xt72542j6w93 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt72542j6w93/data/mets.xml Cromwell, Emma Guy. 1920  books b98-59-43710635 English Emma G. Cromwell : Frankfort, Ky. : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Women Suffrage Kentucky Handbooks, manuals, etc. United States Politics and government Handbooks, manuals, etc. Kentucky Politics and government. Citizenship  : a manual for voters / by Emma Guy Cromwell. text Citizenship  : a manual for voters / by Emma Guy Cromwell. 1920 2002 true xt72542j6w93 section xt72542j6w93 


Emma Guy Crfonwell


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              Author of
         and ENROLLING CLERK of

       Address EMMA GUY CROMWELL, Frankfort, Ky.





          THIS BOOKLET


          THE AUTHOR


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flEALIZING the need of a manual on citi-
zenship for the new voters in Kentucky,
     the author has endeavored to compile
sucri information on the government and its
workings, as will be of use to all voters, espec-
ially the ones just entering political life. A
strong appeal is made to the women voters of
our nation to prepare themselves for public
life by keeping in touch with the issues of the
day as well as the functions of government.
While it is a great privilege to take part in
public affairs, and study the questions of the
(lay, so that we can vote intelligently and criti-
cize justly, let us not forget that the home is
the most sacred refuge of life, the nucleus
around which all pure and true civilization is
formed, and that the chief end of all good gov-
ernment is to improve and protect the home,
the church and the community.
  Will you take part in building up your gov-
ernment and establishing "High Ideals" and
true democracy
              EMAMA GUY CROMWELL,
                               Frankfort, Ky.


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GOOD citizenship means doing well one's part as a mem-
ber of the community in which he lives, and carries with
it certain privileges and duties.
    A citizen is one who has the rights and privileges of the in-
habitadnts of the community, state and nation, and as a duty
should equip himself so as to render the best citizenship possible.
    There are two classes of citizens; native born, and
naturalized. Persons born in the United States and children
born of American parents while abroad are native born.
Naturalized citizens are aliens who through the process of
naturalization have attA-ned- citi'enslhi-p. 'Niturilization itself
does not give the rigut to 'vote, as that is determined by the
state laws. Most states gir,  1il 'i' izmns lhbe richi to vote who
have lived in the state for one year-, and about eleven states
permit aliens to vote provi(ded th3y Jle(I]r, -their intention of
becoming citizens.
    Congress has the power to decide the conditions upon which
aliens may become citizens.
    Citizenship carries with it the enjoyment of civil rights,
as the protection of the home and property, freedom of speech,
religion, press, protection of the laws, etc. Wherever you go
your citizenship goes with you, protecting and defending you.
If you are in a foreign country you must abide by the laws
of that country, but should you be treated unjustly the United
States would protect you.
    Our country is a land of freedom and opportunity, and it
is our duty to help uplift the government, and as citizens we
must study conditions and know how to govern and be governed.
We must be familiar with our national and state Constitutions,
for they are the fundamental principles by which we are gov-
erned. We must know how to make laws and how to have them
executed. We must keep posted on the issues of the day, and
know something of the standing and character of our public
men and women.



     The citizen who does not possess some knowledge of his
government and its workings will become a prey to the dema-
gogue, or of individuals who are anxious to advance their own
interest at the expense of the people.
    It. is the duty of every man and woman under the protec-
tion of our flag to give his or her best to the country and be
willing to take upon themselves the burden as well as the priv-
ilege of government, and fully appreciate the inheritance our
fathers left. "They built the foundation in the days of Wash-
ington and Jefferson, and as a duty we must safeguard the
    Citizenship not only embraces civil rights, but political
rights which is the right, of suffrage or voting.
    While civil rights are enjoyed by all men, women and
children, political .'igbts are eaujoyei ')l y by citizens twenty-
one years old and over who possess the necessary qualifications
to vote. Cixil rights and political righLs are net the same, for all
citizens are not voters, neither are all voters citizens in the
United States, as some states pernlit aliens to vote before they
get their citizenship paper, making them real citizens.
    It is our duty to study our government and be posted on
the issues of the day. There vre about 27,011,330 women voters
in the United States. We have the vote and let us not only
count it a privilege but a duty to do our part as citizens in es-
tablishing good government.
    There are two principal parties in the United States, the
Democratic party and the Republican party.
    The way to get good government is through the parties;
that is one reason women must choose their party and enter
into the organization of the party of their choice.
    Parties are just what their constituents make them.

    The word government means management or guidance and
    When we speak of the government of the nation, state,
city, town or county we refer to the management of public af



A Manual for Voters

     Government protects life and property, keeps an army and
navy for our defense, peace and order, regulates commerce and
industry, supports our public schools, keeps the roads and streets
in good condition, cares for public health, and many other
things we enjoy.
    Our courts are maintained by the government where justice
may be found.
    The laws of our nation are the rules made by the govern-
ment to guide our actions. They tell us what we are to do, and
what we are not to do. We must obey the laws of our country
or else be punished. We must study the government of our
nation, state, city, town and county, and be ready to do our
part in establishing good government, by making proper laws
and seeing they are enforced. As far back as 500 B. C. we find
in Athens lawmakers, judges and executive officers.
    The word government is derived from the Latin word
gubernare, which means to guide or "pilot a ship." Good gov-
ernment depends upon the voters, and may our men and women
of the United States pilot our ship into a safe harbor.
    The United States is both a Democracy and a Republic.
    A Democracy is a government by the people in which the
will of the people prevails throughout the country. "This is
the fundamental principle of American government."
    A Republic is a democracy where the people elect repre-
sentatives to carry on the government.

    When the colonies became independent states each state
drew up a charter which recognized its people as authority in
government. Instead of calling this new instrument a charter
they changed the name and called it a "Constitution."
    This Constitution is the foundation upon which our govern-
ment is built. After the thirteen original colonies had-estab-
lished their independence they formed a central government
known and expressed in the Constitution of the United States
which is our fundamental law.




     In the preamble of the Constitution of the United States
we find the general purpose for which government is instituted:
     "We, the people of the United States, in order to form a
more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquil-
ity, provide for the common defense, promote the general wel-
fare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our
posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the
United States of America."
     The Constitution of the United States is our fundamental
law and no state constitution can conflict with our Federal
     There are now forty-eight states in the United States with
forty-eight constitutions framed upon the Federal Constitution.
Each state has its own constitution, which in no way conflicts
with the Federal Constitution.
     The first Constitution of Kentucky was adopted April 3,
1792, at a convention that met in Danville, and later on June
1st, 1792, Kentucky was admitted into the union as a state.
     Our government is conducted according to our National
and State Constitutions.
     In every constitution there is a provision for making a
change. These changes are called amendments. An amend-
ment is a law passed by the General Assembly and adopted by
a majority of the voters.
    An amendment to the Kentucky Constitution requires a
three-fifths vote of the members in both houses of the legislature
to pass, and then it is submitted by the General Assembly to
the voters of the State, which requires a majority of the voters
to be adopted.
    The legislature cannot repeal an amendment to the Con-
stitution, or pass laws contrary to its provision. The session
of nineteen and twenty in Kentucky passed two amendments
pertaining to school matters. One provides for the- appoint-
ment of the Superintendent of Public Instruction by the Gov-
ernor, and the other amendment provides: ' That the General
Assembly have the power to distribute the school funds. "



A Mianual for Voters

    At the next general election we will vote on these two
amendments. If the majority of the voters vote yes, this change
will be made, and the General Assembly will have the power to
ditribute the school funds and the Governor will appoint the
Superintendent of Public Instruction.
    The Federal Constitution may be amended by two-thirds
vote of each House of Congress, and if passed must be referred
to the state legislatures for ratification.
    The amendments to the Constitution of the United States
do not become a part of the Constitution until ratified by three-
fourths of the States, which is now thirty-six states-there being
forty-eight states in the union.
    There are now eighteen amendments to the Federal Con-
stitution. The nineteenth amendment on "Suffrage" is still
pending, needing only one more state to give universal suffrage
to women.
    An amendment to a constitution is simply changing somie
of its provisions, but a revision is a recasting of the whole con-
stitution. Both require the consent of the voters of the State.
    As we have said the revision usually takes place by means
of a convention of delegates elected for that purpose by the
    "One of the most important parts of every state consti-
tution is the 'Bill of Rights,' which is a statement of the rights
which must not be infringed on by the government."
    In the revision of a state constitution the legislature sub-
mits to the people the question of calling a convention to frame
a new constitution. If the voters are in favor of a convention
they elect delegates to the convention to assist in revising the
constitution. The revised constitution is nearly always sub-
mitted to the people to vote upon.
    The amendment known as the eighteenth amendment pass-
ed during President Wilson's term of office and is one of great
importance to our nation in the protection of the home and
humanity. This amendment prohibiting the manufacture and
sale of intoxicating liquors, reads as follows:




    "See. 1. After one year from the ratification of this article,
the manufacture, sale and transportation of intoxicating liquors
within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof
from the United States and all territory subject to the juris-
diction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
    "Sec. 2. The Congress and the several states shall have
concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legis-
    There are now eighteen amendments to our Federal Con-
stitution, and there has never been an amendment repealed.
     The nineteenth amendment known as the suffrage amend-
ment passed both houses of Congress on May 21st and June 4th,
1919, submitting to the states a proposed amendment to the
Federal Constitution extending suffrage to women. The first
state to take action was Wisconsin, whose legislature, June 5th,
1919, ratified the amendment. Other state ratifications were
Michigan, June 10th, Kansas, New York and Ohio, June 16th,
Illinois, June 17, Pennsylvania, June 24th, Massachusetts, June
25th, Texas, June 28th, Iowa, July 2d, Missouri, July 3d,
Arkansas, July 28th, Montana, July 30th, Nebraska, August
1st, Minnesota, September 8th, New Hampshire, September 10th,
Utah, September 30th, California, November 1st, Maine, No-
vember 5th, North Dakota, December 1st, South Dakota, Decem-
ber 4th, Kentucky, January 6th, 1920.
    The proposed amendment reads as follows:
    "Sec. 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote
shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any
state on account of sex.
    "Sec. 2. Congress shall have power, by appropriate leg-
islation, to enforce the provisions of this article."
    The following states had granted state wide woman's
suffrage: Wyoming 1869, Colorado 1893, Utah 1896, Idaho
1896, Washington 1910, California 1911, Kansas, Arizona and
Oregon 1912, Territory of Alaska 1913, Montana and Nevada
1914, New York 1917, Michigan, Oklahoma, South Dakota 1918.



                    A Manual for Voters                    13

    Amendments to the Federal Constitution may be proposed
by Congress by two-thirds vote, then submitted to the states
for ratification by at least three-fourths of the states acting
through their legislatures (or through state conventions as
Congress may indicate, or Congress may call a national con-
vention for this purpose).
    As has been said eighteen amendments to the National
Constitution have been made since its adoption. The nine-
teenth amendment will soon be adopted in full as it only needs
one more state to make the three-fourths or thirty-six states
which will give us universal suffrage throughout the United
    Let us remember that the Constitution of the United States
is the supreme law of the land, and no law will stand in our
courts that is in violation of our National Constitution.



                   KINDS OF GOVERNMENT.
F OR convenience the United States is divided into forty-
   eight states and each state is divided into counties. Ken-
tucky has one hundred and twenty counties.

    We have National, State, county, town and city govern-


    The Federal or National government, as in state govern-
ment, is divided into three parts. The legislative which makes
the laws. The judicial which interprets or explains the laws.
The executive which enforces the laws.
    Legislative: The legislative department is called the Con-
gress and is composed of the House of Representatives and the
    The members of the House of Representatives are elected
every two years.
    The number of representatives in a state is apportioned
according to population, and the congressional district from
which a member is elected is determined by the legislature of
each state.
    Kentucky has eleven congressional districts, therefore
eleven congressmen elected by the people.
    To be a member of the House of Representatives in Con-
gress the man or woman must be twenty-five years old, a citizen
of the United States at least seven years, and a resident of the
state from which he is chosen. He receives a salary of 7,500
per year, and an allowance for clerk, stationery and traveling
    Every state is entitled to at least one representative. There
are now four hundred and thirty-five members in the House of
Representatives in Congress.


                    A Manual for Voters                    15

    When the members of a new House of Representatives
meet the clerk of the previous House calls them to order and the
roll is called by states. If a quorum is present they elect a
speaker from among the members of the House who takes his
seat immediately. The other officers are elected as the clerk,
sergeant-at-arms and doorkeeper. The rules of the House de-
fine the duties of the speaker.
    The work of the House of Representatives is done through
committees. When a bill is introduced it is referred to a com-
mittee and this committee may report it back to the House
either favorably or unfavorably, or they may not report it at
all. If reported favorably it has a chance of receiving con-
    Much of the work of Congress is done in the committee
rooms. This is why the selection of committees is so important.
    When a bill is reported favorably by a committee it is
placed upon the calendar which is a register of bills. Then the
fate of the bill rests with the rules committee of the House.
    The committee on rules, as other committees, is elected by
the House. The party in power usually determines the selec-
tion of this committee.
    Impeachment: If a high official is charged with miscon-
duct in office the House of Representatives would impeach him
and if found guilty, the impeachment is carried to the Senate
to be tried. The U. S. Senate sits as a court of justice.
    Six judges, one President and one Secretary of War have
been impeached by the House of Representatives.
    Revenue: All bills for raising revenue must originate in
the House of Representatives.

                   UNITED STATES SENATE.
    The Senate has ninety-six members, two from every state
in the union, and are elected for six years, receiving a salary of
7,500 a year. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice
President of the United States.
    The United States Senators are elected by the direct voice
of the voters of the state according to the 17th amendment to
the National Constitution passed in 1913.



     A United States Senator must be thirty years old, a citi-
zen of the United States for nine years, and must live in the
state from which he is elected.
     The term of office of only one-third of the Senators expires
at the same time, so at least two-thirds of the Senate is not new.
     The Senate must confirm all appointments made by the
President and must ratify all treaties made by him with a two-
thirds vote.
     Bills originate in the Senate in the same way as in the
House, referred to a committee and their course is directly the
same. When passed by both Houses the President has ten days
to sign or veto them. Without his signature they become a
law, unless Congress by adjourning prevents the return within
ten days.
     The committees of the Senate are elected by its members.
     Bills are passed in Congress similar to that in the legis-
lature of a state. They are introduced by a member in either
house and must pass both houses, then signed by the presiding
officers and clerks and go to the President for his signature or
    The sessions are yearly, beginning on the first Monday in
December, and last until March 4th; this is known   as the
short session. The long session occurs in odd numbered years
and continues until it is adjourned. The President has the
power to call special sessions of Congress.

                    JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT.
    The Federal courts derive their powers and jurisdiction
from the Constitution and laws of the United States.
    "The judicial powers of the United States shall be vested
in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as Congress
may from time to time establish."
    The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest and
most powerful judicial body in the world.
    It holds its regular sessions at Washington, sitting from
October to July.



A Mualta for Voters


    The chief justice and eight associate justices constitute the
Supreme Court of the United States, and are appointed for
life by the President of the United States and confirmed by the
United States Senate.
    The salary of the chief justice is 15,000.00 per year, and
of the associate justices 14,000.00 per year.
    Six judges must be present in the trial of a case and a
majority is necessary in rendering a decision.
    The district judges receive a salary of 6,000.00 annually
and the judges of the appeals court 7,000.00 annually.
    The judges cannot be removed except for cause, and then
they are impeached in the House of Representatives and tried in
the Unitcd States Senate.
    The principal Federal courts that have been organized by
Congress are: The Supreme Colirt, the Circuit Court of Ap-
peals, the Circuit Court, the District Court.
    A United States judge if he has served ten years may re-
tire on full salary when seventy years old.

                  EXECUM'IxE DEPARTMENT.

    The most important offices in the United States are the
President and Vice President. They are legally elected by
electors chosen by the voters of the forty-eight states.
    The President of the United States must be a natural born
citizen living in this country for fourteen years at least, and
must be thirty-five years old.
    lie is elected for four years and receives a salary   of
75,000.00 annually and residence. Congress makes other al-
lowances for expenses.
    The President is the Commander in Chief of the army and
navy. He appoints every administrative officer except the Vice
President. Ile may call extra sessions, and may veto bills,
which Congress can pass over his veto with a two-thirds ma-
jority in each House. Ile represents the United States in all
dealings with foreign powers.



     The President appoints the members of his cabinet, but
 said appointments must be approved by the United States
     The Cabinet consist of a Secretary of State, Treasury, War,
 Navy, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Interior, the Attorney
 General and Postmaster General.
     Each member of the Cabinet receives a salary of 12,000.00
     The Secretary of State is the first in rank among the
 Cabinet officers, and in case of the death of the President and
 Vice President would succeed to the office of President.
     The financial manager of the national government is the
Secretary of the Treasury.
     The Secretary of War has charge of the military affairs
of the nation under the direction of the President. He also
looks after river and harbor improvements, and all obstructions
to navigation.
    The Attorney General is the chief law officer of the govern-
    The Postmaster General has charge of the Post Office De-
    The Secretary of Navy has charge of the construction and
equipment of vessels of war.
    The Secretary of Interior has charge of matters pertain-
ing to the internal welfare of the nation, as public lands, care
of national parks, the giving of patents for inventions, Indian
affairs, education, etc.
    The Secretary of Agriculture promotes the general agri-
cultural interests of the country.
    The Secretary of Commerce promotes the commercial in-
terest of the nation.
    The Secretary of Labor promotes and develops the welfare
of the wage earner of the United States, by improving the
working conditions and advancing their opportunities for bet-
ter employment.
    The Vice President of the United States must have the
same qualifications as the President.
    He receives a salary of 12,000.00 annually.



A Manual for Voters


    The framers of the National Constitution gave the United
States Senate two important executive powers especially-first,
approving treaties. Second, confirming appointments made by
the President. All treaties in order to be ratified must receive
a two-thirds vote of the Senators present when the vote was
    When a treaty has been drawn up the President consults
with the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Senate.
"'Treaties are considered in secret session. The Senate may ap-
prove or reject a treaty as a whole; or they may ratify it in
part by recommending additional articles as amendments, but
the treaty does not become a law until the President and the
foreign power agree to the amendment."
    While the Senate may approve, reject or change the terms
of a treaty, all changes must be agreed to by the President
and the nation interested. When accepted by both nations
duplicate parchment copies are made, and both copies are sign-
ed by the chief officers of each country and then exchanged.
This is called the "exchange of ratification." Each nation se-
cures an official copy of the treaty. The President publishes
the treaty followed by a proclamation.
    The Constitution gives the President the power to negoti-
ate treaties and conventions with foreign countries. He con-
ducts the negotiation through the department of Secretary of
State. The President keeps in touch and consults with the
Committee on Foreign Relations and with the majority of the
leaders in the Senate during negotiations.
    "The President shall have power, by and with the advice
and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds
of the Senators present concur."
    The Federal Constitution makes treaties a part of the
supreme law of the land. Any conflicting provision of a state
law or Constitution is repealed.
    The League of Nations having failed to get the necessary
two-thirds vote in the United States Senate so far has not be-
come a law. It is opposed by a few senators which prevented
it receiving the two-thirds vote.




                        CIVIL SERVICE.
    A great number of our offices of government are appointed
and not elected. Over 300,000 positions are filled under the
national government appointment. On January 16th, 1883,
Congress passed the Civil Service law which established a
United States Civil Service Commission composed of three mem-
bers, of which not more than two should belong to the same
political party. The commission is appointed by the President
with the consent of the Senate.
    The ordinary "Civil Service" examinations are held twice
a year at different places in the country designated by the
    This commission appoints boards of examiners who hold
examinations at least twice a year at Washington, D. C., and
in the states and territories.
    The commission encourages efficiency by promotion from
lower to higher grades of public service. Some of the places
that come under the civil service system are clerks in Washing-
ton connected with the national government, officials in the
postal service, the letter carriers and clerks in post offices and
railway mail service, employees in custom houses, government
printing office, Indian service and revenue service.
    Senators and representativs are not allowed to recommend
any applicant to the board of examiners appointed by the com-
    The examinations are practical and the questions pertain
to the nature of the work the applicant is to do.
    Persons employed in such public service are under obliga-
tions not to contribute to any political fund, or to render service
to any political party.




                     STATE GOVERNMENT.
THE state constitution adopted by the voters is the funda-
     mental law of the state.
     A state Constitution cannot interfere with the Federal
Constitution, neither can the Federal Constitution interfere
with the regulation of the state. As has been said the Ken-
tucky Constitution was adopted on April 3, 1792, at a conven-
tion which met in Danville.
    A state Constitution is a law made by the people and can-
not be changed by the legislature, but may be amended or re-
vised by the voters.
    Amendments are usually submitted to the legislature and
then to the voters.
    The revision of the Constitution is by means of a convention
of delegates elected by the people.
    The three departments of state governments are: The leg-
islative, the lawmaking power; the judicial, the law interpreting
power; and the executive, the law enforcing power.
    All state governments are divided into these three classes,
the legislative, judicial and executive.
    The legislature passes laws which govern people in their re-
lation to each other.
    The Kentucky legislature convenes at the capitol at Frank-
fort every two years on the first Tuesday after the first Mon-
day in January and remains in session for sixty working days,
not including Sundays and national holidays.
    It is composed of two houses, the House of Representatives,
known as the lower house with one hundred members, and the
Senate, known as the upper house with thirty-eight members.
    The Kentucky General Assembly is composed of one hun-
dred and thirty-eight members elected by the voters of the
State in the counties and districts in which they reside



    The State is divided into senatorial and representative dis-
tricts, with a representation based upon population.
    The term of office for Senators is four years. A Senator
must be thirty years old, a citizen of the United States for nine
years and must live in the State and district from which he is
    A State Senator in Kentucky receives 10.00 per day for
his services during the sitting of the legislature, mileage to
and from home at the rate of ten cents per mile, and stationery.
    The Lieutenant Governor is the presiding officer of the
    The Senate sits as a court and tries all impeachments.
    The president pro tem. of the Senate is elected by the mem-
bers of the body, also the clerks, doorkeeper and pages.
    The president pro tem. presides in the absence of the
Lieutenant Governor, and in case of vacancy to this office would
become Lieutenant Governor.
   The president of the Senate appoints the standing com-
mittees, unless the opposite party is in power, then the presi-
dent pro tem. virtually controls said appointments.
    To be a member of the House of Representatives a person
must be twenty-four years old.
    His term of office is only two years but he receives the same
salary as a Senator, 10.00 per day, mileage and stationery.
    The body elects its speaker and other officers, and has the
sole power of impeachment.
    The principal work in both houses are done through the
committees appointed by the President of the Senate and
Speaker of the House.
    A bill is prepared and introduced by a member of the
Senate or House. If it pertains to revenue and taxation, it
must originate in the House of Representatives.
    When a bill is introduced the clerk of the body reads it by
title only. The President of the Senate or Speaker of the House



A Manual for Voters

then refers it to the proper committee (of the body in which
the bill originated). It is numbered and ordered printed when
referred to the committee. The committee considers the bill and
usually reports it back with expression of opinion that it should
or should not pass to the body in which it originated.  (The
committee may pigeonhole it and not report it, or may report
it too late for action by the body.)
    The bill and the report from the committee is printed and
placed on the calendar and, takes its