xt72bv79sb8x https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt72bv79sb8x/data/mets.xml Smith, Z. F. (Zachariah Frederick), 1827-1911. 1898  books b92-150-29579332 English Courier-Journal Job Printing Co., : Louisville, Ky. : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky History. Youth's History of Kentucky  : from the earliest discoveries and settlements to the year 1898 / by Z.F. Smith ; prepared for use in the schools of the state. text Youth's History of Kentucky  : from the earliest discoveries and settlements to the year 1898 / by Z.F. Smith ; prepared for use in the schools of the state. 1898 2002 true xt72bv79sb8x section xt72bv79sb8x 


              TO THE YEAR 1898.

ise eke stand;  ijd
Rio .,,,  



            BY Z F SMITH

              LOUISVILLE. KENTUCKY t




                   PE R S O N A L.

To the Sudeni:
  The author presents this revision of a school history of
Kentucky, conscious of changed conditions since the appear-
ance of the first edition of a work with a similar purpose, nine
years ago. The larger history for the library was written and
published three years before. It was the original intention
to make of this a text-book for the schools, and a few
chapters were prepared for this purpose. But the work
expanded to much larger proportions, and the plan was
changed. Thus, the school history followed, rather as an
incident of the larger work than from an original design.
It was a pioneer work in Kentucky, and thought to be a
doubtful experiment. It slept three years in manuscript
before a publisher would venture to put it in print. Twelve
years ago text-books on state history, if any existed, were
very rare, both North and South. They were innovations.
Would they pay
   Years before the first chapter of his first history of Ken-
tucky was written, the author, by some event of Providence,
or otherwise, had been brought in very close touch with the
public schools, school people, and school methods in Ken-
tucky. A deep sympathy and interest created then have not
abated since. There were many pressing wants in our



schools. Some of these were partially met. Among others,
it was believed that there was an imperative need of a text-
book on Kentucky history. There was years ago even more
reason for this than now. While the text-books in use in
the schools, within their scope, are good of their kind,
no one of them, nor all of them, can possibly supply the
want of a school history of one's own state. Without the
latter, the pupil will never be taught to appreciate what his
state has done, and what his ancestors have done toward the
building of the fabric of a great nation. A text-book on
United States history can make but incidental and brief
mention of such events in the history of a state as may have
some bearing on national affairs. It does not pretend to
instruct the pupil in the history of any one state.
   Fifteen years ago the masses of the people of the com-
monwealth were destitute of means of information as to the
history of the state. A favored few-perhaps one in every
thousand-were the exceptions. An obvious want was
created by the conditions; how should it be met A school
history of Kentucky was long needed and waited for. A
painful consciousness of this want was the inspiration
which gave form and being to Smith's Histories of Ken-
tucky. Events have proven that the laborious venture was
not a mistake; these histories have had a mission. In ten
years past, copies of some editions have gone into every
county, city and town in the state, and often by the hun-
dreds, telling the stories of thrilling incident and adventure,
of legend and romance, of heroism of character and deed,



                      PERSONAL.                    V

and of grand aim and achievement, which give world-wide
fame to Kentucky and Kentucky character. To day the
History of Kentucky is familiar to our people, and can
be found in our homes, everywhere.. The author has
reason to feel some pride and pleasure in this work. The
young men and women of Kentucky have better learned
the history of their state and of its founders, and are
proud of both. They have learned that no state in the Union,
unless it be dear old Virginia, has done more than Kentucky
to make of ours a mighty nation. Pride of state broadens
patriotism into a pride cf nation.
  We offer this new edition of a School History of Ken-
tucky to the teachers and pupils, trusting that its mission,
in the future, may result in as good a fruitage for the people
as the mission of the pioneer editions has done in years
gone by.


                     TABLE OF CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTORY................. .. .. .................... ....    ..  I
                            PERIOD FIRST.
                         OTHER PLACES IN 1775.
Chapter I.  Earliest Traditions to the Visits of Last Exploration in 1766 . 12
Chapter II. Earliest Pioneers, i767-71-Early Traditions .29
Chapter III. Tribes in the Ohio Valley-Surveys and Adventures-177I-1773 . 47
Chapter IV. Battle of Point Pleasant-Transylvaiiia Company-Boone's
                  Trace-1774-75...... . . ... ... .... ... . 6
Chapter V.  Bootiesborough Built - other Settlements - First White
                  Woman-1775   . .. . ..  . . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .  71
                           PERIOD SECOND.
                             ENGLAND, 1783.
Chatpter VI.  Pioneer Men and Events-1775 to 1777.. . . .      . 8i
Chapter VII. Indian Invasions, 1777-George Rogers Clark-Northwest
                  Campaign, 1778-9.            .    .    ...   ..     95
Chapter VIII. Lexington Settled - The Hard Winter - Importation of
                  Women-1779-8 ............. .1........ . Io8
Chapter IX.  Siege of Bryati's Station-Battle of Blue Licks-1782 . . .  120
                            PERIOD THIRD.
                         CONSTITUTION, 1772-I800.
Chapter X.   Close of the War for Independence, 1782--Statehood, 1784  . . 132
Chapter XI.  Indian Hostilities, 1784-Sixth Convention for Separation, 1788. 144
Chapter XII. Hostilities, 1788o90 - Spanish Intrigue, 1788-9 - Kentucky
                 Loyal, 1791-2 ......... .'............ . . 155
Chapter XIII. Intrigues with Spain, 1787-95 - Last Indian Hostilities,
                  1790-95..                                          167
Chapter XIV. Inauguration of First Governor, 1792-Second Constitution,
                  800.... ... ...................                   179
                           PERIOD FOURTH.
                 OF THE SECOND WAR WITH ENGLAND, 181r.
Chapter XV.  Federal and Republican Parties, i8oo-Battle of Tippecanoe,
                  1811   .  ................................................. 193
Chapter XVI. The War of 1812-15..... . . .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .  . 209
                            PERIOD FIFTH.
Chapter XVII. Civil Events - Finance and Commerce-Improvements-
                  1816-46.2. .                 .. ...... 22
Chapter XVIII. Parties an - Leaders, 1828-60-War with Mexico, I846-Consti-
                  tution, 1850 ........ .... ... ........ 237
                            PERIOD SIXTH.
                CIVIL WAR, 1860-65--EVENTS TO DATE, 1865-98.
Chapter XIX. The Great Civil War, 186o-65.... .. .. . .. . .. . .  . 249
Chapter XX.   Civil War i862-65.. ............... .             ..... 263
Chapter XXI. Close of the Civil War, 1865, to the Present Day .278
Chapter XXII. Close of the Civil War, 1865, to the Present Date. (Continued) 289



Anderson, Gen. Robert .   ..  2

Backwoodsman .
Barry, Wm. T. .2......   .  .. 2
Ballard, Bland .....     . .  I
Black Hoof, Indian Chief.
Beckner, W. M.....  .      2
Boone's First View of the Kentucky
Boone's Rock k...........
Boone. Daniel ...........
Boone's Monument .
Breckinridge, GeCi. John C. .
Bridge over Falls of Ohio .
Bridge, High, over Kentucky River,
Butler, Mann .2...... .   ....

Campbell, Alexander .2.......
Clay, Cassius M..  
Clark. George Rogers .......
Clay, Henry.                 .
Collins, Richard H..........2
Council, Indian.
Corn Island, Falls of Ohio  .
Coke Oven.. . .. . .. ..   . 2. .

Daveiss, Col. Joseph Hamilton .. 2
Davis, Jefferson..
Dudley, Thomas P..            2
Durrett, R. T.                2

Fscape of Boone and Stewart
Estill, Capt. James, Monument  i

Falls of Ohio, Primitive View
Filson, John, Historian.

Geological Exposures
Grist Mill, Primitive ........

Hlel m, Gov. John L. . - -
flunter's Camp Cabin.
Johnson, Col. Richard M.
Johnston, Gen. Albert Sidney

Kentucky Farm  ..........
Kentucky River Scene-Frankfort,
Kavanau gh, Bishop H. H...    ..
Kenton, Simon  . ........

                             PAC E.
LaSalle....   ..      ......  . 24
Lincoln, Abraham.              250

Mammoth    ..... ..   .  .... 45
Mlarshall, Thomas F.          .229
Marshall. Humphrey, Historian   5
Marshall, Gen. Humphrey        242
McDowell, Samuel.              I2
Menifee, Richard H.            229
Moccasin. Indian.. .. .. . .. . 76
Mound Builders' Works ...    . 38, 39
Mound Pottery and Idols..        1
Mound Typical Skulls ....  . 43, 44
Monk Estill, colored......  . 117
Morgan, Gen. John H. ......   . 261

Patterson, Col. Robert .  ...  . 124
Pinnacle Rock ..... .. .  .    268
Prophet, Indiat .204

Relics, Indian-
    Stone Ax .5.0. . ....... so
    Arrow head. . .. . .. .. . 52
    Spade.                   . 58
    Stone Perforator.          65
    Pipe.  . ..    .  . .... 69
    Corn Digger.               7t
    Tomahawk .87

     Scalp Dried.
32  Shelby. Governor Isaac .
8  Stock, High-bred Bluegrass
26  Stockade Fort .. .   ......
8   Spaulding, Bishop M. J.
     Stevenson, Gov. John W.
17  Surface Li tie of Kentucky .
     Taylor, Gen. Zachary.  
3   Taylor, Gen. James......   . .
30  Territory, Northwest.       
157  War Dance, Indian .
     Wigwam Scene .........
'4  Wilkinson, James .. . .....
'9  Williams, Gen. John S ..... . .

Young, Rev. John ... ...    .. 233

1 179
. 72
. 23!
. 284

- 241
. 211
a  136

. 142

 This page in the original text is blank.




   1. The boy or girl, native to Kentucky of to-day, beholds
it a fair land of cities, of towns, of hamlets, and of pleas-
ant country homes. Mingled with these, and dotting the
surface of this grand domain, are churches for the peaceful
worship of God, and colleges and schools for the education of
youth. Fields of waving grain, herds of farm-stock grazing
in rich pastures, and orchards and gardens laden with
abundant fruitagt-, ate anmiliar scenes to every eye. Rail-
ways traverse the land and steamboats plow the waters in
every direction, while the iron threads of our telegraph and
telephone lines put us in constant touch with all the world.
All this means that we are living il the midst of, and are
part of, a culture higher and better than was known in the
ages past.
   2. Now let us turn our attention from these pictured
scenes of happy homes, of busy industries, and of peaceful
life. We will go back in our country's history but one
hundred and fifty years; and, from one of the lofty summits
of the Alleghany mountains, look westward, toward the sun-
set, and behold the forests and plains, the hills and valleys,
and the brakes and dells, which reach away to the Missis-
sippi river. It is the same land of Kentucky, which we
have pictured as now the peaceful home of civilization.
It was then Kentucky, in a state of luxuriant nature, known
only to the Indians, who had wandered over it for centuries
past-the mysterious and unexplored Wilderness of the
West. The solitary places of this wilderness and the ex-


I t     g    i    S ;      i



           YOUTH'S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.            3

treme savagery of the people who dwelt within its shadows
reached from the borders of Kentucky, on the north, to the
lakes, and, on the south, to the Gulf of Mexico; and, from the
foot-hills of the Alleghany mountains, westward, until lost
beyond the Great Father of Waters.
   3. Within this period of one hundred and fifty years
a transformation has come. This Kentucky Eden was des-
tined to receive and to nurture the first plant of Anglo-
Saxon civilization in America, within the vast and fertile
basin of the Mississippi. Out of these beginnings, through
the trying periods of territorial infancy and youth, has
grown our great and sovereign state, Kentucky, of whose
fame in history her children are proud to day. Not only
did the pioneers in this wilderness, by their valor and self-
sacrifice, carve out and erect a great commonwealth, under
the protection of which their children might dwell in secu-
rity, but they have aided much in founding and building
up sister commonwealths to take their places in the union
of states, which go to make up our nation. Her children
have often and ably represented their mother state, and
some of them other states of their adoption, in high posi-
tions of trust and honor. If the student will turn to the
pages of the larger history, lie will find that over eighty of
her native sons have been ambassadors, foreign ministers
and consuls at foreign courts; over twenty have held high
commands in the army of the United States, while nearly
sixty were generals in the Federal and Confederate armies
during the Civil War-almost equally divided between the
two; seven have been judges of the United States Supreme
Court; over one hundred have served as governors, lieuten-
ant-governors and congressmen of other states; six have acted
as vice-presidents of the United States, and others have filled
high offices in state and nation, almost without number. It



is well known that two presidents of the United States,
Zachary Taylor and Abraham Lincoln, and the president of
the Confederate States in the great Civil War, Jefferson
Davis, were native-born to Kentucky.
   4. In the background of this picture we have sketched,
of the illustrious characters of later Kentucky history and
of their successful careers in life, stand forth the earlier
characters and deeds of the pioneer fathers, the beginners
and the founders of all that has made our commonwealth
famous and great in after years. That which is unique
and heroic in the life of Kentucky we owe more to these
men and women of bold resolves, of strong and steady wills
and of enduring courage, than to all others. Boone, Ken-
ton, Harrod, Clark, Logan, Ray, Todd, and Patterson
were but a type of the men of iron, whose deeds of daring
wrested the land from the wily savages, felled the forests,
opened farms and built homes, and subdued the wilds of
nature to the peaceful arts and uses of civilization. Mis-
tresses Taylor, Boone, Anderson, Polk, Calloway, Cook, Da-
viess, Dunlap, Ingles, McClure, and the women of Bryan's
Station, were but representatives of the noble and devoted
wives and mothers who shared with the brave men the dan-
gers and sacrifices of pioneer life. In neither ancient nor
modern history do we find record of enterprise more daring,
of adventure more thrilling and perilous, and of heroism
and high resolve more sublime, than in the famed annals
of Kentucky
   5. Marshall, the historian of this age of Kentucky, him-
self a pioneer, and known to the pioneers of whom we make
mention, says of these border men of world-wide fame:
"To estimate the merit of an enterprise we should have in
view the difficulties which opposed its execution. Thus we
judge of the founders of ancient cities and nations. Eulo-



gies have been written on Romulus, the founder of Rome,
and his hardy followers. In a similar manner we speak of
the first settlers of America. No less than thesehave Boone,
Harrod, Logan and others merited the name of founders,
and no less do they deserve the notice of posterity. Daniel
Boone and his comrades did not, like Moses, of Egyptian
memory, find themselves the leaders of a host of armed fol-
lowers, impelled by fear or love of the Lord to obey their
command in a journey through the wilderness, though tfley
traversed one equally as extensive and as savage as that of
Zin. Their attendants were willing comrades, who, without
a miracle, reposed their confidence in the skill and fortitude
of their leaders. Besides, the names of these ancient heroes
have been handed down to us by the pen of historians and
poets, who, borrowing the fiction of the ancients, have ex-
                              tolled their subjects with
                              the inventions of genius,
                              graces of rhetoric, and the
                              imagery of poetry; or else,
                              under divine inspiration,
                              the prophet of Israel has
                              revealed the wonders he
                              wrought, which have come
                              down to us as miracles.
                              But Boone and his com-
                              rades, some of whom are
                              yet living (1812), are un-
                              known to their full fame,
                              nor will the lapse of brief
                              time permit the aid of im-
                              agination to extol their
names in the language of eulogy or otherwise adorn a nar-
rative of simple. facts. Yet history shall do them justice,




and those who come after may balance their claims to the
regards of posterity." Such is the faithful picture and
prophecy of the pioneers of Kentucky from the pen of one
who lived in their generation, and well knew them and of
their worthy deeds. Of the toilers who have builded em-
pires and borne forward the onward wave of civilization,
history will record no greater or truer heroes than Daniel
Boone and comrades, the first and most famous founders and
builders of empire, of states, and of civilization, west of the
Alleghany mountains in the great valley of the Mis-
   6. Kentucky history presents to us four distinct and in-
teresting periods:  First, the period of exploration and
discovery; second, the period of pioneer conquest and
settlement; third, the period of earliest statehood and de-
velopment; fourth, the present period of matured sover-
eignty and power as a state. These stories of discovery, of
pioneer conquest, of youthful statehood and growth, and of
present power and greatness as a commonwealth, with
thrilling events and bold adventures, with intrepid charac-
ters and brave deeds, and with brilliant achievement, to add
interest and luster to each era, will make up the story of
Kentucky's political birth and life, which we shall invite
our youthful friends to study and become familiar with.
The youth of to-day in pursuit of an education may find
it very embarrassing in after life to be ignorant of the his-
tory of the United States. Far more, and oftener, may it
be embarrassing to the Kentuckian to be found ignorant of
the history of Kentucky. The people of Maine and Oregon
and Georgia are taught the history of the United States,
and would not be likely to ask a Kentuckian for information
on this subject. But the people of Maine and Oregon and
Georgia know little of the history of Kentucky, and, meet-




ing a Kentuckian at home or abroad, would very likely
question him first upon this subject.
   7. There is yet a more forcible reason why our youths
should be made familiar with the history of their own state
and why parents and teachers should insist on its study. In
all histories of the United States the characters, events and
achievements which make up the history are treated more
generally in their bearings and relations to national affairs.
Although a state may have been mainly the theater or a
prime factor of an event of national importance, the histo-
rian can not often turn aside in his narrative to dwell at
length upon the part taken by the state in the matter. The
local details are overlooked, and the state as a party is lost
to view. Again, all historians and all authors are influ-
enced by their surroundings at home. A Massachusetts his-
torian will enlarge upon what New England has done toward
building up this great fabric of a nation, and give less credit
to Virginia or the Carolinas. A historian in the latter states
would reverse this view of the matter entirely. An illustra-
tion of this was given in a National Historical Convention
held in Washington a few years ago, at which there were
delegates in attendance from every part of the Union. In
the proceedings a distinguished Professor of History in a Chi-
cago university said: "The Atlantic states have produced
some historians of great merit, whose works would compare
favorably with those of the best historians of Europe. They
reflect much credit on American authorship, as well as upon
the authors. But to this time there has appeared no man
in this field of literature from the Atlantic states who was
tall enough to look over the Alleghany mountains and see
what there is in the Mississippi valley."
   8. If a pupil desires to obtain a full and an accurate
knowledge of the history of his home state he can




only do so in a history of the state. Especially is
this true of the Kentucky pupil. In what history of the
United States is more than bare mention made of the Spanish
intrigue, an event of great national importance, of which
Kentucky was the main center and Kentuckians among the
main actors What national historian has devoted even a
chapter to the conquest of the Northwest by George Rogers
                                 Clark and his little
                                 army of intcepid rifle-
                                 men, during the Revo-
                                 lutionary War What
                                 general history brings
                                 out the fact that, in
                        i81[2-'5, in the cam-
                                paigns of Harrison in
                                 the Northwest and of
                                 Jackson in the South-
                                 west, the volunteers
                                 from Kentucky a iid
                       Tennessee did more
                                 than one-half the cam-
                                 paigning and fighting
                                 on land, during the war
                                 that defeated the forces
                                 of England and drove
                                 her armies from the
                JOHN'FILONcountry We might
                                 multiply incidents of
this kind, showing how the brave men of Kentucky and
their brave deeds are obscured in the treatment of general
histories. A like necessity may exist in every state for a
state history.
   9. With this general survey of the subject, we invite




our youthful friends to become our companions in search of
knowledge, and enter with us upon a brief voyage of
discovery, which we promise shall be both entertaining and
instructive. Our little ideal "Pirogue" awaits us at the
river's brink to bear us on our journey with sail or
oar, as the wind or current may incline to favor. As we
start out from the remotest and deepest recesses of the Wil-
derness Land, in the order of chronology, you will be curious
to know whether De Soto, in his famous expedition, three
hundred and fifty-eight years ago, did really reach the bor-
ders of Kentucky, the first European to look upon it. Then
you will want to inquire what other white adventurers are
known to have set foot upon Kentucky soil-and when, and
where-before the incoming of the pioneers on their missions
of conquest and settlement. Next, as we drift leisurely
down stream, you will be entertained and thrilled with the
stories of daring adventure, of desperate encounter and
hair-breadth escapes of pioneers with the Indians and British,
and with the dangers of barbarous nature everywhere to be
   10. You will ask us to point out the places of all these
incidents, and to sketch for you the characters and the lives
of the men and the women who were the actors in the same,
keeping note of the time and order of all events. You will
wonder how Kenton and other daring men could hide in a
big cane-brake all summer, raise patches of corn and feast
on the roasting-ears, hunting for meat through the forests
meanwhile, and yet escape the bullets and arrows of the
savages. You will marvel to know how Clark, with two
hundred backwoodsmen, without cannon, could capture
British forts and garrisons in the midst of tribes of their
Indian allies, and thus conquer a territory great enough for
an empire, besides holding Kentucky safe from her enemies.




Where was Boonesborough; and when and how was it
erected The site of what city was Limestone Where
was Bryan's Station, and who settled it Where was Bul-
litt's Lick, where salt was made for the settlers Where is
the site of the last Indian village in Kentucky There are
very many questions you will want to ask as interest deepens.
We will try to answer all these for you.
   11. As we pass the pioneer era, with its thrilling narra-
tions, we emerge into the broader and calmer current of the
political life of Kentucky, which we call the formation
period of early statehood. Conspicuous in this period were
such men as Clay, Crittenden, Marshall, Menifee, Rowan,
Shelby, Breckinridge, Johnson, Bibb, Barry, Hardin,
Brown, Bledsoe, Boyle, Nicholas, Grundy, and a host of
others, who rank high in history as statesmen, orators,
jurists and men of learning and science. We can not take
time here to dwell in this field of many details; and less can
we afford to tarry in the yet broader stream of matured state
sovereignty, which forms our present and last era of Ken-
tucky's growth and greatness. All of interest which make
up the stories of these latter periods you will find inter-
woven in the thread of our narrative, which will be continued
to the present day.
  12. History is mainly a faithful record of the lives and
deeds of the few men and women, who, by superior endow-
ment of mind and force of character, succeed to prominence
and power as the leaders of the masses of their fellow-citizens.
As such they assume a representative character, give voice
and expression to the will of the people, and to a large
extent educate and mold their sentiments, and direct their
policies and plans. Many leaders are wise, honest and faith-
ful men, and try to do only that which is right arAd for the
public good; the characters and virtues of these you will



            YOUTH'S HISTORY OF KENTUCKY.             I I

learn to admire and to emulate. Other leaders are unwise,
dishonest, and treacherous to their trusts; the characters and
vices of such you will learn to disapprove and to avoid. In
the light of such knowledge the examples of men of the
past become instructive lessons and unerring guides to the
men of the present who study them. History thus becomes
wisdom and truth taught in the examples of the illustrious





                    CHAPTER I.
                     TION IN 1766.
   1. In the study of the history of a country it is very
important that the geography of the country should be well
known. In beginning the study of the history of Kentucky,
we take for granted that you have made yourself familiar
with the geography of your state, as taught in the text-
books of the schools. This will much increase the interest
in, and better prepare you to enter upon, the study of this
history. You will need constantly to associate places with
persons and events, as well as the times of occurrence. We
will, therefore, give you but a brief outline of the geography
of Kentucky, that you may have before you the location
and boundaries of the state, and her relations to bordering
   2. Kentucky lies midway as one of several states bor-
dered on the west by the Mississippi river, and is equally
distant from the great lakes on the north and the Gulf of
Mexico on the south. The Ohio river borders it on the
north, the Mississippi on the west, and the Big Sandy in
part on the east. It is bounded on the north by the states
of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois; on the east by Virginia and
West Virginia; on the south by Tennessee, and on the west
by Missouri. Its Virginia and Tennessee boundary lines



meet at a point in the extreme southeastern part of the
state, where the Cumberland mountains reach a height of
three thousand feet and a mean altitude of sixteen hun-
dred feet above the level of the Atlantic ocean. The two
great river mains, the Ohio first and afterward the Mi:;sis-
sippi, receive from this territorial surface the waters of Big
Sandy, Licking, Kentucky, Salt, Green, Cumberland and
Tennessee rivers, and bear them through their channels
over a thousand miles away to the Gulf of Mexico.

                SURFAce LINE, Eas AND WEsT.

   3. On the lofty crest and slopes of this mountain-range,
which crosses southeastern Kentucky from Virginia into
Tennessee, begin the sources of these tributary rivers, which
form the main drainage system of the state. Flowing out
north, south and west from the region of their common
origin, but each finding a northwest course, all finally
empty into the gentle and beautiful Ohio, and their waters
are borne southward by the channel of the great and turbid
Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico.  Besides these rivers
mentioned, there are others, smaller and tributary, as Trade-
water and Salt rivers. Little Sandy, Red, Little Kentucky,
Dicks, Laurel, Rockcastle, Rough, Barren, Chaplin, Pond,
Clark's, Little Obion, Wolf and others, though classed as
rivers, are not yet available to any extent for navigation.
These serve to complete the drainage of the state, all of
which goes, by the same great channels, to the Gulf of




   4. The physical features of Kentucky present to the
eye a picture of rugged mountains in the east and south-
east, gradually subsiding westward into hills and knobs, and
these receding into the more level lands and plains of cen-
tral and west Kentucky. The fertile valleys of the Missis-
sippi and lower Ohio rivers lie at an altitude of but three
hundred feet above the Gulf-level. The average elevation


of the entire surface above sea-level is nearly seven hundred
feet. From the mean elevation of southeast Kentucky to the
lowest valleys on the extreme west, a distance of more than
four hundred miles, there is a steady decline of over thirteen
hundred feet. The valleys of the rivers and smaller streams
are usually very fertile, being formed of the deposits of soil
and vegetable mould, brought down from the mountains
and high lands by heavy rains and freshets, which are




repeated almost yearly. There are extensive bodies of rich
lands also, in the counties bordering Green river, and west-
ward from this to the Mississippi; in smaller tracts are good
lands in the counties of east and south Kentucky. Abun-
dant crops of wheat, corn, tobacco, meadow-grasses, and
other farm-products common to this latitude, are usually
harvested from these, under good tillage. But the counties