roller" gag
PLATE 53. An Australian " Crush
PLATE 54. Giving six diagrams of various formations of the fore legs.
PLATE 55. Giving six diagrams of various formations of the fore legs
PLATE 56. Giving six diagrams of various formations of the fore legs
PLATE 57. Diagram 43. Faulty trotting action
           Diagram 44. Perfect action and formation
           Diagram 45. Common hind quarters
           Diagram 46. Well-bred hind quarters
PLATE 5.8. Giving six diagrams of the formation of the hind quarters and position of
                the hocks
PLATE 59. Giving six diagrams of the formation of the hind quarters and position of the
                hocks in repose and motion



PLATE 6o:- .
            Diagram 59.
            Diagram 6o.
            Diagram 6i.
            Diagram No.
            Diagram 63.
            Diagram. 64.
PLATE 6i:- .
            Diagram 65.
            Diagram 66.
                ball



PAGE
'17
'75

175
'77

i8i
I8r
z84





I87
192
194
'95
I97



201

204
205



The seat of spavii
The seat of curb
A Yorkshire boot
62. A plain balling iron
A screw balling iron
A kicker being shod quietly with No. i twitch on



How a physic ball should be held
A correct illustration of the operation of administering a



PLATE 62 :-     .     .    .    .     .    .    .         .     .       .
            Diagram 67. The operation of bleeding from the jugular vein
            Diagram 68. The figure 8, as it should be applied after bleeding
PLATE 63. Showing how the lower incisors are placed in the lower jaw, and the
                difference in formation between temporary and permanent teeth
            Diagram 69. The shape of temporary or colt teeth
                                         xx



207




209




213



PLATE
PLATE
PLATE

 








List of Illustrations



PLATE 63 (co-tinuel) :-  .     .           .
            Diagram 70. The shape of permanent or horse teeth
            Diagram 7I. Showing the formation of the incisors in the lower jaw of
                 the Horse
PLATE 64.  Four diagrams of foals' teeth from birth to eight months old
            Diagram 72. Foal's mouth at birth
            Diagram 73. At three weeks old
            Diagram 74. Outside view of lower jaw at six months
            Diagram 75. Inside view of lower jaw at eight months
PLATE 65.   Five diagrams of the lower incisors from one year up  .
            Diagram 76. Inside view of the lower jaw at twelve months
            Diagram 77. Inside view of the lower jaw at eighteen months
            Diagram 78. Inside view of the lower jaw at two years, off
            Diagram 79. Inside view of the lower jaw at 2A years
            Diagram 8o. Outside view of the lower jaw rising three years
PLATE 66:-     .    .    .     .    .     .    .    .     .    .    .
            Diagram 8i. Inside view of the lower jaw at four years
            Diagram 82. Outside viewv of the lower jaw rising four years
            Diagram 83. Inside view of the lower jaw at 41 years old, showing develop-
                 ment of corner teeth
            Diagram 84. Inside view of the lower jaw at five years old, showing out-
                 side wall of the corner teeth level



PLATE 67:-   .
            Diagram 85.
            Diagram 86.
            Diagram 87.
                 age
PLATE 68:- 
            Diagram 88.
            Diagram 89.
            Diagram go.
PLATE 69:- .
            Diagram 9i.
            Diagram 92.



70. Inside view of
7I. Inside view of
72.  Inside view of



                               . . . . .. . . . . . 2i6
Front view of both jaws of a three year old
Side view of both jaws of a four year old
A top and front view of the lower incisors at five years of



Side view of both jaws at five years of age
Inside view of lower incisors at five years of age
Front view of lower jaw at five years of age

Side view of both jaws at six years of age
Inside view of lower incisors at six years of age
the lower jaw at seven years old
the lower jaw at eight years old
the lower jaw at nine years old



PLATE



73:-  -  
     Diagram 93. Side view of the top jaw at ten years of age
     Diagram 94. Side view of both jaws at nearly twelve years of age



PLATE 74:- -       .     .    .     .    .    .
            Diagram 95. Side view of top jaw at fifteen to sixteen years of age
                                            Xxi



.  2I7




. 22.,



. 220
. 221
. 22I
. 223



.  22(



AGE
213



2I3





214







2I4



PLATE
PLATE
PLATE

 








List of Illustrations



                                                                                      PAGE
PLATE 74 (continued) :-                                                     .          221
            Diagram 96. Side view of top jaw at twenty-one years of age
PLATE 75:-         .       .    .     .    .     .                             ,    . 227
            Diagram 97. Inside view of lower incisors at twenty-five or twenty-six years
                 of age
            Diagram  98. Outside view of lower incisors at twenty-five to twenty-
                 six years of age
PLATE 76:-    .    .     .    .     .    .    .     .    .     .    .     .    .    . 230
            Diagram 99. Side view of top jaw at twenty-five to twenty-six years of
                 age
             Diagram ioo. Inside view of the lower incisors at thirty years of age
PLATE 77:-    -    .     .    .    .     .    .     .    .                              I
            Diagram ioi. Side view of top jaw at thirty years o1 age
            Diagram 102. Side view ot lower jaw at thirty years of age
PLATE 7S:- .       .     .    .    .     .    .     .    .               .     .    . 233
            Diagram  103. Showing the Sections of an incisor at v-arious ages from
                 five to thirty years
             Diagram I04. Showing sections at five, fifteen, and thirty years
             Diagram  IO5. Showing a natural cup surrounded by the white enamel
PLATE 79:-         .    .     .    .     .    .    .     .    .     .    .     .    . 233
             Diagram  io6.  Showing an artilicial or Bishoped cup not having any
                 white enamel
             Diagram io7. A tush at five years
             Diagram ioS. A tush at about twenty years
             Diagram io9. A tush at an extreme old age
PLATE 8o.   Dentition table                                                            231)



xxii

 

















POLO-ILLUSTRATIONS