xt722804xk2q https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt722804xk2q/data/mets.xml  1869  books b92-175-30417785 English D.D. Nicholson, Printer, : New York : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Berea College History.Thompson, Joseph Parrish, 1819-1879. Historical sketch of Berea College  : together with addresses in its behalf / by Rev. Jos. P. Thompson ... [et al.] at Cooper Institute. text Historical sketch of Berea College  : together with addresses in its behalf / by Rev. Jos. P. Thompson ... [et al.] at Cooper Institute. 1869 2002 true xt722804xk2q section xt722804xk2q 


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Lo istorifl fkete-



             TOETaER WITH




D.D., L.L.D.,
STORRS, Jr.. D. D.

At Cooper Wstityst.

     New 'York:

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  BEREA CJLLEGE came into existence as the result of
God's providence, rather than of direct human plan-
ning. The men, from whose labors it was an out-
growth, were seeking to spread the knowledge of
Christ, and promote the cause of liberty, rather than to
lay the foundation of a literary institution; but in pro-
claiming Christ as the source of true life and love as
the only rule of action, they sowed such seed as must
always in the end produce the higher seminaries of
learning. The seed which they scattered tremblingly
amid fiery persecution, was watered and protected by
God's own hand, and under his fostering care speedily
brought forth much fruit, of which, not the least im-
portant, was a Christian college. The institution itself
has been a growth from a small beginning, and has been
hastened in its development scarcely less by the oppo-
sition of its enemies, than the labors of its friends. He
to whom it was consecrated, from the first manifestly
took it under His own special care, so that its manag-
ers have been led more and more to feel that they must
not lay unsanctified hands upon it, and that their only
work is continually to seek divine guidance and follow
the course His finger points. Its history, thus far, has
been one of constant struggle with difficulties on the par;



of those conductingit, and has shown divine care on God's
part, that the vine of his own planting should not be
seriously injured. His provi(lences have caused that the-
very efforts by its enemies for its destruction, should
be the means of laying its foundations deeper and
stronger. If, in the future, Hle should make it to be a
greater power for Christian Education than some col-
leges starting at once with all the resources that human
wisdom and wealth can contribute, no man or set of
men will be able to lay claim to the glory.
  Its location was not selected by human sagacity,
though it has often been asserted by as good judges as-
the country affords, that no other spot could be found
on the whole so desirable. No wise men carefully sur-
veyed the region, and after a full consideration of its
physical geography, and distribution of population, said,
"This is a place to build a school for Christ;" but He
Himself selected the spot and commenced the work,
before his instruments knew that it contained all the-
advantaLres desirable.
  Situated near the centre of Kentucky, on the plateau
of a long, low ridge which forms the connecting link
between the far famed blue grass plains, where the
mass of the colored people reside, and the. "hill coun-
try," the home of the hardy mountaineer, its very
situation seems to invite to it those for whose benefit
it was founded. Thus far it has been a few miles from
the great thoroughfares. But for this it could scarcely
have had an existence, so obnoxious to many have
been its principles.
  It is eight miles from the Richmond and Louisville
R. R. and six from the state road from Lexington to-



Cuniberland Gap. Two lines of railway have been
chartered and surveyed, which will probably be built,
and pass through this place. One from Cincinnati to
Knoxville, and the other from Louisville to S. Western
Virginia, crossing the former at or near Berea.
Its scenery, with the mountains on one side, and the
glades and sweep of undulating hills on the other, pre-
sents a varied and exquisitely beautiful landscape. No
healthier spot call be found. The soil, though not of
the most fertile kind, yields ample returns to skillid
culture, and is especially adapted for fruits. An un-
limited supply of timber is at hand, and mines of coal
are not far distant.
  The College is an outgrowth of the missionary work
of Rev. J. G. FEE and his co-laborers, under the care of
the American Missionary Association.  Mr. FEE, a
native of Kentucky and son of a wealthy slaveholder,
when in Lane Seminary became convinced that slavery
was wrong. He also became convinced that it was
his duty to give up his cherished plan of going as a
foreign missionary, and preach in his own state the
gospel of impartial love.
  After laboring successfully, though with many trials
in the northern part of the state, in 1854 Mr. FEE, at
the request of CAssIUs M. CLAY, visited Madison Co.,
Mr. CLAY'S home, and held a series of religious meet-
ings, and organized a church which gave no fellowship
to slaveholding. Twelve months later the church, com-
posed of fifteen members, invited Mr. FEE to become
its pastor. Seeing a wide door of usefulness opened
in this region, he accepted the call and removed his
family to Madison county. He was received cordially



by the people and soon organized other churches in the
adjacent region.  Presently, however, persecution
arose, but the Lord was ever present to deliver his
servants out of the hands of their enemies, while upon
them he poured the vials of His wrath. The deliver-
ances He gave to those who stood up for the poor, and
especially to Mr. FEE, were remarkable. An attempt
was made to stone him, but the Lord stretched out his
arm for protection. A mob proceeding to his house
quarrelled among themselves and dispersed. Another,
when on their way to their diabolical work, was de-
terred by a most terrific thunder storm. The bullet
aimed at him while sitting with his family at the even-
ing fireside, was turned aside by an unseen power into
the window casement. The retributive justice of God
upon those engaged in persecution was so marked that
even the wicked were affected thereby. The majority
of those engaged in acts of violence came to an Un1-
timely end. Mr. FEE, aided by other missionaries,
preachers and teachers, mainly from Oberlin, with
earnest self-sacrifice, undeterred by threats and mob
violence, devoted themselves heartily to their work.
Among them were Rev. 0. B. WATERS, Rev. W. E.
LINCOLN and Rev. GEo. CANDEE. The self-denying la-
bors of these, and especially of the latter in the moun-
tain counties, were productive of most blessed results.
Long after the other missionaries were driven from
the state, Mr. CANDEE held his position in the mountain
fastnesses, preaching the unsearchable riches of Chlrist,
protected by liberty-loving people.
  Duringthese days of trial, Rev. J. A. R. Rogers went
to Berea and devoted, by the advice of the Ex. Com.



of the Am. Miss. Asso., much of his strength to teach-
ing.  Educational efforts were so blessed by the
providences of God, that a deep interest was aroused
in the cause of learnihg, and a fresh impetus given to
the missionary work. At the literary exercises at the
close of the first term of the Berea school, there was a
larger assemblage of people than had ever been gath-
ered in that part of the county.  A wealthy slave-
holder from an adjoining county, a member of the Ken-
tucky Legislature, said that if Berea school went on,
Kentucky would be a free state, but he should hold on
to his slaves as long as he could. The following term
four teachers were employed. Many wealthy slave-
holders and the poorer people of the mountains gave
their patronage and support to the school.
  The institution had at this time assumed such a
measure of importance, that it seemed necessary to
have it more fully organized and regularly chartered.
Four ministers from different parts of the state and
leading men in the vicinity met, and with much earnest
prayer discussed for days the basis on which the school
should be founded.  The same persons met again af-
ter an interval of some months, and unanimously agreed
upon a Constitution and By-Laws. The following By-
Laws reveal the animus of the school:
  lst. The object of this College shall be to furnish
the facilities for a thorough education to dI persons of
good moral character, and at the least possible expense
to its students. To promote this end, all the facilities
for manual labor which can reasonably be supplied by
the Board shall be given to its pupils.
  2d. This College shall be under an influence strict-



ly Christian, and as such opposed to Sectarianism,
Slave-holding, Caste and every other wrong institution
and practice.
  3d. In the election of future members of the Board,
of a President, and Professors,and in the employment of
Teachers, no sectarian test shall be applied; but it
shall only be required that the candidate shall be com-
petent to fill the office and shall have a " Christian ex-
perience with a righteous practice."
  The original trustees were, Rev. J. G. FiE, WMX.
lRev. J. S. D vis, Jaii G. H.-Ns-s and Rev. J. A. R,
  It was not designed that the institution should be
what is technically called a " manual labor school."
The experiments to establish such institutions elsewhere,
did not seem to its founders to warrant the expense of
organizing a manual labor department under the manage-
ment of the college, but the trustees proposed to se-
cure labor for the students in other ways. In this re-
spect, thus far, they have been reasonably successful.
  It was also determined that while the school should
be evangelical, it should not be under the control of
any sect, or bound to select its teachers from any par-
ticular denomination. The school was regularly char-
tered under a general law as Berea College, with all
the rights and privileges the institution could desire.
  About this time, the question of caste came before
the community. The teachers and leading men quietly
declared that the spirit of caste was contrary to the
teachings of Christ. This increased the notoriety, but
diminished the popularity of the school, which, how-



ever, went forward doing its appointed work with
great benefit to its students, many of whom became
successful teachers and professional men, until the fall
of 1859, when immediately after the John Brown raid,
there swept over the South one of those waves of fear,
begetting fanatical rashness, for which the philosopher
finds it difficult to give any adequate cause.
  Kentucky was not exempt from its effects. Men in
Madison Co., who for a long time had been greatly dis-
turbed by the increasing influence for freedom going
forth from Berea and its school, which had now re-
ceived donations and purchased lands, taking advan-
tage of this excitement, openly declared that the time
had come when the leading men of Berea should be
driven from  the state.  The feeling against Berea
was increased by printed announcements that it had
been discovered that an insurrection was soon to break
out in Kentucky, and that a box of Sharpe's rifles, di-
rected to one of the citizens of Berea, had been inter-
cepted, and by other declarations equally false, until a
perfect torrent of rage was stirred against the commun-
ity, already obnoxious because of its influence in favor
of freedom. Honorable men, many of them slave-hold-
ers, and the mass of the people within a few miles of
Berea opposed this tide, but were unable to greitly
diminish its power.
  At length, a meeting of the citizens of the county
was called at Richmond, the county seat. A long ad-
dress was adopted by this meeting, in which there was
much said about the right of all communitiee to " self-
preservation " and the dangers to slave-holding com-
munities, of aholitwiniam. It was resolved, that a com-



mittee of "sixty-live discreet, sensible men" be ap-
pointed to "remi-ae from among us, J. G. zEE, J. A.
R. ROGERS, and so many of their associates, as in their
best judgment the peace and safety of society may re-
quire." The committee were instructed to perform
this duty as "deliberately and humanely as may be,
but most effectually."
  The committee first visited the Principal of the
school. Sixty mounted men drawn up in imposing
array presented themselves in front of his cot-
tage, and demanded that he should leave the state
within ten days. He told them that he had not vio-
lated any law and was entitled to the protection of the
Commonwealth, but was informed in reply, that his
vrinciples were incompatible with the public peace and
that he must leave. Ten other leading citizens were or-
ered away. They petitioned the Governor for protec-
tion, but were told that he could do nothing for them.
Having sought Divine wisdom they thought it vise to
leave, and went away with the full assurance that in the
Jord's time and way, they would be returned to their
  The spirit of the exiles is manifested in the following
extract fiom a letter written by one of their number
to the See's of the American Missionary Association
on the eve of their departure. "For a time I thought
it would be best for us to quietly pursue our work, and
leave the responsibility of our removal upon those who
might attempt it, but there is now but one mind as to
the wisdom of going away. We go sorrowing yet re-
joicing. I never saw more bright prospects for the
spread of the knowledge of Christ in this region than



to-day. God will overrule all." The school waas brok-
en up, its enemies thought destroyed and buried, but
all this was overruled, in order that in due time it
should have a resurrection in power and perform
"mighty works."
  The exiles were scattered through the North. Mr.
HANSON, one of the Kentuckians driven away, after a
time returned to look after his steam-mill, but was
hunted by enraged men through the mountains. When
some friends started for his reAcue, a skirmish took
place, but cannon were sent for and the mob were for
the time victors. But the triumph of many was short.
The truth of the declaration, "Vengeance is mine, I
will repay saith the Lordl, became apparent; for a
large number of those engaged in this work came top
an untimely end. The rebellion soon followed and
slavery was destroyed. After the war, most of those
driven from their homes returned.
  The school was re-opened January 1st, 1866. Stu-
dents flowed in from every side. In a few weeks some
colored scholars applied for admission and were re-
ceived. A large portion of the students already in the
school left. Some braved the storm and stood firm,
and Christ stood with them and cheered their hearts.
This step was not taken by the trustees and teachers
without counting the cost. The immediate result was
clearly foreseen, but counsel was not taken of flesh and
blood, neither was the inquiry made from a worldly
stand-point of what would be wise and expedient. The
word of God and example of Christ were carefully
studied, and much prayer offered that nothing should
be done rashly or in vain glory. Those who had the


school in charge, became fully convinced that they
could not exclude any, simply because of their com-
plexion, without being guilty of the sin of caste. They
asked on what principle they could debar from a college
consecrated to Christ, those redeemed by His own
precious blood. They felt that they could not sanc-
tion for a moment that pride which would refuse to sit
beside one in whom Christ was glad to dwell, simply
because of his color, if in every other respect he was
  Besides, their hearts yearned towards those who had
been deprived of the advantages of education, and now
earnestly asked for the key of knowledge. Nor have
the results been unsatisfactory. If the institution has
trained a less number of white pupils than it would,
had it been partial in its gifts, the education afforded,
when viewed from a Christian stand-point, has been of
infinitely greater value than it could have been if at
the sacrifice of principle. It is no advantage to have
the offense of the cross cease. The Christianity of a
college where there is no self-sacrifice is little worth.
Quite a number of the students who left, afterward re-
turned and rejoice nowe as heartily as their teachers in,
the principles of the school.
  God's providential care of the college has been its
most marked and important feature. The Holy Spir-
it's presence has never been lacking. lie showed Him-
self to be indeed the Comforter in the days of persecu-
tion and expulsion, and, if possible, the still more try-
ing days when friends forsook it because its doors were
opened to all who would conform to its wholesome reg-
ulations. Some of His blessings, especially at theseasons


of fasting and prayer will never be forgotten. His con-
verting power has been manifested every term, and al-
most every month. There have been several terms in
which scarcely one in the higher classes has been left
without a hope in Christ. At the weekly prayer meet-
ings, both in connection with the college and church,
precious testimony has continually been given of the
power of Christ to save from sin and satisfy every
yearning of the soul. Christ's lordship over the institu-
tion is recognized by the teachers, and their eyes are con-
tinually turned to Him as the source of all their author-
ity and help nor have they ever looked to Him in vain.
Leaning upon Him, they have found the work of disci-
pline comparatively easy. The piety of the college is
not such as is nurtured i; the cloister. Most ot the
students and citizens are obliged to work with their
hands more or less for their daily bread, and are con-
.tinttally brought to-gether in varied relations. Chil-
dren gathered in Sunday Schools in the vicinity of
Berea, and new students offer an inviting field ot labor
for those who love to wvin souls to Christ.
  The Lord has never been unmindful of the wants of
the college. Friends have been raised up when most
needed. During the dark hours when so many op-
posed the opening of the institution to all without dis-
tinction of color, cheerin g words from Pres. WOOLSEY,
Profs. MORG:AN, PARK, and DAY, Secretaries WniPPI.E,
JOCELYN and STRIEBY, Chief-Justice CHASE and many
others of the wisest and best men of the country, great-
ly strengthened the hearts of those who perilled much
to give a practical testimony against caste.
  Thouggh the institution has always been poor, yet its



pressing pe 1iinlary wants have been supplied. Feeble
as has been the faith of its trustees and faculty, yet the
Lord has heard their cries and answered their requests,
while they were still speaking. Soon after the school
was re-opened, there was needed 500 for a payment
on land, and shut up to God as the only source, the
brethren were making known their wants, when they
received from Rev. Lemnel Foster, of Illinois, of
whom they had nevw r heard, a check for 500, a dona-
tion since trebled by himself and worthy wife. And
thus has it been throughout the history of the college.
A friend who pledged to the institution, when it was
reopened, 100 a year, has sent five times that amount
annually. The last mail to Berea brought a letter,
saying that 500 must be paid at once, and another con-
taining a bill for over 200, but a third letter from a
good lady in Ohio said that she had 500 to lend the
college, while a fourth contained a donation of 300.
It is true that the trustees have sometimes been op-
pressed by debts for which no means were to be had
at the time for payment; and one or twice expensive
journeys have been requisite to secure money for emer-
gencies, but even these things have been overruled
for good.
  Its anti-caste character is presented by some as the
only reason for discouragement in regard to its future.
But the principle is right. It is as dear to Christ as
when he ate and drank with Samaritans, condescended
-to men of low estate, and declared with such emphasis,
"lHe that exalteth himself shall be abased, but he that
humbleth himself shall be exalted." The college is on
this broad foundation, and whether the larger part of



its students will in the future be from the colored race,
or as now in nearly equal numbers from the white and
colored inhabitants, its trustees cannot say. It is free
in this respect to be directed by the providences of
God. In all except the primary department, the num-
ber both of white and colored students, has increased
from the first. At present, a little more than half the
students are colored. In the higher departments, more
than half are white. The results upon the character
and general demeanor of the pupils, in admitting to
the same institution colored and white pupils, have been
highly satisfactory. As was expected, the improvement
in culture, habits of thought, and manliness of the col-
ored scholars has been much greater than it could have
been in a colored 8acool. Though it may seem strange to
some, it is believed to have proved also for the advan-
tage, rather than the detriment of the white students.
In exercising kindness and courtesy toward a pro-
scribed class, they have themselves become ennobled,
and attained greater gentleness and firmess of charac-
ter. In helping others, in accordance with an unchange-
able law of God, they have themselves been helped.
Looking at the matter with an unprejudiced eye, it
is believed that thus far no-ne can see any evil results
from the impartial character of the college.
  The institution is designed to provide the higherforms
of education for those who have little money to ex-
pend for that purpose, and is needed for the white as
truly as for the colored. It is greatly needed for the
loyal white people of the mountainous portion of East-
ern Kentucky and the similar region in other states
adjoining, not a few of whom are eager to secure its



advantages. The hill country of Eastern Kentucky
alone, upon the confines of which Berea is situated, bas
an area equal to that of Massachusetts and Connecticut
combined, and though occupied by hardy and loyal
men, is singularly destitute of educational advantages,
which, hitherto in the South, have been monopolized by
the wealthy class.  Several of these counties not far
from Berea, sent more men to the Union army than
were subject to military service. Now that these men,
their ideas enlarged and energies developed by the
war, are seeking the key of knowledge, their attention
is naturally directed to Berea.  It is the only col-
lege in Kentucky opened to the colored people. It is
a, well known fact, that the freedmen of Kentucky are
as a class far in advance of those in any other part of
the country. They knew comparatively little of the
rigors of slavery, and were entrusted with responsibil-
ities which were favorable for the development of
their more manly qualities.
  An interesting feature of the college is the strong
missionary spirit which pervades its students. Mis-
sionary colonies to Africa are already proposed,
and meetings held for the purpose of promoting
the object. The spirit of blessing others does not
show itself merely in plans for the future, but in practi-
cal efforts by Sabbath Schools and other means for
giving the gospel to those already within their reach.
As they go forth as teachers throughout the Soth
where the demand is far greater than the supply, fields of
usefulness are open to them in importance second to
none. It is expected that ere long as many as 200



students will go from the college every year, to teach
during the long vacation.
  Earnest efforts have been made from the first to
make its students thorough and accurate scholars.
Carefil drilling in the recitation room, constant re-
views, and written monthly examinations constitute a
part of the means used to secure this end. Although
the scholarship fails to meet the ideal of the teachers,
it is believed that for thoroughness it will not compare
unfavorably with some of the oldest literary institutions.
Chaplain NOBLE, Superintendent of Education for Ken-
tucky, and formerly principal of an Eastern Academy,
in a detailed report of the school to Gen. Howard, in
1866, stated that "he witnessed examinations in Latin
and Algebra equal to anything he had ever known in
the four best training schools of New England."
Though every effort is made to make its students ac-
curate and thorough, its faculty will not feel that its
true end is attained, however high its grade of scholar-
ship, unless it continues to be thoroughly pervaded by
a Christian atmosphere, and its students made humble,
devout and self-sacrificing. They do not design to en-
courage motives of merely worldly ambition, but with-
out cant or ostentation, to hold up Jesus as the only
source of true life.
  The character of the students who come to Berea, is
such as to build up any institution. They are not sent
here by their parents that they may in due time obtain
a diploma, but they come that they may learn. Some
of the white students have had to endure great re-
proach from their relatives and companions for going
to an institution admitting negroes. Three years ago



it required a degree of moral courage for a young
white man to connect himself with the institution,
quite as great as for Luther to go to the diet of Worms.
And although three years have made astonishing
changes in this respect, there are many who secretly
long to be at Berea, who cannot endure the scorn that
would be heaped upon them, if they should enter an
institution very unpopular with many. With such
a class of heroes for students, how could a college
fail to prosper! Without a knowledge of its students,
it is impossible to have any adequate apprehension of
the character and value of the college. Most of them,
white and colored, are dependent in a great measure
upon their own exertions for the means of obtaining an
education. The following brief sketches of some will
serve as specimens of the mass. One of the Sec's of
the American Missionary Association, when visiting
Berea, called upon some of the students and asked
them their personal history, and why they came to
Berea, and obtained facts such as the following: "I
was born about six miles from Berea. The first time
I came here, the town consisted of one house and a
log store. I came with my mother to the store. While
there, Mr. FOB came in and spoke kindly to me. As
we were going home, I said; 'Mother, is'nt Mr. Fze a
nice man' 'Yes,' said she, 'but hush, dont let any
body hear you say that.' ' Why,' said I. ' Why,' she
replied, 'if the people knew that we were his friends,
we should be in great danger.' A few years after, when
in another neighorhood, I was called upon to help run
bullets to shoot down ' the abolitionists.' It was at the
time the school was broken up and Q many driveu



away. I attended the anniversary exercises of the in-
stitution, July 4th, 1867. Before that day, I had some
respectable opinion of myself, but then I saw my ignor-
ance. I resolved then and there if I could get the
means, I would go to school at Berea."
  This young man was last fall obliged to suspend his
studies to help his father build a small grist mill, with
the earnings of which he hoped to be able to give his
son some assistance in getting an education. After
three months of incessant toil they bad the mill com-
pleted, when an unusual freshet carried it away. When
asked how he felt, he replied, " For a time the world
looked darker than ever before.  My hopes were
dashed, but I afterwards found in the hay-loft that
God could perform impossibilities." Though the mill
was lost, he is again at Berea.
  Another brother, who has the foreign mission field
in view, gave this account of himself:-
  "I was among those who left Berea at the timne col-
ored students were admitted. For awhile I was very
wild, but I had no peace within till I decided to return
to school. I met great opposition for a time from com-
panions and relatives. An uncle offered to defray my
expenses if I would leave here and go to some other
institution, but God has helped me and I have got
along in some way, I hardly know how."
  The following sketch is almost as applicable to a large
number of students as any particular one. " I was born
a slave, and obtained my freedom during the war, but
had previously had a great many privileges. I had
learned to read and a little of arithmetic, when in the
winter of '66-6'7, I heard of Berea. I made p -my



mind to go there at once. When I came, as I reached
the place, I inquired the way to Berea. I was told
that I was in Berea already. A pretty college, I
thought to myself-rough buildings unpainted and un-
plastered. But I had had too hard work getting throughI
the mud for the last six miles to think of going back.
that night. I soon found that if Berea had not build-
ings, it had men and scholars, and if I wished to get
knowledge here was the spot. When I came to Berea,
I did not expeet to remain but a year. Afterward I
concluded to graduate from the Normal Department,
but I have now made up my mind, if God permit, to
take a full College Course."
  The following is the account received from another:-
  " I came from Ohio. I had learned that a young man
with little money could get an education here. I
walked out from Richmond. My pack was heavy, and
the day was one of the longest of my life. As I in-
quired for Berea, I heard a great many things which
made me heart-sick. At one time, the only thing I
could do was to kneel down in a fence corner and ask
God to help me. He has, beyond, far beyond all my
  The next is a young Jady from Michigan, who gradu-
ates in July from the Normal Department:-
  "The immediate occasion of my coming to Berea
was a visit to our place by Mr. and Mrs. Wheeler of
Berea, whose zeal for the college was so infectious that
I felt that I must go to that missionary institution.
By alternately teaching and studying, I have thus far
nearly defrayed my expenses, so that I have not been
obliged to rely upon my friends for much aid. Now



my own enthusiastic love of Berea College is not less
than that of those who induced me to come South for
an education."
  The last student introduced in this sketch is a young
colored lady:-
  "When those from our place who had been to Berea
came home at vacation, they had so much to say about
the college that I had a strong desire to become one of
its students. Some persons would have deterred me by
telling me how very,very strict was the Ladies' Board of
Care. Others told about the plain board, and that for
days, perhaps, I would not taste wheat bread. But I
arranged to pay for a part of my board by work, and
then to get money by teaching, and so the way was
opened for me to come to this place of learning, where
in due time I hope to graduate."
  The institution is arranged to meet the wants of all,
and as a matter of necessity provides instruction tor
those who have had no previous training. It is not
expected that the lower departments will be perma-
nent. It provides Academic, Normal, and Collegiate
courses of study, and is open to both sexes. The great
majority of the students who come to Berea do not
design, at first, to remain but a few months, but many,
as they learn the advantages of education, decide to
graduate from some of the departments.
  Its educational arrangements are adapted to meet
the wants of those who are dependent for their sup-
port mainly upon their own exertions. Tuition is one
dollar a month. Plain table board is furnished at the
cost of provisions and preparation, averaging about
1.75 a week. Some facilities are afforded for labor,



and the students, by precept and the example of the
faculty, encouraged to form habits of economy and
  The aim of the managers of the school has been to
accomplish the