xt72542j9m8n https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt72542j9m8n/data/mets.xml Kentucky. Department of Education. Kentucky Kentucky. Department of Education. 1959-07 Bulletins  English Frankford, Ky. : Dept. of Education  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.) Education -- Kentucky Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Art Education", vol. XXVII, no. 7, July 1959 text 
volumes: illustrations 23-28 cm. call numbers 17-ED83 2 and L152 .B35. Educational Bulletin (Frankfort, Ky.), "Art Education", vol. XXVII, no. 7, July 1959 1959 1959-07 2021 true xt72542j9m8n section xt72542j9m8n  

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1.4“ Commonweahh of Kentucky 0

5

‘1

   

EDUCATIONAL TI.I.IN

 

 

 

 

 

 

ART
EDI/6% HUN

 

 

5. Published by

» DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
ROBERT R. MARTIN

I

Superintendent of Public Instruction
Frankfort, Kentucky

 

 

 

 

 

 

En ISSUED MONTHLY
1
NF“ secontLClass matter March 21, 1933, at the post office at
mum)“, Kentucky, under the Act of August 24, 1912.
P o s T M A
CHANGES

STER: SEND NOTICES OF
OF ADDRESS 0N FORM 3579

iVOL-XXVII JULY, 1959 No.7

§§RARY
"’3' OF KENT; man!

L
UNIVERSE

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

BLANK
PAGES
THROUGHOUT

 

 

 .w .0”,

foreword

Art is a fundamental part of Kentucky’s ever advancing educa-
tional program. As a unique and vital area of the curriculum, it makes
an essential contribution to the creative, mental, and emotional growth
of Kentucky boys and girls. In an effort to promote a better under-
Standing of the art program the Department of Education has pub—
lIShEd this bulletin. The point of view expressed in this publication
22:21:? upon the feelings, ideas, and knowledge of many Kentucky
art pr 0m; 1The 1bulletin was designed to present an overview of the
techni $165113: er than detailed information about procedures and
the Tegdenmq elValrilous sections have been kept brief in order that
of the art 2; ireau y afiqmre a general picture ofOthe diverse facets
general ancl[:~e guilgli tT e. recommendations mentioned .herem,’ are
It is hoped thaCf th‘ 11:1 erpretation to be of value 1n specrfic Situations.
new art pro . ls ulletm Will be of servrce to schools as they plan

glams 0r enrich present programs.

Robert R. Martin
Superintendent of Public Instruction

401

 

 

>

 

 

 

 

 acknowledgmentS

This bulletin came into being through the efforts of many in-
dividuals who have recognized the fundamental role art plays in
every person’s life.

Through their faith, art will continue to move forward to give
meaning to life where ever it goes and enrich the culture in which
it dwells

By recording the names of these individuals who gave their time
and knowledge, a meager attempt has been made to give them the
recognition they so richly deserve.

Educators who formulated the various bulletin sections:

Staff member of the Covington Independent Schools

Betty Brothers
Staff member of the Cincinnati Public Schools
Darrell Brothers
Staff member of the Fort Thomas Independent Schools
Claudia Payne
Staff members of the ]efferson County Schools
Marjorie Straubl
Carolyn Browing
Lucille Leaf
‘ Charlotte Mears
Staff members of the Louisville Independent Schools
DOUSChka Ackerman Dorothy Lynch
Mary Walker Barnard Martha Miller
Norma BYOWH Lucille Morris
PatSy Griffin Dorothy Noel
Lottie GWaltney Lillian Nuxol
Charlotte Harju Harriet O’Malley
Marie Herd Lutishia Sinton
Anna HUddleston Nazza Skaff
EVallgeline Huff Florence Smothers
Delores Huff Elizabeth Wall
man . . -
Isabelle Johnso Margaret Willoughby
COmm'tt 11 Audrey Wright
1 ee

taf member of the Covington Independent Schools
1 ‘ Betty Brothers

)er of the Louisville Independent SChOOlS
Martha Christensen

ay State College

Clara Eagle

artment of Education

Dan Shindelbower

Editing

Staff mem

Staff member of Murr

Staff member 0f Dep

403

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

table of contents 3 I ; ,

I ______ 407
ART AND EDUCATION ———————————————————————— I
ART AREAS _____ 415 ,

1 Graphics ___________________________________________ 421 -‘ 3

[I Drawing ___________________________________________ 425 j I _}

PMnfing __________________________________________ 428 l g‘ 3 ’
Three Dimensional Al‘t ———————————————————————————— 439 " 4
Art Appreciation ____________________________________

 

 

. I ‘1 l

______ 441 , i i

Design ___________________________________________ 442 If I'.“ :
Crafts ________________________________________ 451 ’ 5* ‘
ART ACTIVITY INTRODUCTION CHART -------------- 455 i TI I
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION ------------- 467 ‘ I vi
RESOURCE MATERIALS — """""""" V' ‘
I ‘9‘
i I;
I I}
III
I;
I

 

 

405 {

 

 

  

 

141.511.]: .

Art and Education

407

 art and education

In today’s world where each day brings the far flung regions
of the globe closer together, where technological advancement is so
rapid that its human benefits have scarcely time to be identified,
where individuality is fast becoming a nonentity; man is faced with
the tremendous task of understanding and cooperating with his
fellow man while at the same time continuing to maintain his own
unique personality. He is also committed to continue with even more
concentrated effort the accumulation of knowledge of the physical
world while at the same time he has the task of integrating this new
found knowledge into a realm of understanding which will promote
the betterment of the human race.

The magnitude of these tasks is becoming more apparent with
each passing day. The upsurge of human problems both of an indi-
vidual nature and those relating to groups has further intensified the
seriousness of the solemn task which faces our country and the others
of the world

rivery significant part of the responsibility for meeting these
lll'eSSltlg needs lies on the shoulders of education. The specific re—
Sponsrhilities of the schools in our nation have continually changed
as the needs of our free and democratic society have changed.

The nghgiit [pf the changing needs of our country the participants in
major ob'ectigé: gonfereiice on Education1 have identified certain
teen Objelctiveg 51’ (pi 1contemporary American education. Of the. four-
to the Values of is? 1in the Conference Report,‘ eight relate directly
1' The (1a,: ec ucation. The eight ob]ectives are as follows:
Values andOpinent of respect and appreCiation for human
01 the beliefs of others.
:Eegilelolhplent of. the ability to think and evaluate con-
3‘ The day}; an creatively. '
e Opment of effective work habits and self—discipline.

4- T1 3 .
Hie development of intellectual curiosity and eagerness for
1 e-long learning.

on

. The r .
_ dmelopment of aesthetic appreciation and self-expressi011
iii the arts.
6, The r
7' The :11: 61101),“th 0f phySical and mental health.
1e. ~ e opment of Wise use of time, including constructive
isuie pursuits.
The develo
the world
‘ . These objecti
are considered
realized, our
and it’s p
1Thewuue

90

pment of an awareness of our relationships with

community.

toVeljeaifl tapeseven others identified by the Conference

young peo )le w'lllllgmijt Significance. For, as they are

YOblems as cohfidel e etter equipped to meet the future
nt, qualified, and creative individuals.

He\
use Conference on Education, 1956-

409

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In Kentucky the guiding principals which are held by the sch
parallel the general objectives which have been identified in theCf
ference Report. :

From the guiding principals spring the many specific object"
which are the foundation stones for the education programs Hi?
the state. Art education, as a fundamental part of Kentucky’srl
program, has nine such objectives. They are as follows:

To provide avenues for the individual to express andr‘u
municate feelings, ideas and concepts through the Vlsllfllif

To provide experiences which will foster the dereloplli:
of the maximum creativity of each individual.

To help students recognize and value man and his creah‘fi
through all times.

 

. . . - , ‘. agl.
To develop aesthetic apprec1ation by continualh encour»
. . . . - ‘ . lure.

the critical and analytical observation of art and Hal

. ‘ . V ll
To encourage individuals to be self directive: thereb) 3
ing a basis for self discipline.

To provide experiences which will help develop the wolf

tive approach to the solution of visual art problems.

To provide knowledges and skills which will form lllel‘ll’

tion for constructive leisure time pursuit5~
. . . . . . . to milr
To prOVide guidance for indiViduals who Plan

their vocation.

nowledges will:

' i . .- ‘ ’ f k _
To build an appiopiiate foundation 0 sum“
l

which will allow the individual to develOP t0 llglinm
potentialities through a twelve grade Program an
hood.

ll‘:

410

110]

in

are
of ‘
thr
are
to 1

0th
def
[hr

1116

 by the sch
ed in the[

cific Object
rogranis ii:
ntucky’s it

52

was and L:
the \‘iSllfll r

e derehpr

(l his crealii»

 

lly encourag" .f
and 1121mm ‘

, thereby I '

up the “Inf
roblems.

)rm the IOII

an to malt '

l

edges and :2
0 his mar
and into I3

These (1 ' '
r )nectives are Mt” ‘
howst t i , ex 1cmt‘lv important t tl ' '
of . . t, c 0 1e no r1“ ,
l I plhl its obligation to voungr people 1 f0 am Wthh

n 011 er that tl ' J I .
. 16 ~ A ~) ' '
m the clam-00m th pleading Ol)]€Ct1VCS may best be implemented
arms: as those {Vh'eli tate Board of Education has identified six‘ art
IIIIGI‘maxinmmM13“ are essential to the program which hopes(to

v 1e. .1. ~
Ihrec (Illnensiolnl (u: Flie areas are; graphics, drawing and paintin
I ( ' I.
firearm-e needed 11: 0, {651%}, art appreciation, and crafts These sf:
rter trt 1 ' . K
Iotahe a ( esnable e ’ )'
Careo ' H xperiences ma be ‘ '

so . f the 1nd1vrdual differences of young )eofl/ PIOVIded

me i ' ) e.
w” rndmduals by nature react uickl 1 1 .

. 1110Ve much more ‘1 (1 _v to any Situation while
determining fflCtOrj t1 SOle and carefully. This variance is a
diridu ‘1 1‘3 Selection of ' " A ~ ' "(

als. suitable art activrties for in—

The
art pro 1"
. M 1m sh l '
IIIIIH'll g c on d be desig
. ned so that e1 l y
acr and ever

(Hal (3 ‘ 11 v f ’ . ~ - - ~ ' '
gd 655' 0 6]] 11]] I x t es 111
. ]
l 1116 Cllal EICtellSth» 01 Cal al)lll 1 {1
( Q ) c V

13W 0(1 .
ual 0P) . . .
Oitun 7‘ ~
ment. 1 1t105 for self expression and complete 1 l
( eve op—

all

411

 

 

 

V
J

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

413

 graphics

,, . ' '1 draw—
ing, engraving and any other art which pertains ressed on a surface-
ideas bV means of lines, marks or chal‘actels. 1,11,]? etChiug engraving,
More specifically, in this bulletin the term refelst. ? >
lithography, silk Screen printing and b10Ck 1.31111.“ g]. s in the fact that

A major reason for the popularity Of flu-S alffa thena be produced,
many copies, or “prints”, of the original artistic e1 Ollsltoyview and dis-
thercby expanding the opportunities for 111(l1V1( ua
cuss the work.

‘ . r

Many of the world’s great masters have used thefhplflolfsjeells'ijfis
their artistic expression. As students 6X13el'1mel1t_W1 f the mastery
methods and techniques, they develop an aPPIZGCIathD O h -. ideas.
with which these artists have executed visual Images Of t e11

Special tools of all types are used in the various glféphlcegilsgisstipe
tools ranging from a simple pocket knife to the more. pr 1 ed in the
of cutting instruments used in engraving. The skills 111VOfV n6 stu-
use of these tools may suit the individual temperament. Ch Sf” artistic
dents, thereby affording them more suitable avenues £01 t err
expression. , tion has

As the processes are discussed in more detall, (‘T‘thn 1 ever-
heen given to the sequence of activities which make possib e Elldirect
(evcloping understanding of the characteristiC§ Of ,these 11 'deas
methods” of producing Visual images of an indivrduals unique 1 '

block printing

This method of

ace of some type of
thereby tr A f

printing is accomplished by inking the flat surl-
block and then pressing this surfaceon a mateua i
g an image of the surface to the materlal. Thewsua
are cut into the surface of the block With kan65 or

ng tools. When the block is inked, the cut out are:
”31156 it is lower than the uncut portion, receives no 111k, Wth
Causes only the image of the uncut portion to be transferred-

ansferrin
Ideas of the artist
Special block cutti

415

 

 

 

 

 

 

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INNER—TUBE
PRINTING

 

stick and potato
printing p1

at

Children at the primary level in l: ll
elementary school begin their anti" 0
ences in block printing with sliclsf 11)]
spools, small wood blocks, spongesrsl‘ it

any other fairly absorbent objectm’fl
a flat surface. These objects areinsertnl‘
in a heavy tempera paint, then presstli .
on a piece of paper or cloth. The llfl fl
surface of the block may be alteredhl

simple saw cuts or knife cuts to produtr' St
a greater variety of shapes. WheuapkE v2
tato or some other vegetable OlSlflllllll
characteristics is used, the children fir“ t1]
cut the potato so that a flat Sill'lélt‘t3‘. pl
exposed. Into this surface cuts mall

made to any desired shape. The potll

is then printed, using the same Pt“ I

cedure used for sticks. l,
\

cork, innertuhe, alltl fa
cardboard prlntlng of

s necessarilyltl an
g because (I M
k, lune Ce
the s ‘5': fat

These printing method
low stick and potato printin
the skill involved in cutting 001'
tube and cardboard. Aside from ‘itl:
factor, cork printing is caried outflm
same fashion as stick and potato Prlllmi. ll
Innertube printing, 011 the Other |

- focalurr
has some marked changes 1111’ [I
be 1'5 5W.”

First, a piece of innertu m A m
which has an even thickness' Frown“ su
the child cuts shapes of his ownpwfi tli.
ence and fastens them with lllallllrllmfi an
glue to a heavy piece 0f 132511511“ thi
When the glue has (ll'led: ll mm“; th.
of the innertube is covered WIMP --‘ of

- resin
:1 pamt 311d 1 ,5

ink or heavy temper qnimfl‘l .
. c

onto some material, leavmg
the innertube shapes.

 
   

 otato

’ level in ii:
their esprit
with slid: i

9, spongeh ’
t object nit]

Is are insert
then prrssr
loth. Tire ll‘
be altered l3;
Its to prorlrn»
1. When npfii
ble 0i Sirnilitl
children lllz'
lat snrlnrrf
cuts nrnrl
9. Tire potri

re same pi:
i

l

leg and
inting

:ecessfifillli
ng becnnst r?

cor‘l', innr’i'
from the Sli
ied 011t l“ L':
)tatO prim”?
3 other 1111““
in PIOCELLLLK:
I6 is seletlit'
55. From '1‘
5 own Piglfl
11 water PILL}
)f cal‘dbo‘ll‘
, the 51} L:
with PrlLlLlLi
t and llrellli

. , ‘ lv
r an ”Nb“
7

Cardboard printing, for the most part is identical to innertube
printing. In this type of printing cardboard shapes take the place
of the innertube and is processed in a similar manner. A variation of
this method has been developed which begins with a flat piece of
cardboard into which shapes are cut and removed, leaving a valley
in the cardboard. Some shapes are marked on only three sides, then
peeled away, leaving one edge which is a gradation from the top
surface to the depth of the valley.

plaster block printing

This method of printiflg uses a plaster block with at least one
smooth, flat surface. Images are Carved into the flat surface with a
variety of tech, ranging from the common nail to the pI‘ECiSiO11 en-
graVlng instrument. The block is inked in the regular fashion and
the ink image is transferred by rubbing a spoon over the material
placed on the block. ‘

linoleum block printing

activillllsl311315155: plrinting is one of the most popular graphic art
tools and the Wadi-lint program. The reasonable price of cutting
“Sponsible £01.11]; “:7. 1rity of scrap pieces of linoleum are partially
factor Which has qt. 1( e1 acceptance of this actrvrty: Another important
of the material its.elrfnnptated the use of linoleum IS the characteristic
ace is such that detdile 11s easy'to cut, fairly substantial Ian-d the sur-
are Obtained when (:1 1C bImages may be carved. Best printing results
inch and a Dress 1'; 1:216: roller, called a brayer, is used to ink the
cePtable In‘ints may be frod) llalnSléll the “flageahowever, fairly ac-
ace of :1 Spoon which ils .Elcef VVltl a rolling pin or the round sur-
. used as a burnisher.

wood block printing

This method of

, )l‘intinr 1 s - ~ -
n00 A , . I ma )c d]\7](1) _. .. . ‘_
d engravmg an( E; ,Y ed into two general groups

Surface of a block l‘Wood Cuts. “700d engraving uses the end grain

the sin-faCe as th of WOOd. Engraving tools rout more than cut into

are possible with6 fluids“ (leleops his ideas. Very detailed images

he end grain of thxm method because of the even consistency of

LIEmSElreg to the Self/(1T1. Wood cuts, on the other hand, do not lend

0 the hardneSS of ti al‘ed llne work because of the inconsistency of
10 Surface of a “with—the-grain plank”.

417

 

 

1‘;
i‘
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f.
I.
I
.
.

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

    

  
 
 
 

Wood cutting tools are similar to those used for linoleum nil;
while the wood engraving instruments are similar to those used In
metal engraving.

 

Wood blocks are inked and printed in the same way as linolar
blocks. g

Many fascinating prints have been taken from wood blocks whit: l
were the result of a high school sudent’s special interest in goinglrj
yond the linoleum block. Of course, there is more skill needed to (llItCi
the cutting tools across the surface of a piece of wood, but illtpfi‘j
sonal satisfaction derived from mastering this more complicated utiliti-
is ample justification for encouraging interested students toexpiti
ment with these tools and materials. These are other values Whit.
should be considered: (1) Wood is a more substantial material thlg
linoleum; (2) Greater detail is possible__ and (3) the infinite \arieii't'i
grain patterns may be incorporated in the finished print. %
DC

1

Stilt-screen printing 7Q
The silk-screen process, some historians state, was (levelolfdvbj‘
the Chinese. Other historians say it was developed by i119 3‘11““
Egyptians. Though we cannot determine is origin, there 15' Bluff.
that the method of cutting stencils for duplication was used 1113110”
times. lei
Silk-screen printing is a versatile activity that may belalffl‘
to the elementary level as readily as to the high school leve. m
elementary school a satisfactory type of silk—screening maybetcvag
on with embroidery hoops or boxes, inexpensive organdYa 501?]: simill
rubber squeegee and finger paint. At the high SChOOIuleleedfi (1
materials may be used but a more professional type/15“

detailed work.

at
This process, considered by some to be extremel)" legllortlr
is really relatively simple. A stencil, which may be ‘fo ngorqflmv‘
regular stencil paper, is affixed to the underside Of a seleffiw Pflfieri‘t
or silk which has been stretched tightly over a frame' flispitfil
material which is to receive the image cut out Of the Stellct is sprt’f-l
on a table, then the frame is placed over it. A thmkpmfwe .
across one end of the screen and by using 21 I'llbbellflvheretfi‘
paint is drawn from one end of the screen to the Otlléll'fell fliepiitt
is an opening in the stencil which is attached to the 5“ ’
is pressed through to the material beneath-

i
i
u

:9. i‘
gt

 )leum ddl
’56 used [1;

as linoleur
g
docks \dd I
in goingb,» "
led to did. I
but the pL—z ‘
ated actid
:s to aw i
'alues dldf
mterinl dd:
te variety 0'

leveloped l} {a

 

 

the ducia’
3 is evident;
ed in and:

' be adapted
level. lnllz'

av be undid

  
 
  
  
 
  

 

i .l
some tum

 

 

 

level simil.’

 

 

s needed l:

compllcdlxl
Japer or I}:
311 of orgad:
The paper
‘ncil is plain
flint is spres‘
9 ueegee. »
Where W
8611, the [155'

419

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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l
.
x
.
l
x
«

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 
   

etc/ling

Rectangular pieces of sheet copper or zinc are generally used
for this process. This sheet of metal is called a plate and it is covered
with a thin layer of acid-resisting material. Into this layer the studrr‘
scratches the image of his preference. The scratches expose the metlf
which is eaten away when the plate is placed in a solution ofaril. .
When the acid has had time to react on the metal so that avalleri
formed which is deep enough to hold ink, the plate is removed [rat
the acid bath and washed in clear water. The acid—resisting material
is removed from the plate and a printing ink is rubbed into the dr-é‘
pression caused by the acid action. The plate is then wiped clear1
with a stiff cloth which does not remove the ink from the depressiom
The inked plate, a felt mat and a piece of dampened paper areplflfl’l
together and passed through an etching press. The paper is lOICf‘lL
into the depression, picking up the ink, thereby transferring the was

from the plate to the paper. *
i

D

mfi

 

engraving r

l‘
~ . . ' _bul
Identical methods are used to print engravmgs and etclnngsiin.
. . - 1V ‘.‘
the plate development differs. The image IS Cut into the Eltgl“ .
plate with special instruments made of extremely hard mateim.

lithography

has made it possible

The development of more economical presses l'l'
ithogrfiP 1)

for high school art departments to offer experiences inl e of
interested students. Stones are still the most p0pulal‘ Plateslfjwem
this process because they may be used again and agalnt ‘t :
sheets of zinc and aluminum .are used where fillaIIC€5.Pelr;]cltSS,,ll,
Principal that water and oil will not mix is the basis of thlsgj a We
image is drawn on the flat, smooth surface of the Sfotle W1 °
pencil. The surface of the stone is dampened, allowrn -aseI
penetrate all areas except where it is repelled by the g,le~t
While the stone is still damp an inked roller is Passed Olinedpa "
depositing ink only on the marks made by the penal Damlnfls whirl:
is then placed over the stone and it is passed througlf aia)“ HI
applies enough pressure to cause the ink to transfer to “Talmllfine
the paper with the image is removed, the stone 15 (
mediately and inked for the next printing.

(l m]

420

  

 reraily did
it is covertd
the Sltldtt? :-
se the met; j
:ion of odd
t a vaiieri j
moved iron \
ing mated! i
into the d ‘
wiped do: i
depressiorr ‘
er are placed 3;
)er is forced}
1g the imagr l

  

l
i
j (
etchingt bl“
re engrfl‘l“?
rateriol-

:le it possibl‘
thogrflpl‘il‘
ates used it
in; l10\\'€\‘fl
)ermii. 3‘
5 process.
with 3 gift“
the water i‘?‘
frease 111““
:er the SW
ipened 11er
Press “l“?
)zIPer' “ lily
impelled “l

drawing

For many years a particular type of representational drawing was
considered to be the major activity in the art program of our schools.
This type of drawing was evaluated in terms of how well it resembled
photographically the subject being represented in the drawing. Formu—
las, such as one and two point perspective, aerial perspective, propor-
tion, etc, were strictly adhered to and any consideration for the
elements of design was practically non-existent.

In these early art programs, any attempt at imaginative drawing
was for the most part forbidden and an individual’s unique perception
of the world around him was not considered.

(will; 1:23:sfoassttjrlciated with this rigid practice of representational

a continuation 0; the most part been proven invalid today. In fact,

contemporar . rs practice would destroy much of the value the
y art program has for the child.

by till: :33: schpols, the following definition for drawing is accepted

. y 0 the educators:

or wiihzjtuigni: Elijatct of driIvliding a surface into shapes with

houses, boats 01. tja 1:)118.‘ 1e shapes may represent people,

Shapes may 48 it Wrey may be completely abstract. These

be defined , 1 . as pornted out, have shading or they may

on y wrth lrnes. The surface may be paper, cloth,

Stone or . - .
"ll > any other material on which the drawing instrument
W1 make a mark.

This (1 ‘ ‘ '
the early sdifrldultlon would have applied to the drawing program in
the past and d0 3- .The' drfference between drawing as an activity in
ranng rn today’s more vital and dynamic art program

iesi
n the purposes for which drawing is used.
Today,

drawin '
rs . - -
artPTOjects, g used as a means for vrsual plannrng of many

posters and 3:3th 1:133:35. 0f Sculpture, architecture) utilitarian objects,
(it natural and mangmad ls “'SCd as an avenue for visual interpretation
s ape relations and t e glue-eta It rs used as a means for recording
of Objects, It is , one relations of various objects or combinations
noteworthy ex flamed as an avenue for children to visually recall a

P ence 01‘ t0 vrsually express their ideas or feelings.

It is
used as a
. n a . .
for the development of eye to hand coordina—

i 011‘ Venue

421

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Drawing is accomplished in a variety of w'ayS, according W
purpose the individual has for making the drawing. Many oftllelll
lar drawing media (materials) have been listed below withsomt
their limitations and possibilities:

pencil

Pencils vary greatly in style and type. They may
conte’, Charcoal or wax cores encased in wood or paper. ..
The graphite core pencils are rated in relation to their (leg:
softness or hardness. Usually they cover a range from 8 or ‘7‘
very soft, to 9H, the very hard. The “B” pencils are LlS(‘3(
and so—called free—hand drawing, while the “”H penCllS

. , - ' “ 118095
drafting plans or any other prolects Where a thin line 15
ally “’OOd 9“”,

y be 1369“"

ll {We gmphi.

are 1159 5’ «
52m}

The charcoal, graphite and conte’ pencils are 11811
while the wax pencils are encased in paper which ma
in regular strips to expose the wax core.

Pencils are excellent for line drawing and small to. tone [J
however, only a few types are appropriate for the largéh 4] first
ings. Most pencils make a fairly permanent mark, 110‘Veleilfl‘flss “'1',
drawing, should be sprayed with a fixative or put undel a
it is displayed.

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charcoal

Charcoal is appropriate for quick sketches and visual planning.
There are several types available. The vine type is in the original
form of the twig which has gone through the charcoaling process.
Depending upon the wood processed, the finished product will vary
in degree of softness.

Another type of Charcoal is the compressed type which is more
uniform in size and consistency but is not considered to have the
degree of softness found in the vine type.

These materials are most effective when used on a special char-
coal paper that has a rough surface. The charcoal stick may be pointed
for fine lines or used on its side for broad strokes. An entire drawing
may be wiped from the surface with a chamois skin if the individual
:90 deSn‘es. Because of this “easily erased” characteristic of charcoal,
‘ldrflng must be sprayed with a fixative before it is safe to handle.

conle’ crayon

are Iggfiqgaygls are approximately 1/4? square and)8” long. They
material “:higfied 111 three degrees of softness. Comte is a chalk—like
“Cellth for (1‘ :eSknOt smear or dust off to any great extent. It is
or used 01 . i119 S etching because it may be pointed for fine lines

lits s1de for broad shaded areas. Conte’ is stronger than

Cllalk;jt' ~. .
areas ‘5 falll) permanent and it is excellent for making large, dark

423

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

pen and ink

Pen and ink have been one of the most popular drawing combinr
tions down through the ages. Ink’s permanency and the possibiliti
of strong contrasting tones with it, are the factors which harem:- i
couraged the artist to use this medium for his artistic expression, i

Today there are a great variety of pen points manufactured whirl,
are available at reasonable prices. Those discussed below have louii
wide acceptance in art programs: ;

A Crow Quill is a small pen point of standard design used hi
detail work and fine line drawing. i

Lettering pens are Special pens formed with two or three pittfil
of metal so as to hold a greater amount of ink. The points are it
designed that they will produce the variety of lines necessary for ill? !
many styles of lettering. "I

Drawing pens are regular size points of standard design wliri
are flexible in order that increased point pressure will produce-q
wider line.

Felt tip pens are usually of the fountain type with rfil’laceabl:k <
felt tips which vary in width up to about 1/2 inch. They are Wldelyufi (
for quick lettering because of their case of handling and the ‘1‘“
drying properties of the special felt tip inks.

graphite bloc/c l2
M

wsmm

These blocks are solid graphite which are usua flint

1/4” square. They are fine for sketching because of
width which they are able to produce.

variety 0

chalk and wax crayon

’: . rflt'fllll

Most of us are familiar with chalk and crayon. ,Thilxldfawl“?

are fairly permanent but are not appropriate for fllle ibeSP
Chalk may be rubbed for smooth color shapes but 111115

with a fixaive if the finished work is to be handled.

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pam ll 11g

ving combim :
:he possibililf 'i
liCll have a. :

‘ . P11'11tiu " . '
plessmn. : t g 1s many things. To some it is the exclusive use of “1
c

brush a ' ' ‘
i s ' ‘
COIOlf 1t applies paint to canvas. To others it is a dripping of
' mm 1 ' ‘ ‘ ' A ‘
Still “he” fit cm:1 as it moves across a piece of coated masonite To
1'1 1s ‘ ' l ' ’ l .
ms to _ . leapplymg oi paint in any of the manv and varied
, Cleate the illus10n which theV desire /
/ .

Ictured whirl
w have [01111.

Sgll 1159( 'l‘
i 10 (,l1lldle ) l L| V V ‘ ‘ ' A ' ‘) ‘ 5
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1' three new . K man color eil'e ~t' ' - ' ~ '

. l .,‘ expel'lenceS. y c s, and to relive I'JCll and Vital

pomts are N

essary for {hr 1 ll
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design whirl. l fi

[11 produce .2
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colors to any thmgs ”‘11 l '
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The child dips his brush into a rich color and makes mark;
other marks follow, either in rapid or leisurely succession and 3001'
he has finished a painting. Knowledge and skill develop as the child
has experience after experience guided by the sensitive and under-
standing teacher.

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0

Fundamentally painting is concerned with color, texture 211er
shape. Color has certain properties which have been identifiedlstf
their functional aspects may receive consideration. The propertrsl
are titled value, the light or darkness of color; intensity, the degree:
of brightness of color; and hue, the specific type of color such 35th. 5
red, orange or purple. '

As children progress through the twelve grade progmmdllhE
discuss the various theories related to color properties and color 0-01“: 1‘
binations. They experiment with color to find what fantastic {1111135
it will do. They paint for the sheer delight of painting, puttlng (10“
their inner most feeling and ideas.

tempera pamtmg

The most popular painting medium, by far, used in the 5031123:
today is “powder tempera.” Elementary as well as high school “12mm!
have found this material readily adaptable to their inani’ll’aushe:
projects. Tempera has received this popularity because 0f1.5\v11icr
life”, and the ease with which it may be handled. ThC Powflel’li is
comes in a one pound carton, is simply mixed with watel 3“
ready for use. nice”
Tempera also comes in liquid form at about thesilmeliednd
the powder. Some educators prefer this type because It lstnthe\"‘l
ready to use. Both forms of tempera are opaque 111 {1.1.116 thShFS
cover well if used at the proper consistency. HeaV)’ bub. when
called easel brushes are used in most cases to apply temp?” n
times water color brushes have been used when the Pam

t has 9"“
thinned slightly.

 akes a marl. f
on, and soon

i as the chili ’
3 and imder- '

texture ind
identified it ‘
1e properlio
r, the degree
such as blue.

rogram, they ‘
id color cont
itastic thingi

)utting down ‘
i

1 the schoUl'
hool student!
any paintiut
of its “Shel
)Wder7 Whitil
.ter and iii"

1me price a:
is mixed iii:
int they “i
'istle hi'ushei
)era whi e ‘9:
int his hot

water color painting

roulldateil color painting 15 prac