xt72fq9q2j94 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt72fq9q2j94/data/mets.xml Fosdick, Charles Paxton, 1856- 1923  books b92-138-29331425 English Kentucky Standard, : [Danville, Ky.] : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky School for the Deaf. Centennial history of the Kentucky School for the Deaf, Danville, Kentucky  / by Charles P. Fosdick. text Centennial history of the Kentucky School for the Deaf, Danville, Kentucky  / by Charles P. Fosdick. 1923 2002 true xt72fq9q2j94 section xt72fq9q2j94 


       Danville, Ky.



This page in the original text is blank.

This page in the original text is blank.









             OF THE




  Office of
The Kentucky Standard

This page in the original text is blank.


Forew ord  .................................................................................-.............. 1
General Sketch .--...---------..----.......-------.---3
Lands of the School -..........------...------........---------...22
Buildings ---------------------------------------------25
Florida Land Grant -                                       31
Trades -----------------------------------------           33
Periods Allowed Pupils in School -------------------------     37
M ethods  of  Instruction  .......................................-..................  38
Health ------------------------------------------------------------------39
Donations  and  Bequests  .................-......................................  40
Former Pupils -.----------------------------------------....41
Water, Light and Heat ---------------------------------------------------42
Corporate Name .-.............-........... 44
School Paper  .............-....... 44
Literary Society -----------                      --       45
Reunions .........-..................-........-....---- 46
Centennial  .......................................................-...................... _  46
Slavery  ......................................       ....... ..  46
Finances ---------.---------------------- 47
Colored Department -...................................--------------------.......---..-5
Trustees, Commissioners and Officers -...... 52
Officers' Biography -.                                     64
Roll of  Pupils  ...................................................................  89

This page in the original text is blank.



IN the summer of 1879 the writer who had lately completed his
course as a pupil at the Kentucky School for the Deaf was re-
quested by the then newly appointed Superintendent, Mr. David
C. Dudley to examine and sort out several basketsful, of old letters
and papers that had accumulated in the school office during half
a century. The bulk of these papers I found of no value but scatter-
ed among them were letters and papers of the greatest interest from
the light they threw on the early history of the school. From these
I took copious notes which I later embodied in a history of the school
which was published in 1892. Since that date the school has grown
very much larger and the approaching centennial of its foundation
makes appropriate the publication of a new edition of the history
and to this end I have for some years diligently sought all data that
would throw further light on the subject.
      My object in writing this history has been not so much to
write an interesting and entertaining narrative as to put on record all
facts in regard to the inception, establishment and growth of the
school during its first century that I have been able to ascertain
so that those who in future years may be interested in the subject
will have a reliable source from which they may obtain the inform-
ation they may desire. To this end I have been at great pains to in-
sure accuracy. My sources of information have been the annual re-
ports of the school; files of the school paper, The KENTUCKY
STANDARD; official records in the State Capitol and the Boyle Court
House; contemporary letters and documents and my personal re-
collections. Where, in the few instances that tradition or hearsay
was the source, the fact is so stated.
      The work has been a labor of love and a testimonial of the
deep affection that I, in common with practically all its former pupils,
entertain for the Kentucky School for the Deaf.
                                           CHAS. P. FOSDICK.
Danville, Ky., April 11, 1923.

This page in the original text is blank.


History of the Kentucky School for the Deaf

ON the tenth of August, 1816, there landed from a vessel arrived
in New York harbor, two gentlemen whose coming was destined
to open for the deaf of America a new and brighter era. One of these
gentlemen could hear, the other was deaf; the first was Thomas
Hopkins Gallaudet, the second Laurent Clerc.
       The story of how Gallaudet was first interested in the deaf and
 their education by his meeting, in her father's garden, with Alice
 Cogswell; of his visits to England and Scotland and the rebuffs he
 received at the schools in those countries when he attempted to visit
 them and learn their methods of instruction; of his arrival in Paris
 and the cordial reception and assistance he received there from the
 Abbe Sicard; and finally of his engaging Sicard's best pupil, Laurent
 Clerc, to accompany him to America and assist him in his new enter-
 prise has been so often told that we need not repeat it here in detail.
      April 15, 1817, the first school for educating the deaf in the new
world, the American Asylum, at Hartford, Conn., was opened for the
reception of pupils. The number of the deaf in the country was then
considered so small that it was expected that this one school would
provide educational opportunities for them all, hence the name, Ameri-
can Asylum. But it was soon found that their number was so much
larger than had been supposed that additional schools were necessary
so in 1818 the New York School was established and two years later
that at Philadelphia was founded, while in 1823 the Kentucky School,
the fourth in order of establishment but the first one west of the
Atlantic sea board, was set in operation.
      The conception of a school for deaf children on what was then
the far western frontier, in a country but lately redeemed from the
wilderness, may be said to have sprung from the love and devotion of
a father for a favorite and afflicted child. Sometime after the close of
the Revolution but prior to 1788, John Barbee of Culpepper County,



Virginia, removed to Kentucky and settled at Stony Point, three miles
north of the present site of Danville on the road to Lexington, where
he built a house that is still standing and occupied. In the immigra-
tion from Virginia he was accompanied by his six sons, Thomas,
John, Daniel, William, Joshua and Elias. The father and all his sons
had served in the patriot army during the Revolutionary War, Elias
being, when he enlisted, but a boy of fourteen. John Barbee died in
1895 and his sons removed to other sections. Elias settled in Green
County, Ky., where he became a prominent citizen, representing that
district in the Kentucky House of Representatives 1809-12 and 1825-
27 and in the senate 1821-23. He was also a General in the Kentucky
militia. He died in October, 1843.
      General Barbee's favorite among his children was his daughter
Lucy, a beautiful and attractive girl who had been deaf since early
childhood. This naturally interested the father in the deaf. He
learned of two other deaf children in his home county, Jabez Gaddie
and Eveline Sherrill and he also learned of the establishment of
schools for the education of the deaf in the eastern sthtes, so he deter-
mined to secure for his own child and other deaf children in Kentucky
similar privileges. Being then a member of the Kentucky Senate he
introduced therein the bill that established the present Kentucky
School for the Deaf.
      The bill creating the school was drawn by Judge John
Rowan and was introduced in the Senate by General Barbee on
Saturday, October 26, 1822. It was at once referred to a committee
composed of General Barbee and Messrs Robert B. McAfee and
Matthew Flournoy; On October 28th this committee was enlarged
by the addition of Thomas B. Carneal and William B. Blackburn.
On November 19th General Barbee reported the bill from the com-
mittee. It was read the first time and ordered to be read a second
time. On November 21st it was again brought up, read a second
time and referred to a Committee of the Whole House on the State
of the Commonwealth. On November 26th it was again brought
up and on motion of General Barbee the Committee of the Whole
House was discharged from further consideration of the bill and,
it having been engrossed, it was read a third time. The bill was
then for some reason, recommitted to a committee composed of
Robert B. McAfee, John J. Marshall and Elias Barbee. The next
day, November 27th, they reported it without amendment. It was




read, put on its passage and passed. Yeas 20. Nays 13. Yeas,
Richard Ballinger, Elias Barbee, Jeroboam Beauchamp, Peter
Barrett, Granville Bowman, Wiiliam B. Blackburn, James David-
son, Young Ewing, Matthew Flournoy, Isham Henderson, Thomas
C. Howard, Alexander Lackey, Crittenden Lyon, John J. Marshall,
Robert B. McAfee, William Owens, Alexander Pope, Rodes Smith,
Thomas Towles, Thompson Ward. Nays, Nathan B. Anderson,
Samuel Carpenter, John Cowan, Anack Dawson, John Faulkner,
John Gorin, John L. Hickman, Christopher Miller, Charles More-
head, George Parker, John H. Ward, Samuel W. White, William
      It was then resolved, "That the bill do pass and that Mr.
Barbee inform the House of Representatives thereof."
      On December 5th the bill was introduced in the House of
Representatives. On motion first and second readings were dis-
pensed with and the bill, together with a petition from David C.
Irvine, was referred to a select committee composed of George
Shannon, David C. Cowan, John Rowan, David Murrey, and
George Robertson. December 7th, Mr. Shannon reported the bill
from the committee without amendment. It was ordered to be
read a third time but the reading was dispensed with and it was
at once passed. Yeas 57. Nays 22. Yeas, Mr. Speaker (Richard
C. Anderson), Tandy Allen, Absolem Ashby, James M. Bakey,
Benjamin Chapeze, William Chenowith, Dabney C. Cosby, David
C. Cowan, Charles Cunningham, Samual Daviess, Kenaz Farrow,
Wesley M. Garnett, Daniel Garrard, William Garrard, John
Godley, John Green, John Harold, Martin Hardin, David Kelly,
Squire Larue, Joseph Lecompte, Craven P. Luckett, Benjamin
Mason, Richard J. Munford, David B. Murrey, William McClan-
ahan (of Madison), Hugh McCracken, Benjamin W. Patton, Robert
Powell, Lewis Riddle, Christopher Rife, John Roberts, George
Robertson, John M. Robertson, William Rodes, John Rowan,
Thomas Rudd, Edward Rumsey, John Samuel, Alexander P.
Sandford, James Sanders, Robert Scroggin, George Shannon,
Leander J. Sharp, Jacob A. Slack, Henry Smith, William Smith,
Thomas Speed, Stephen Thrasher, James Trotter, Robert J. Ward,
John Wells, John Williams, John R. Witherspoon, George Wool-
ford, Nays. Chilton Allen, William B Broker, William Chenault,
James Dejarnett, Reuben Ewing, Richard French, Samuel Griffith,




Peter Hansbrough, James G. Hicks, William English, Burton Litton,
Richard E. Meade, William McClanahan (of Nicholas), John M.
McConnell, John Nolan, William O'Bannon, Joseph Patterson,
Anthony F. Read, Samuel Roberston, Frederick R. Singleton,
Waddy Thompson, Lewis Wilcoxson.
       Mr. Cowan was directed to inform the Senate that the House
had passed the bill. The same day (Saturday, December 7th) Mr.
William Buckner from the Committee on Enrollment reported that he
had examined the enrolled bill and found it correct, whereupon the
Speaker signed it and Mr. Buckner was instructed to inform the
Senate thereof. The Lieutenant-Governor, William T. Barry, then
signed it and it was at once taken to the Governor, John Adair, who
affixed his signature, making it a law.
      In this connection a story has come down from the early
days of the school to the effect that among those who voted nay on
this bill was one man, who for some reason was strongly prejudic-
ed against the idea of instructing the deaf and who not only voted
against the bill but worked hard to prevent its passage. Some years
later the child of this man lost its hearing and the father was forced
to bring it for education to the very school whose establishment he
had so strongly opposed.
      The act incorporating the school reads as follows:
                   CHAPTER CCCLXXXXI
An Act to endow an Asylum for the Tuition of the Deaf and Dumb.
      Whereas, It is desirable to promote the education of that
portion of the community, who, by the mysterious dispensation of
Providence, are born deaf and of course dumb, and experience in
other countries having evinced the practicability of reclaiming them
to the rank of their species, by a judicious and well adapted course
of education-it is represented that many philanthropic citizens
would contribute to promote an object so benevolent and human, if
this Legislature would cooperate, by affording pecuniary aid, and
designate a mode by which the gratuities devoted thereto could be
effectually applied. Therefore
      Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the Com-
monwealth of Kentucky; That the Trustees and their successors of
the Central College at Danville shall be, and they are heresy author-
ized and empowered to receive by legacies, conveyances, or otherwise,
lands, slaves, money and other property, and the same to retain, use




and apply to the education of the deaf and dumb within this Common-
wealth, and to any amount, the interest, profits or proceeds of which
shall not exceed the sum of thirty thousand dollars per annum.
      The institution shall be located in Danville, in Mercer County,
and supported by the donations and legacies of the charitable, by
such aid as the Legislature may be pleased to afford and by the
money to be received for the education of children whose parents,
guardians or friends are able to pay.
      The Trustees of the Danville College and their successors in
office, shall have power to appoint a teacher or teachers, president,
treasurer, and all other officers that they may think necessary, and
remove any of them at pleasure, and make such by-laws as they may
think necessary for the interest of said asylum.
      There shall be a committee of twelve ladies selected by the
trustees at their first meeting, and their places filled from time to time,
as they may happen from death, removal or resignation, to aid in the
management of the asylum, under such provisions as may from time
to time be prescribed by the by-laws.
      The funds of the institution shall be under the management
of the trustees, subject however, to such restrictions as shall accom-
pany the grant of aid by the Legislature; and it shall be the duty of
the trustees for the time being, to present to the speakers of the
Senate and the House of Representatives, respectively, annually,
within the first week of their session, a statement of the funds and
expenses of the institution, and of the number of children received
and educated therein, during the year immediately preceding and
of the parts of the state whence they have come, distinguishing be-
tween those who have been supported gratuitously.
      Indigent pupils resident anywhere within the state, shall be
received into the asylum, maintained and educated gratuitously, as
far as the funds of the institution will admit; Provided, that where
more children shall be offered for the benefit of this institution than
can be received at any one time, the trustees shall so apportion their
numbers among the several counties of this Commonwealth, accord-
ing to their representation when application shall be made, that
every county may equally receive the benefit of the same.
      Sec. 2. Be it further enacted; That in order to aid the funds
of the said asylum, the governor is hereby authorized and required
to draw his warrant on the auditor of public accounts in favor of the




trustees of this asylum, for the sum of three thousand dollars im-
mediately; and moreover, shall draw his warrant on the auditor in
favor of said trustees, for the further sum of one hundred dollars for
every indigent pupil taught in said asylum, which shall authorize the
auditor to draw a warrant on the treasurer for the amount directed
in the governor's warrant, which shall be paid out of any money in
the treasury not otherwise appropraited by law, and charge to the
school fund; Provided that no one scholar shall be taught at the
expense of the state more than three years; and provided also, that
the sum so drawn from the treasury, for such tuition shall in no one
year exceed the sum of two thousand five hundred dollars.
      The passage of this act marks an important step forward in
the education of the deaf, for while the existing schools in Connecti-
cut, New York and Pennsylvania had been established and largely
maintained through the efforts of benevolently inclined individuals
and societies the Kentucky school was, from its first inception, a
charge of the state, it thereby being recognized that educational
privileges were due to the deaf children of the Commonwealth as
much as to the hearing ones. It was however expected that the
state appropriations would be largely supplemented by gifts from
the charitable. This expectation was never realized and from the
beginning of its existence the Kentucky school has been maintained
by the state as a part of its public school system.
      After the passage of the act the Trustees lost no time in
beginning their work. Early in January, 1823, they met and prepared
to put the school in operation. A two story frame building that
stood on the south-west corner of Main and Fourth streets, opposite
the site of the present postoffice, was rentedandfitted up forthe recep-
tion of pupils. This building stood until April 15, 1876, when it was
destroyed, with a number of others, in the big fire of that night.
January 23rd the Board engaged Rev. John R. Kerr and wife as
Superintendent and Matron of the boarding department. By the
system then inaugurated, and which prevailed down to 1854, the
pupils were not boarded by the school but by the Superintendent
personally. He provided all furniture and necessary supplies and
paid all the living expenses, while the sums paid by the state for
the support of indigent pupils and those paid for board by pay
pupils went to him and any profit that might ensue from the arrange-
ment was his emolument, he receiving no salary. The system,



[From an oil-painting belonging to the Kentucky Literary
                 Society of the Deaf.]

This page in the original text is blank.



which was copied from the Hartford school, which in turn had copied
it from some of the eastern colleges, was a throughly vicious one,
since it made it to the interest of the Superintendent to feed the
pupils as cheaply as possible, and for that reason it was in after
years abandoned.
      The most perplexing question that engaged the attention of
the Trustees at this period was how to obtain a teacher for the school.
The few persons in the country who had had practical experience in
teaching the deaf were all engaged in the eastern schools and none
could be secured for the new school in the west. Dr. Gallaudet had
recommended that a young man be selected and sent to Hartford
where he might familiarize himself with the methods there employ-
ed. But this would have taken considerable time and the
Board was anxious to begin at once the work of the school. On the
6th of December, 1822, a petition had been presented in the lower
House of the Legislature from one, David Caldwell Irvine, praying
that an appropriation be made to enable him to teach the deaf of the
state for one year. This petition was referred to a committee but
as the House on the next day passed the act to establish the Dan-
ville school no action was ever taken on the petition. Irvine then
applied to the Trustees for employment, and believing from his re-
presentations that he was qualified for the position, they appointed
him teacher. But in a short time he was discovered to be an impost-
or and, to quote the language of the first Report of the school, "Cir-
cumstances occurred which made it the duty of the Trustees forth-
with to discharge him."
      April 10, 1823, the first three pupils, Lucy Barbee, Jabez
Gaddie and Eveline Sherrill, all from Green County, entered the
school. Two more came in May, while others dropped in at in-
tervals, until by November there were seventeen present. The roll
of this first class is as follows:

Barbee, Lucy
Gaddie, Jabez
Sherrill, Eveline
Machen, Rebecca
Morehead, William
Railey, Martha
Lewellian, Edith
Lewellian, Moses


Residence          Entered
Green Co.       April 10, 1823
Green Co.       April 10, 1823
Green Co.       April 10, 1823
Simpson Co.      May 30, 1823
Lincoln Co.     May 30, 1823
Woodford Co.    June 12, 1823
Shelby Co.       July 1, 1823
Shelby Co.       July 1, 1823




    Goggin, John        21       Madison Co.       July 9, 1823
    Grissom, William    17       Adair Co.         July 9, 1823
    McMahon, Barney     12       Jefferson Co.     July 23, 1823
    Withers, John       21       Lincoln Co.      Aug. 30, 1823
    Hoke, John          25       Jefferson Co.     Oct. 27, 1823
    Hoagland, Thomas    30       Fayette Co.       Nov. 3, 1823
    Strickler, Samuel   23       Scott Co.        Nov. 10, 1823
    Fowler, Narcissa   15        Livingston Co.  Nov. 19, 1823
    McCloskey, Nancy   25        Livingston Co.  Nov. 19, 1823
      Of these nine were pay pupils, the rest being supported by
the state. As will be seen more than half the class were mature
men and women; one was thirty years old, another twenty-seven,
two were twenty-five, while five more were over twenty-one. The
day of education had dawned too late for these, they could only gain
a glimpse into the promised land wherein their younger compan-
ions were to reap the harvest of knowledge. The last known sur-
vivor of the class was Eveline Sherrill, who died in 1900 at the age
of eighty-seven. At the Reunion of 1891 she was the guest of honor.
John Goggin and Samuel Strickler died in 1825, Lucy Barbee made
her home with a married sister in Taylor County until her death
about 1850. William Morehead was living in Rockcastle County
in 1853. Narcissa Fowler was killed by the cars at McKenzie, Tenn.,
in 1881. John Hoke lived in Jefferson County until his death in
1884. Barney McMahon was the first deaf employee of the school,
having served as a supervisor from 1826 to 1831. William Grissom
farmed in Adair County until his death in 1878. He married Kitty
Ann Pile, who entered the school in 1825, in 1830. This was prob-
ably the first marriage between our former pupils. Thomas Hoag-
land was a shoemaker in Lexington until 1882 when he removed to
Florida where he died a year later. Of the remaining members of
this first class nothing is known.
      The school had opened but no teacher had yet been secured
so the superintendent, Rev. John R. Kerr, having the pupils on his
hands, was obliged to undertake their instruction himself. Little
is known of Mr. Kerr but he must have been, as his portrait that
hangs in the school chapel would indicate, a man of no mean ability
and scholastic attainments, for although he was entirely unacquaint-
ed with the methods of instructing the deaf in use in the eastern
schools, he was yet so successful as a teacher that, to quote from the




  first Report of the school, "the progress of the pupils has exceeded
  our most sanguine expectations." At this time, however, any results
  in educating the deaf, however meager, would have excited astonish-
  ment for, to quote again from the first Report, "The novelty of the
  experiment to communicate useful knowledge to persons deaf and
  (dumb, and thereby restore them to their proper rank in the scale of
  beings. has by many persons in the country been considered a
  doubtful one, and by some believed impracticable. But facts remove
  all doubts and disbeliefs on the subject."
       In the mean time the Trustees continued their efforts by
 correspondence with the eastern schools to obtain a trained and
 experienced teacher. This resulted in the engagement of Mr. Dewitt
 Clinton Mitchel, a son of the president of the New York School, who
 had had one year's experience in teaching in that school. He was
 engaged in May, 1823, at a salary of five hundred dollars a year and
 board with traveling expenses to Danville. He left New York for
 his new post in Kentucky soon afterwards and then disappeared.
 Months passed, nothing was heard of him and much anxiety was
 felt both in Danville and New York as it was feared he had met
 with an accident or foul play. Finally, in September, a letter was re-
 ceived from him, dated at Baltimore. It seems he had stopped
 in that city on his way to Kentucky and finding it and its society
 very attractive, had remained there having a good time until his
 money was all gone. More funds were sent him and he resumed
 his journey, arriving in Danville October 6th, and at once beginning
 his work in the school room.
      At this time the following advertisements were published in
the Western Monitor at Lexington, Ky.

    (From the Western Monitor, of Lexington, Ky., April 15,1823.)
                         AND DUMB.
                              Danville, Ky., April 15, 1823
      It is with satisfaction we are authorized to announce to the
public that this benevolent institution went into operation on yes-
terday. We are desired to state that a few more pupils can be ac-
commodated if application is made immediately. For the satis-
faction of parents and relatives wishing to send pupils to this in-
stitution, we are desired to announce that the institution is under
the immediate care and superintendence of the Rev. John R. Kerr




and Lady as Superintendent and Matron in whom the utmost con-
fidence can be reposed for the good order and moral government
of the institution.
        (From the Western Monitor, of Lexington, Ky. )
                        AND DUMB.
                                  Danville, Ky., October 6, 1823.
      The Trustees have the satisfaction to inform the public of
the arrival of Mr. Dewitt Clinton Mitchel from the New York Asy-
lum; and that he has commenced teaching the Deaf and Dumb in
this institution.
      Mr. Mitchel has been employed as an instructor in the New
York Asylum between one and two years, with some of the best teach-
ers in the United States.
      The Rev. John R. Kerr who has heretofore paid so much at-
tention to the pupils. will continue to give all convenient assistance.
We, therefore, consider the institution in complete operation; and
that the hopes and wishes of its patrons, and of a humane public
will be realized.
      Parents or others, who may be desirious of having deaf and
dumb children or relatives educated, are assured that the utmost
care and attention will be paid to them by the Rev. J. R. Kerr and
Lady, Superintendent and Matron of the Institution.
     The terms of admission at present, in the currency of the
country, are as follows:
      Boarding, washing and lodgings, per ann. 100.
      Tuition per annum. 40.
      Pupils will furnish their own slates and stationery, amount-
ing to two or three dollars per annum.
      Children whose parents or friends are unable to pay for board
and tuition will be received and educated at the expense of the
Government, except the expense of clothing, which is expected to be
furnished by their friends.
                    BENJ. P. PERKINS
                    DAVID C. COWAN
                    JAMES BARBOUR
                    WILLIAM MILLER
                    EPHRIAM M'DOWELL
                    JEREMIAH FISHER
                               Superintending Committee.




      The Editors of newspapers in Kentucky and the neighboring
states, are requested to give the above a few insertions in their papers.

      The school seems at this time to have been the fashionable
fad in the little town. Many visitors came to gaze and marvel at
the spectacle of "imparting useful knowledge to persons deaf and
dumb," while the Trustees divided themselves into monthly super-
intending committees who made daily visits to the school and there
was also a committee of twelve ladies to assist in the superintending.
      A few months' trial of Mr. Mitchel satisfied the Board that
either temperamentally or from lack of training he was not fitted to
satisfactorily fill the position of principal teacher, so they began to
cast about for one better qualified. There was at this time among
the students attending Centre College a young man of seventeen,
John Adamson Jacobs, and on him their choice was fixed. The posi-
tion of assistant teacher was offered him and accepted. He at once
began work in the school room but a few weeks' experience therein
convinced him that to be a successful teacher of the deaf it was essen-
tial that he learn the methods of instruction employed in the older
schools in the east. The Trustees advanced him funds for this
purpose to the amount of 968.00 and he set out for Hartford,
Conn., making the trip on horseback and arriving there August
15, 1824. His reception at the American-Asylum by Rev. Thomas
H. Gallaudet and his assistant, Laurent Clerc, was most cordial
and he had no difficulty in arranging for a course of instruction in
their methods. They informed him that it would require three
years to fit himself to take charge of the Kentucky school. The
funds at his command made such a prolonged stay out of the
question so he determined to do the best he could with the time
and means allotted to him. He took private lessons from Mr. Clerc
at forty cents an hour and his entire time was spent in the school-
rooms and in company with the pupils. Even his meals he took
with the pupils, whose fare he naively states in a communication
to the Board, "while substantial is by no means luxurious."  He re-
turned to Kentucky in September, 1825, riding the same horse that
had carried him east. He brought with him the following letter:
                                       Hartford, Sept. 20, 1825
To the Directors of the Kentucky Institution for the Deaf and Dumb
      Gentlemen:-Mr. John A. Jacobs, being on the eve of his
departure for Kentucky, I will candidly express my opinion of his




qualifications. He came to us some fifteen months ago, I may say
as a gentleman of excellent talents, exemplary character, and liberal
education, but wholly unacquainted with the art of instructing the
deaf and dumb: now he leaves us, well stored with a knowledge of
our language of signs, and well initiated in all the secrets of our
system: therefore I do not hesitate to recommend him to you,
gentlemen, as a suitable person to be at the head of your institution,
and I feel confident of his ability, not only to fill up the outlines that
we have pointed out to him, both in our public lectures and private
lessons, but also to afford ample and useful instruction in the various
departments of knowledge to the deaf and dumb.
       Now, gentlemen, allow me to tender to you, individually and
 collectively, my personal thanks for