xt72542j9m24 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt72542j9m24/data/mets.xml University of Kentucky. University Senate University of Kentucky. Faculty Senate Kentucky University of Kentucky. University Senate University of Kentucky. Faculty Senate 1968-10-21  minutes 2004ua061 English   Property rights reside with the University of Kentucky. The University of Kentucky holds the copyright for materials created in the course of business by University of Kentucky employees. Copyright for all other materials has not been assigned to the University of Kentucky. For information about permission to reproduce or publish, please contact the Special Collections Research Center. University of Kentucky. University Senate (Faculty Senate) records Minutes (Records) Universities and colleges -- Faculty University of Kentucky University Senate (Faculty Senate) meeting minutes, October 21, 1968 text University of Kentucky University Senate (Faculty Senate) meeting minutes, October 21, 1968 1968 1968-10-21 2020 true xt72542j9m24 section xt72542j9m24  






















the Court Room of the Law Building. Chairman Sears presided. Members absent: Ben W.
Black*, Eugene B. Bradley*, Thomas W. Brower, David B. Clark*, Robert L. Cosgriff, Robert :‘V
J. DeAngelis, Wendell C. DeMarcus, Louis D. Dubilier*, W. G. Duncan, Eugene B. Gallagher*, ‘
Ward Griffen, Omer Hamlin*, Harris Isbell, Robert D. Jacobs, William H. Jansen, John A. {
Koepke*, Carl E. Langenhop, M. J. McNamara, William G. Moody, Dean H. Morrow*, Vernon ‘
A. Musselman, J. A. Noonan*, Louis A. Norton*, Harold F. Parks*, James Prestridge*,
William R. Proffit, Mary E. Rickey, Myron G. Sandifer*, Gerard E. Silberstein*, Robert H. '
Spedding*, K. M. Stevens, William J. Tisdall*, Harwin L. Voss*, Gilbert T. Webster,

D. R. Wekstein, David C. White, John V. Haley, Albert D. Kirwan, A. D. Albright, William
R. Willard, Robert F. Kerley, Glenwood L. Creech, Harry M. Bohannan, Leonard V. Packett*
George W. Denemark, Harold D. Gordon, Joseph Hamburg, Raymon D. Johnson, William L.
Matthews, Jr., Paul C. Nagel*, J. P. Noffsinger*, William A. Seay, Doris M. Seward, W. ‘
G. Survant*, and Sheryl Snyder.

The University Senate met in special session at 7:00 p.m. October 21, 1968, in r


The Senate approved the requests of Robin Lowry, Taft McKinstry, Ann Stallard, and
Jean Paul Rogerson, students, to be permitted to attend the meeting. ¢!'
. .2;
The Senate approved a motion to permit Charles Bowen of the Kernel to attend the d
meeting. This was followed by approval of a second motion to permit Mr. Bowen also to I
report on the meeting. ;
Challenge by a Senator revealed lack of a quorum. The Chairman then delayed the
meeting for a few minutes until it was determined that a quorum was present. (


Dr. Sears brought the Senate up to date on the evolvement of revisions in the
Governing Regulations. He stated that two or three years ago the Board of Trustees
appointed a Trustees—Faculty Committee to codify these Regulations; that this committee,
as such, had made little progress in carrying thorugh its assignment; that during this (
peiod one or two persons, working either with the President's Office or with this com— 1
mittee, had done some work toward revision but again not much progress had been made. .
He reported that approximately a year ago the Senate Council recommended to the Presi— (
dent that a high priority effort be made to carry through the codification and that
Professor Ralph H. Weaver be appointed as a Special Assistant to the President to carry [
out this work; and that this special meeting had been called to discuss only and not to flpgas
make any formal recommendations for change in the working draft of the codification which
Dr. Weaver had prepared and circulated.


, (x.

Dr. Weaver stated that during the past year of assembling the draft he had removed ?
from the Governing Regulations some of the details on which the advice of the Board
should not be sought; had gathered together out of the minutes of the Board of Trustees {
and other sources, actions which have been taken since the last codification in 1960,
and had made certain recommendations for change.


He stated that approximately a month ago he had distributed copies of the draft
to the Senate Council and the Administrative Council after which these groups met at
Carnahan House and spent approximately eight hours in reviewing the entire draft and
making some changes.

5 A“ ~4K‘Vffl

He reported that the original intent was to send the draft to the Trustees—Faculty
Committee which would simultaneously report its action to the Senate and the Board of
Trustees but after talking with a number of persons, including the Senate Council and
President Kirwan, it had been decided to bring it to the University Senate for discuss-
ion and obtainment of its suggestions for inclusion in the transmittal to the Trustees-
Faculty Committee.

/'At_( I




*Absence explained



am \
t“ ,

Mfimtes of the University Senate, October 21, 1968

(Cont'd) 2645

Dr. Weaver expressed his appreciation for suggestions which had come from members
of the faculty following faculty distribution of the draft.

He Spoke of the functions of the Governing Regulations, namely, as a document which
contains the functions of the Board of Trustees and their methods of procedure. He told
that all authority by law rests in the Board except that delegated by the Board to the
State Council on Public Higher Education; that the Board, in turn, delegates adminis—
trative authority to the President of the University, and, with the Board's permission,
the President delegates most of his authority to the other administrative officers. He
Stated that the Board also delegates academic authority to the University Senate with
authority to delegate, so that, in actuality, the authority of the faculties of the
c011eges, departments, etc. really represents delegation of authority from the University
Senate. He stated that the Board also delegates authority to the faculty of the Commun—
ity College System. Hence, there would need to be at least three other documents——the
Administrative Regulations which would cover particularly the delegation of authority
beyond the President and contain procedures to be followed within this authority; further
revision of the University Senate Rules to incorporate those functions not properly the
responsibility of the Board of Trustees; and Rules of the Community College Faculty.


Dr. Weaver then opened the floor to discussion out of which evolved the following


in those sections dealing with faculty eligibility to serve as non—voting
faculty Trustees and as University Senators a sentence should be included
which delegates election procedures to the University Senate;

page 16 a revision of the last sentence in paragraph 2, to read:

In this connection it shall be his responsibility to trans—
mit all recommendations of the Senate, the faculty of the
Community College System, the Student Government Association,
to the Board along with the faculty and/or student viewpoints,
including any minority Opinions, together with his recommen—
dation for action.

page 16 a revision of the last sentence on the page, to read:

He may appoint or have appointed such temporary or standing
advisory or administrative committees as he may deem wise.

page 17, a statement should be included that a faculty member holding
an administrative title above that of department chairman is defined
not to be full—time teaching and/or research;

page 17, last paragraph, second line, the words "all deans” should be
clarified with a parenthetical statement ”(but not associate or assis—
tant deans unless otherwise authorized)”; *

page 17, second paragraph, third sentence, after ” . . . head of the
group represented shall declare a vacancy and” delete "appoint“ and
insert "the Senate Council shall designate”;

page 18, second line, insert word "standing" between ”Senate” and












































Minutes of the University Senate, October 21, 1968 (Cont'd) Ml
page 19, second line from bottom of page, remove the word ”broader”;
page 20, add an additional function to the University Senate following géfl,
function (6) as follows: V‘«‘

to advise on the planning of physical facilities and staff when r
these may affect the attainment of the educational objectives
of the University; f
page 41, add to the end of the statement on the Dean of the Community ,
College System: ‘

The Dean of the Community College System is the spokesman for
the System. In the event he feels it necessary to depart from [
recommendations of the Community College Faculty or its Council, {
he must communicate the recommendations of the Faculty or the
Council, as well as his recommendations, and notify the Faculty
and/or the Council of his action.


page 45, make an addition to the end of the final sentence in paragraph one, 5
so that the sentence reads: [

He is further responsible for recruitment, initial screening and ,
recommendation of candidates for instructional and staff positions
after consultation with the faculty 9f_his college whenever feasible. (


page 21, add to the end of items (1), (2), and (3) in the last paragraph;
consistent with the policies of the University System

In extensive discussion of problems which have occurred in the Community Colleges
it was pointed out that the major portion of these basic problems which had been raised
could be resolved through better liaison and rapport by the existing University Senate
Advisory Committee on Community Colleges and existing regulations governing course
changes, drops and adds. In this latter connection it was pointed out that before action
concerning a course evolves out of its college to be considered by the Undergraduate _
Council the intent for action on the course is circulated by the college to the entire ”r!
faculty of the University, which includes the administration of the Community College System,\
and at this point the Community College administration can apprize its Colleges of the
course action since there is a lO—day waiting period following circularization by the
initiating college before the Undergraduate Council may consider the recommendation,
this waiting period having been devised to provide opportunity for any faculty member
having objection to any part of the recommendation to report his objections to the
Chairman of the Undergraduate Council; that should this Opportunity be overlooked, an—
other opportunity for objection is provided after the Senate Council circulates a report
of its action to the faculty of the University and the ensuing 10 days before that
action becomes final and official.


\ («,F— Ll;


Motion was made and approved to recess the meeting until Monday evening, October I
28th, at 7:00 p.m. '


The Senate reconvened at 7:00 p.m., Monday, October 28, 1968, in the Court Room
of the Law Building. Chairman Sears presided.



Mhmtes of the University Senate, October 21, 1968 (Cont'd)

Dr. Weaver assumed the chair to open continuation of discussion. He reported

having the equivalent rank of a college, to colleges.


Further suggestions for changes were:

r page 24, second sentence in second paragraph, change to read:

l ‘unit within a college is an associate dean or director.

x page 24, add the following sentence to the last paragraph:

administrative officer is a dean.

page 26, remove the first four words in next to the last paragraph

..1“ of the page

that agreement had been reached in the meeting at Carnahan House to change all Schools

The chief administrative Officer of a school that is an administrative

A college is a major educational unit of the University. lts chief

/ page 27, remove the words Hor school” in the third line from the bottom

' page 30, fifth line from the bottom of the page, change the word ”consider"

r to ”establish”

( responsibility.”
page 43, third paragraph, change the word ”prepares” to"submits"
page 50, change second sentence to read:

A review of the work of any educational unit at other than the

regular interval may be initiated by the chief administrative
{ officer responsible for the unit or by_the President.



on page 42, third line from end of first paragraph, change word ”prepare” to
ystam\ Following extensive discussion of arabic 2. and 3., page 25, Dean Cochran was asked to

consider arabic 3 and perhaps make some recommendations for change based on the points

possibility of including ”emeritus” in arabic 2.

page 31, first and second lines, remove the words ”for which they have joint

[ which had been raised in discussion, and the Senate Council was asked to look at the

Following lengthy discussion of reviews of educational units it was the consensus of

( the Senators that a statement Specifying a definite term of office for the college dean
t u should be included and that both a review of the dean and the unit should be included.

An added page, covering Directors 9f_Schools, was handed to the Senators.
to be inserted on page 42 preceding arabic 10., is as follows:

9—a. Directors 9f_Schools (Associate Deans, University System)
The Director of a School serves as chairman of the faculty of

the school in the performance of its assigned functions. He is an
Y ex officio member of all committees of the school.


This page,




































Minutes of the University Senate, October 21, 1968 (Cont'd)

i Min1

The Director's administrative responsibilities will be those \
delegated by the Dean of the College to which the school belongs.

The Director is the spokesman for his school. In the event that fififi
he feels it necessary to depart from the recommendations of his school ‘" ‘
faculty, he must communicate the school faculty's recommendation as well 4
as his recommendation and notify the faculty of his action. [

. - , , 9
Extensive discuSSion of the second paragraph on page 43 was held in which a greater number i
of the Senators indicated they favored inclusion of all tenured faculty members in pro— {
motion considerations and in which a further suggestion was made that the first sentence
end after the word ”matters” in line 5 and an additional sentence be inserted to read ;
substantially l'However, a department may delegate such personnel procedures involving a L
department to the chairman.” Dr. Weaver stated that he would rewrite the paragraph be— [
fore the next meeting to encompass suggestions which had come out of discussion con—
cerning this paragraph, and further that he would attempt to interpret ”members of the l
department” in that same paragraph. ‘
The meeting was recessed until Monday evening, November 4th, at 7:00 p.m. g?»
L \ A

The Senate reconvened at 7:00 p.m., Monday, November 4, 1968, in the Court Room of
the Law Building. In the absence of the Chairman, Dr. Gifford Blyton, Parliamentarian
of the Senate, presided.

Dr. Weaver resumed discussion of the proposed revision of the Governing Regulations.
He stated that he had rewritten the second paragraph on page 43, to include suggestions 3
which had been advanced in the previous session, as follows:


appointment of new members of the department, promotions, reappointments,
terminal appointments, failure to reappoint, and tenure. Procedures and
criteria used in preparing recommendations shall be those established by
the University, the college, and the department. As a minimum, the pro— (
cedures must include consultation with all tenured members of the depart~
ment and with all those with the rank of assistant professor or equivalent
who have been members of the department staff for two years except as noted
below. All recommendations must include the written judgments of the con—
sulted members of the department along with the recommendations of the
chairman. The following exceptions may be made:

The department chairman is responsible for recommendations on the ' r


1. Faculty members need not be consulted on recommendations
affecting other members with equivalent or higher rank.

2. The right to make recommendations on temporary appoint—
ments and/or appointments at less than the assistant professor
level may be delegated.

«2AM .—\ r“ |;-~


3. The department chairman is responsible for periodic evaluation
of department members by procedures and criteria established by the
University, the college, and the department.

11- H

page 35, line 9, change the word "they" to it


Dr. Weaver reported that he planned to recommend that the following two sentences be
added to the first paragraph under arabic 3, page 47, Search Committees:







l .


Mumtes of the University Senate, October 21, 1968 (Cont'd)


When vacancies in administrative positions are anticipated search com—
mittees shall be appointed sufficiently in advance of the vacancy to
avoid the appointment of an acting administrator. When unanticipated
vacancies occur the search committee shall be appointed as soon as the
designated procedures for appointment can be carried out.

page 48, line 19, remove ”/or”
suggestion was made that the statement on acting appointments, page 47,
Should perhaps provide that acting department chairmen serve for one year,

with the provision that this service might be renewed.

page 49, arabic 4, Terms 9f Department Chairmen, should be researched further


page 49—A, change the first sentence in Section IX to read: ”The work of
each educational unit in the University* and its chief administrative of—
ficer shall be reviewed at regular intervals by faculty advisory committees.”

page 58, first line, after the word ”activities” remove the word "and” and
insert the phrase ”conducted as a part of the official Medical Center program

Dr. Weaver stated that since he had made some slight changes in the Physicians
and Dentists' Services, pp. 57—59, at the request of the Medical Center administration,
that the Medical Center administration should see that these changes are also made in
the documents, approved by the Board of Trustees, which will appear in the Adminis—

trative Regulations, so that the two documents are in agreement.

In the paragraph at top of page 62 suggestion was made that three additional
sources might be added from which additional salary not to exceed one—half of
the academic salary may be accepted for work performed during sabbatical

leave, namely, from other universities while working on a research grant (rather
than limiting it solely to the University of Kentucky); from government labor—
atories while doing research; and from other universities while working as a
research professor, research associate, etc. Dr. Weaver stated that if further
research reveals no stumbling block to these additions, they will be included.

with reference to Leaves gngbsence, page 61, question was raised of whether
the former privilege accorded a member of the instructional staff to have a
semester off at one«ha1f pay after four consecutive years of service was
irrevocably lost. Dr. Weaver indicated that he would ask the University

Senate Council for explanation for removal of this former option in the Govern—

ing Regulations.

page 64, item 6., this paragraph should be reconstructed grammatically for

page 66, (a) Group 1 Employees: second sentence should be changed to read

as follows: ”The compulsory retirement date for all employees employed prior
to July 1, 1964, and who were fifty—six (56) or older on that date shall be
the end of the University's fiscal year in which the employee attains age
seventy (70) or completes ten years of service after July 1, 1964, whichever

occurs first.”





































Minutes of the University Senate, October 21, 1968 (Cont'd)

Attention was called to the fact that a section of the Retirement plan which had been
approved by the Board of Trustees April 7, 1964 which provided that staff members who
were age forty (40) or older prior to July 1, 1964 would be provided with a supplemen—
tal retirement income, had been omitted from arabic 8. Retirement, on page 66. Dr.
Weaver stated he would recheck for this omission.

The Senators were handed revised material covering XI. STUDENT AFFAIRS, page 69—B, to
XII. MISCELLANEOUS on page 77. In a review of this revised material additional changes
were suggested.

Dr. Weaver recommended that the University Senate be asked to affirm that the entire
document entitled ”Non—Academic Relationships Between Students and the University” is
a part of the Rules of the University Senate, the purpose of this affirmation being to
circumvent the possibility of losing anything important in this document in the process

of condensation for incorporation in the Regulatins. The revised material, as changed
by suggestions, follows:


The University of Kentucky Student Government is authorized by the Board of
Trustees and the University Senate to insure a maximum of self—government based
upon mutual respect between the faculty and the students. It is the official
student body authority in University affairs, representing student opinion to the
faculty, administration and the Commonwealth of Kentucky. It provides and renders
services to the students, faculty and administration of the University and, within
the regulations of the Board of Trustees and the Rules 9f_the University Senate,
it may have additional responsibilities delegated to it by the Office of the Vice
President for Student Affairs or the University Senate.


Its President shall be considered to be the President of the student body
of the University specified in KRS 164.130. It shall operate under a constit—
ution written and accepted by the students of the University that is consistent
with the regulations of the Board of Trustees and the Rules 9f_the University
Senate. Copies of the constitution must be filed with the Vice President for
Student Affairs and the secretary of the University Senate.


The Board of Trustees also authorizes the development of comparable student
governments for the Community College System and/or individual community colleges.


The principles which follow shall be applied to student discipline and the
supervision of student organizations in the University of Kentucky. The Board
of Trustees is dependent upon the University Senate, for the University System,
and the Faculty of the Community College System, for the Community College
System, for the development of rules for the implementation of these principles.
In the development of these rules the University Senate and the Faculty of the
Community College System are expected to consult with the appropriate adminis—

trative officers and to delegate as much responsibility as is appropriate to
Student Government organizations.*

* The document entitled, "Non—Academic Relationships Between Students and the University",

is a present code for the University System. It was prepared as a report to the Senate
Advisory Committee for Student Affairs, endorsed by the University Senate and the Student
Government, modified by a committee of the Board of Trustees after consultation with the
recommending groups. It was accepted by the Board of Trustees on May 2, 1967 as a policy
statement from which subsequent governing regulations could be formulated.






‘2'» fivfi

ea, I



mnutes Of the University Senate, October Zl, 1968 (Cont'd)

Copies of all rules that deal with relationships between students
and the University shall be made available to all students. Registration
by the student constitutes acceptance of the relationship. In no case,
however, shall this preclude legitimate efforts to obtain changes in the


1. Student Discipline

. (a) Punishment for violations of state and local laws is the
prerogative of state and local courts. The University is not a policing
authority for activities of a student outside the University communty
and therefore cannot act as a collection agency for landlords, retail
stores, etc., nor can it impose disciplinary punishment for the student's
misconduct in such places unless that misconduct falls within the cate—
gory of University disciplinary offenses. While violations of state and
local laws may not call for University disciplinary proceedings, Univer—
sity officials may report such violations to state and local police
authorities for appropriate action.

(b) The student at the University shall be treated as an adult,
a member of a community of scholars seeking to acquire and communicate
knowledge. He shall be subject to University discipline only when his
conduct in or out of the classroom impinges on the rights of other
such scholars. The sole concern of the University is to provide protect—
ion of, and facilities for, those who seek knowledge.

(c) Violations which call for University disciplinary proceed—
ings and punishments for such violations shall be stated and defined as

clearly as possible.

(d) The basic disciplinary bodies shall be quasijudicial boards
composed of the student's peers with full authority to judge and, where
appropriate to sentence an offender for violation of disciplinary rules.

(e) The student shall be entitled to rights of appeal.

The President may request the Appeals Board to review a punish-
ment imposed by a basic disciplinary body when he believes that it is
not proper in view of the circumstances of the particular case. He shall
then have the authority to set the punishment on the basis of the findings.

(f) In hearings before the boards, the student shall be entitled
to the guarantees of procedural due process, as recognized in the academic
community, and these guarantees shall be explicitly stated.

As the result of discussion, Dr. Sedler will restudy (f) above and make any recommendation

for change to Dr. Weaver.

(g) Honor codes to govern academic offenses and certain related
disciplinary offenses, if committed in the school or college that has ad—
opted such a code may be adopted by a school or college. Such adoption
shall require a majority vote of the students to be covered, approval by_
the faculty involved, and review by the University Senate or the Faculty;
of the Community College System for conformity with principles of student

rights, fairness and clarity.




































Minutes of the University Senate, October 21, 1968 (Cont'd)

(h) The primary function of the Office of the Vice President for
Student Affairs, or of any comparable office or offices in the Community
College System, with respect to disciplinary offenses shall be that of %?
furnishing counseling and advice to students accused of violation of state
and local laws or of University offenses. In the course of such counseling,
punishment for University disciplinary offenses, or treatment, may be out—
lined with the student having the privilege of accepting or referring the
case to the proper Board. In addition, in the event that a student has been T
accused of an offense against the University and/or against the city, state
or federal government, the nature of which may present a clear and present
danger of serious physical or mental harm to the student or to any other
member of the University community or to University property, the Vice
President for Student Affairs, or designated official or officials in the
Community College System, after consultation with the Appeals Board, may
impose such temporary sanctions on the student as are reasonably necessary
to protect the student, the University community and/or University property
from such danger until such time as final disposition of the case has been
made by the properly—constituted authorities.


Section (h) will be looked at again with the Faculty—Board Committee in light of dis— ¢%flw

. . . . 1
cuSSion in this meeting. :

(i) Punishment by expulsion or actual suspension must have the
approval of the President of the University.

(j) A student who is delinquent in his financial obligations to
the University, to any department or division in it, shall not be allowed
to register for the next term, to transfer his credits to another school
or to receive a diploma from the University, provided that such obligations ‘
shall not include fines and penalties assessed against the student by other f
than University officers.

There is question of whether or not this statement is a part of the Student Code.
2. The University a§_a Supervisor ngStudent Organizations

The control of student organizations shall rest with the Vice President egfga
for Student Affairs and of a designated official or officials in the Comm— 4
unity College System. Accordingly, any organization which wishes to use f
the University of Kentucky name or University property or to solicit thereon, Q
and any organization whose voting membership is limited solely to students
and faculty or staff must be registered with the Office of the Vice President
for Student Affairs or with a designated office in the Community College System.

An application for registration must contain an affirmative statement W
that the organization does not and will not discriminate against any person
due to race, color, sex or religious beliefs except when their approved
purpose requires limitation as to sex or religion. The organization must
operate consistent with the regulations of the Board of Trustees and the
University Senate or the Community College System faculty.

An organization may be subject to loss of registration or lesser «gr


punishment due to violations which shall be explicitly stated. a”?§m-








b A?“ in.“




Minutes of the University Senate, October 21, 1968


Rules of procedure in educational units of the University should


provide for consultation with students in the development of educational


Insert the following under XII.
all subsequent sub—heads on pages 77—81:



The University of Kentucky shall insure equal opportunity for

all individuals within the University, without regard to race,

color, religion and national origin, thereby protecting their
interest in personal dignity and encouraging their full contri—
bution to and benefit from the educational process.

MISCELLANEOUS, on page 77, and re—letter

Dr. Weaver stated that he would recheck the validity of the final paragraph on page 79.

Insert the word ”orH immediately preceding the word ”cultural” in the second
line of page 79 and again immediately preceding the word ”charitable” in the

third line, page 79.

Dr. Weaver was given an ovation in appreciation of the excellent job he had done

in revising the Governing Regulations.

The Senate adjourned at 9:30 p.m.

The University Senate met in regular session at 4:00 p.m.,
1968, in the Court Room of the Law Building.

Kathryne W. Shelburne
Recording Secretary


Monday, November 11,

Chairman Sears presided.

Members absent:

Frederick J. Bollum*, Eugene B. Bradley*, Herbert Bruce*, Virgil L. Christian, Jr.*,

Emmett R. Costich, D. F. Diedrich, Henry F. Dobyns, W.
Fred Edmonds*, Roger Eichhorn*, Irving S.
Jess L. Gardner, Wesley P. Garrigus*, Ward Griffen, Ro

G. Duncan*, W.
Fisher*, Eugene B. Gallagher, Art Gallaher*,
bert D. Haun*, A. J. Hiatt*,

Robert A. Kuehne,

Harris ISbell, William H. Jansen, Donald E. Knapp, John A. Koepke*,

James F. Lafferty*, Nancy Lair*, Karl O. Lange*, R. S. Levine, M. J.
Gene L. Mason, Dean H. Morrow*, Ronald E. Phillips*, William R.
John T. Reeves, Mary Ellen Rickey, Donald A.
Norman L. Taylor, Timothy H.
William J. Tisdall*, Duane N. Tweedda