xt72jm23bs1h https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt72jm23bs1h/data/mets.xml Lloyd, John Uri, 1849-1936. 19291921  books b92-242-30611193 English Caxton Press, : Cincinnati : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Origin and history of all the pharmacopeial vegetable drugs  : 8th and 9th decennial revisions (botanical descriptions omitted) with bibliography / by John Uri Lloyd. text Origin and history of all the pharmacopeial vegetable drugs  : 8th and 9th decennial revisions (botanical descriptions omitted) with bibliography / by John Uri Lloyd. 1929 2002 true xt72jm23bs1h section xt72jm23bs1h 









































     TWO PILLARS
THE GREAT TEMtPI.E OF CYBELE

 









          The Author's Summary

  Two pillars, only, of the colonnade of eighty that graced
the great Temple of Cyhele, stand to-day, half buried in the
(1deris of centuries-sole relies of renowned and historic
Sardis.
  This, the richest city of her day, was seat of Empire for the
v\ast realm of Croesus-heir to the fabulous riches of Midas
-where he reigned supreme in untold luxury and pride.
Here, later, flourished one of the seven Churches of the
Apocalypse. Cyrus the Great led his cohorts into Lydia,
and left Sardis the seat of a mere satrapy in the  edo-
IPersian Empire. The day of decline had fallen on imperial
;ardis.
  The treasures of Croesus vanished-his jewels and hoards
of gold were forever scattered.  The mighty structures
raised in the prime of his dominion to honor names no
longer heard in history or legend, crumbled and moulded to
decay. The very name is but a symbol of the vanity of
riches.
  Successive hordes of warriors that have trampled these
Oriental lands are lust.  Hillocks of unmarked tombs
shelter alike prince and pauper-old and young-rich and
poor. Thickly they clot the plains around; retreats are
they now for reptiles-homes for crawling things that shun
the light of day. Man, the "Lord of creation," has sunk
into the oblivion of the grave
  Blooms the gay, wild, poppy on Lydia,;s hillsides; creeps
tlie humble liquorice vine throughout the historic valley of
I'lermnus-clothing its fertile reaches-twining even between
t he stonies of the long deserted Roman roadway. Sweet
reigns the perfume of the rose that from every brier-tangle
ladens the breeze. Nature in her lowliest guise sets con-
quering foot on the proudest triumphs of King and Empire.
  Time story of Sardis is but a dot on history's page, scored
bvy the inexorable pen of Fate for all who have eyes to see.
Speaks not Fate to-day the same message into ears that are
dead  Holds she not the same mirror before unheeding
eyes Who, in this--America's day of power, and pride, and
luxury-casts one backward glance And what flowers of
the field shall trail over her buried glories in far ages to come

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PHARAIACOPEIAL DRUGS.

 This page in the original text is blank.

 






Origin and History



                      OF ALL THE


Pharmacopeial Vegetable Drugs

              8th and 9th Decennial Revisions
                (Botanical Descriptions Omitted)

                        WITH

                  Bibliography



                       BY
                JOHN URI LLOYD





First printing prepared under the Auspices of and Published by the
        American Drug Manufacturers' Association,
                 Washington, D. C.



             SECOND PRINTING




                   CINCINNATI:
               THE CAXTON PRESS
                      1929

 







































           COPYRIGHT, 1921, BY

AMERICAN DRUG MANUFACTURERS' ASSOCIATION

 










HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION

  At a special meeting of the Committee on Standards
and Deteriorations, American Drug Manufacturers'
Association, held at the Waldorf-Astoria, New York,
March 30, 1917, it was decided that an historical in-
vestigation of the drugs and preparations official in the
Pharmacopeia of the United States was an important
and much-needed work that could be properly under-
taken and contributed to the world under the auspices
of the Association. It was deemed essential that the
publication should be accompanied by bibliographical
data sufficient to enable one engaged in special re-
search to obtain first-hand references to publications
embracing the history of the subjects included. An
appropriation adequate to cover the necessary expense
was made and approved.
  The Committee to undertake this work, as announced
by Mr. Charles J. Lynn, President of the Association,
consisted of the following:
           Dr. A. R. L. Dohme, Chairman,
           Dr. J. M. Francis,
           Dr. John Uri Lloyd.
  Since the Lloyd Library, Cincinnati, Ohio, carried
the documents and publications essential for this re-
search, Dr. Lloyd was requested to formulate a work-
ing plan in accordance with which the work might be
   The author comprehends that the members of the American Drug Manufacturers'
Asociation are fully informed of the facts this Introduction includes. However, as the
publication is not to be restricted to the members of this Association, others may either
now or at a period more or less remote need the data here presented, which in this sense
may be oonsidered as an historical part of the publication.-J. U. L.
                            V

 




HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION



accomplished. He personally accepted the responsi:
bility for the history of all the vegetable drugs of the
Pharmacopeia, of both the Eighth and Ninth Decen-
nial Revisions. This he now presents, completed, as
a personal offering to the Society. As one fully com-
petent to undertake the history of the definite Chem-
icals and Pharmaceutical Compounds of the Pharma-
copeia, Dr. Lloyd suggested the name of Dr. Sigmund
Waldbott, whose exceptional experiences in library re-
search, and whose knowledge of languages and science
generally are so well known. Dr. Waldbott agreed to
assume this responsibility, and selected as his associate
Professor Francis Farnham Heyroth, M.A. The out-
line of the work as planned by them was presented to
the Chairman of the Committee, Dr. Dohme, and
having been approved by him, research work was be-
gun by them on June 25, 1917.

  As the author understands the subject, the intent
is to locate, with reference data, not only the earliest
attainable uses made of each Pharmacopeial drug,
but important historical incidents in the passing
along. Early in the progress of the work it became evi-
dent, from the abundance of material to be considered,
that it would be impracticable, as well as unnecessary,
to do more in a given study than record the titles of a
comparatively few of the many publications connected
with each subject. To attempt to duplicate references
in the setting of each drug, as recorded in the various
series of Dispensatories, Pharmacopeias, Materia Med-
icas and kindred works on medicine and pharmacy,
past and present, as well as the innumerable pamphlets,
historical notes, Society Proceedings and Treatises that



vi

 




           HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION               vii

might well be consulted for special purposes, would
make of the Bibliography alone a huge volume. As
examples are cited the references following the studies
of lobelia and cinchona.
  The Association under whose auspices this research
has been accomplished embraces not only scientific
and professional men, but others who have interests
both in applied science, in serviceable commerce
and in varied industries. Hence occasional discussions
of some length concerning problems of historical value
connected intimately with a drug's vicissitudes in com-
mercial channels have been considered not out of place.
  It will be noticed that many drugs extensively em-
ployed by practicing physicians are omitted altogether
from the work. This is due, not to the author's un-
favorable opinion as regards their importance or service
to humanity, but to the fact that the publication is
restricted in its scope to the drugs of the Pharmacopeia
of the United States, Eighth and Ninth Decennial Re-
visions.
  Another limitation that is a source of much personal
regret is that the work, being confined to the history of
crude drugs, has enforced the neglect of many worthy
special non-official preparations derived therefrom that
have been perfected and introduced to the world of
medicine by members of our Association, as well as
by pharmacists, chemists and physicians.
  The author takes pleasure in stating that the trans-
lations from Greek and Latin authors were made by
his secretary, Miss Margaret Stewart, A.M., who also
contributed the Pharmacopeial record (following the
title) of each drug named in Volume I, and gave to the
work her continued care as research progressed. For

 




viii       HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION

compiling the Index accompanying Volume I, and for
other helpful dletails, credit is due, and thanks ex-
tended, to Miss Eda Van Guelpen, of the author's staff.

  The foregoing was written in 1918, at the time of the
completion of the manuscript of Volume I (January 1,
1918). It was then expected that publication of Vol-
ume I would follow at once, hut this was interrupted
by reason of disturbances due to the World War.
  The result has been that only in April, 1920, was it
desirable to submit to the Association, at its annual
meeting, the manuscript of Volume I. This the Asso-
ciation promptly accepted, and suggested the appoint-
ment of a committee to take charge of its publication.
President Win. A. Sailer named as such committee the
following members:
  Messrs. A. R. L. Dohme, J. M. Francis, John Uri
Lloyd, Caswell A. Mayo and W. J. Woodruff, with
Professor Lloyd as Chairman.
  This committee (lelegated the work of typography,
binding, etc., to a sub-committee consisting of-
  Messrs. 1Iayo, Lloyd and Woodruff, with Dr. Mayo
acting as Chairman.
  Mr. Mayo took charge of the publication, and the
members of the committee read the galley proofs.
  To all members of these Committees, as well as to
the members of the Association generally, who without
exception have not only made no complaint, but have
cheerfully given all assistance possible in furnishing
data needful, the writer desires to extend his earnest
thanks.
  As a final interruption to the progress of the work,
on the very day when came to the author the galley

 




           HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION               ix

proof of Volume I (December 15, 1920), came also to
him an attack of pneumonia of the most pronounced
type. Realizing that to ask the Committee or their
Chairman to do more than read the galley proof would
be an imposition, he turned to his life-long friend, Pro-
fessor Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., whose experience
in materia medica and history of drugs is exceptional.
Comprehending the situation, Dr. Felter took upon
himself what would have been the author's care as
concerns the many final details, for which the author
is very grateful.
  Appreciating fully that neither Dr. Felter nor the
Committee could overcome faults due to misplaced
judgment or errors of interpretation, the author un-
reservedly assumes responsibility for the publication's
shortcomings.                   JOHN UImI LLOYD.
  Cincinnati, April 19, 1921.

 This page in the original text is blank.


 







CONTENTS



Historical Introduction. . v
List of Illustrations ..... xiii
Acacia ................. 1
Aconitum.    ............. 3
Aloe.    .................  4
Althaa .   ............... 14
Amygdala Amara ....... 15
Amygdala Dulcis ........ 15
Anisum  .    ........... 16
Anthemis .    ............. 17
Apocynum       .. 17
Arnica  .    ........... 18
Asafetida .   ............. 19
Aspidium .    ............. 23
Aspidosperma .......... 24
Aurantii Amari et Dulcis
  Cortex..             25
Balsamum Peruvianum.m. 26
Balsamum Tolutanum... 27
Belladonnm Radix et Folia 28
Benzoinum      ..      30
Berberis .  .............. 31
B uchu .................  32
Calamus ...............  33
Calendula ..............  34
Calum  ba ............... 34
Cambogia .............. 38
Camphora .............. 39
Cannabis Indica ........ 40
Cantharis .   ............. 47
Capsicum .    ............. 48
Cardamomuni .......... 48
Carum   .    ........... 49
Caryophyllus ........... 51
Cassia Fistula  .   .  52
Chimaphila     ..      52
Chirata  ................  53
Chondrus .............   53
Chrysarobinum ......... 54
Cimicifuga  4.............  5
Cinchona .    ............. 62
Cinnamomum, Cassia.... 83



Coca   .    .......... 84
Coccus  .    ........... 103
Colchici Cormus et Se-
  men  .    ............ 104
Colocynthis ............ 105
Conium  .    ........... 108
Convallaria..... . ....... 109
Copaiba .    ........... 110
Coriandrum .   ......... 117
Croton Tiglium ......... 117
Cubeba  .    ........... 121
Cusso  .    ............ 123
Cypripedium .    ......... 124
Digitalis ............... 125
Elaterium   .............. 130
Ergota .    ............ 130
Eriodictyon  ............ 132
Eucalyptus .    .......... 134
Euonymus .    .......... 135
Eupatorium .   ......... 137
Ficus  .    ............ 138
Faeniculum .    .......... 140
Frangula .   ........... 140
Galla  .    ............ 141
Gambir  .    ........... 142
Gaultheria .    .......... 144
Gelsemium .   .......... 150
Gentiana .    .......... 152
Geranium  .   .......... 153
Glycyrrhiza .    ......... 153
Gossypii Cortex ......... 155
Granatum  .   .......... 156
Grindelia .    ........... 158
Guaiacum .    ............. 159
Guarana .    ........... 160
Haimatoxylon ......... 161
Hamamelidis Cortex et
  Folia ................ 162
Hedeoma .............. 162
Humulus ............... 163
Hydrastis .............. 164
Hyoscyamus ...    ....... 166



xi

 





C CONTENT S



Ipecacuanha ............ 168
Jalapa .............   176
Kino.............      177
Krameria ............. 178
Lactucarium ............ 179
Lappa.............     179
Leptandra ............. 180
Limonis, Cortex et Succus. 181
Linum ..............  183
Lobelia .............. 183
Lycopodium ............ 191
Maltum .............. 191
Manna .............. 192
Marrubium ............. 205
Mastiche ............. 205
Matico .............. 212
Matricaria ............. 213
Mel.............      213
Mentha Piperita ........ 215
Mentha Viridis ......... 215
Mezereum ............. 216
Moschus .............. 217
Myristica .............. 218
Myrrha .............. 219
Nux Vomica ............ 221
Opium ..............  224
Pareira .............. 235
Pepo..............    236
Physostigma ............ 236
Phytolacca ............. 240
Pilocarpus .............. 243
Pimenta ............. 245
Piper ..............    246
Podophyllum ........... 248
Prunum .............. 257
Prunus Virginiana ....... 257
Pyrethrum ............. 259
Quassia .............  259
Quercus .............. 261
Quillaja .............  262
Resina Podophylli ....... 250
Rhamnus Purshiana.... . 263
Rheum .............   267
Rhus Glabra ........... 271
Rosa Gallica ............ 272



Rubus Villosus .......... 276
Sabal ................ 277
Sabina ................ 278
Saccharum ............. 278
Salvia ................ 280
Sanguinaria ............ 282
Santalum Rubrum ...... 285
Santonica .............. 287
Sarsaparilla ............ 288
Sassafras ................ 289
Scammonium ........... 297
Scilla ................ 298
Scoparius .............. 299
Scopola ................ 299
Scutellaria ............. 301
Senega ................ 317
Senna ................. 318
Serpentaria......      319
Sinapis Alba ............ 319
Sinapis Nigra ........... 320
Spigelia ................ 321
Staphisagria ............ 321
Stillingia ............... 322
Stramonium ............ 323
Strophanthus ........... 326
Styrax ................ 331
Sumbul ................ 332
Tamarindus ............ 332
Taraxacum ............. 334
Terebinthina ........... 335
Thymol ................ 336
Tragacantha ........... 337
Triticum ............... 338
Ulmus ................ 338
Uva Ursi ............... 339
Valerian ............... 339
Vanilla ................ 340
Veratrum Viride ........ 350
Viburnum Opulus ....... 352
Viburnum Prunifolium.. . 353
Xanthoxylum ........... 354
Zea-Stigmata Maydis... .355
Zingiber ................ 355
Bibliography ........... 357
Index to Personal Names.425



Xll


 










        LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
                                           Facing page
STAR  ANISE  TREES .................................  16
SASSAFRAS DISTILLATION ............................  16
    Presented by Fritsche Brothers.

ATROPA BELLADONNA CULTIVATION          .    .     28
    Presented by Eli Lilly and Company.

ATROPA BELLADONNA CULTIVATION         .     .     30
   Presented by Johnson  Johnson.
CANNABIS SATIVA (AMERICAN GROWN)        .   .     40
    Presented by The Norwich Phatrmacal Company.
THE COCA COUNTRY, COLOMBIA, SOUTH AMERICA ...... 84

COCA MARKET, COLOMBIA, SOUTH AMERICA ........... 96
COCA-USING INDIANS ON CREST OF ANDES MOUNTAINS,
      COLOMBIA, SOUTH AMERICA ................... S8

TYPICAL CONNECTICUT BIRCH OIL DISTILLERY ........ 148
NEAR NEW LONDON, CONNECTICUT ................... 148
    Presented by The William S. Merrell Chemical
  Company.
TURKS DIGGING LICORICE IN THE VALLEY OF THE
      MEANDER. (Old Roman Road in Background.)... 152
TURKS EATING LUNCH. (Licorice in Background.)..... 152
NIOBE WEEPING FOR HER CHILDREN    .    ........... 154
    This heroic figure of "The Sorrowing Mother,"
  carved on the mountain top, antedates history. It over-
  looks the valley of the Meander, noted for wild licorice.
VALLEY OF THE MEANDER      .      ................ 154
    Historically celebrated from all time.
                         .id.

 





xiv          LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
                                         Facing page
HYDRASTIS CANADENSIS ............................. 164
   Presented by H. K. Mulford Company.

PLOWBOY IN OPIUM FIELD, TURKEY .................. 226
TURKS INSPECTING OPIUM. (Warehouse of A. Keunr +
     Co., Smyrna, Turkey.) ........................ 226

RHAMNTS PURSHIANA (CASCARA SAGRADA).           264
   Presented by Parke, Davis and Company.

TURKS IN ROSE FIELD NEAR BRUSSA .272
ROSE WATER STILL, NEAR BRUSSA.                 272

FRONT VIEW, ROSE OIL STILL, NEAR BRUSSA .......... 272
BACK VIEW, ROSE OIL STILL, NEAR BRUSSA ..      272

OLIVE ORCHARD ON ROAD TO BRUSSA, NEAR MOUNT
     OLYMPUS.................................... 300
AGED OLIVE TREE NEAR MOUNT OLYNIPuS, BRUSSA, 300

MULBERRY TREES STRIPPED FOR SILK WORMS ..      340
MULBERRY LEAVES FOR FEEDING SILK W'ORMS........ 340
   Near Brussa, on the foot of Mount Olympus, a city
 of silk industry.

COLLECTING PERSIAN INSECT FLOWERS..            352
   Presented by Allaire Woodward  Company.


 









    PHARMACOPEIAL DRUGS


                 ACACIA (Gum Arabic)
   Official in all editions of the   U. S. Pharmacopeia, from     the
first edition, 1820, to that last published, 1910. The 1910 edition
limits the use of the gum to that obtained from Acacia Senegal,
Willdenow, and other African species of acacia.
  From the most remote records of antiquity, acacia
has been an article of commerce. The tree was pictured,
together with heaps of the gum, in the reign of Rameses
III, of Egypt. Mention of the gum is of frequent oc-
currence in Egyptian inscriptions, where it is referred
to as the Gum of Canaan. Theophrastus (633), in the
3d and 4th centuries B. C., described it, as also did
Dioscorides (194) and Pliny (514), under the name
"Egyptian Gum." Acacia was exported from the Gulf
of Aden, seventeen hundred years before Christ. It has
thus been employed from all recorded time in both do-
mestic medicine and commerce. It was used by the
Arabian physicians,' and by those of the renowned
schools of Salerno. During the Middle Ages, acacia
was obtained from Egypt and Turkey, being an article
of commerce in the bazaars of Constantinople, 1340
A. D. As early as 1521 A. D. it was distributed through
Europe, from Venice. Among the most interesting and
  X "On the morning of our separation it was as if I stood in the gardens of our tribe,
    Amid the acacia shrubs where my eyes were blinded with tears by the smart from
      the bursting pods of colocynth." From the oldest of " TaE HANGED POEus."
   The "Seven Hanged Poems" were so named from the fact that these seven poems,
and these only, were considered worthy of "hanging" on the walls of the " Sacred Temple of
Mecca." They were heirlooms of Arabian poetry, when at its highest. The date at which
the poem was composed from which the above couplet is taken, is unknown. From The
Sacred Books and Early Literature of the East, edited by Prof. Charles F. Horne,
Ph.D., we take the following tribute: "It was unanimously agreed to immortalize their fame
by conferring on them the highest honor the followers of Mohammed could bestow, that of
hanging them inside the Kaaba, the most sacred shrine of their worship, as a memorial to
posterity." Note the linking together of the tears (gum) of the acacia and the acrid juice
of the colocynth.

 




PHARMACOPEIAL DRUGS



instructive recent contributions to acacia literature, is
the Report of the Wellcome Research Laboratory,
Khartoum, (678), 1904. Even this, however, is excelled
in the magnificently illustrated "Third Report" from
that institution, presented in 1908, in which we find a
fund of information that forbids even summarizing.
Pages 414 to 450 present, exhaustively, the subject of
gums, whose origin, as might be anticipated, is found
due to bacterial infection. The reports are not alto-
gether concordant, trees artificially inoculated even
falling below the yield by native processes, as shown
by the following extract:
  "INOCULATION.-In view of the results of Greig
Smith's investigations, which appear to prove that
gum is formed as the result of infection of the sap
by a microbe resident presumably in the bark, and
also that extensive removal of the bark is un-
desirable, an experiment was carried out as follows:
Tapping was performed by making a series of gashes
with an axe, no bark being stripped off, and (as the
chances of efficient natural inoculation might thus be
lessened), an attempt was made to ensure the entrance
of the microbe by rubbing a moist rag over the bark
and subsequently into the cut. A series of trees tapped
in the native fashion (by stripping the bark) was treated
in the same manner for comparison. The following
table exhibits the results obtained:
         Number of                            Yield of
 Garden of trees oper- Size of  Method of  Inoculated  gum per
         ated upontrees  tapping               tree
Adam Afifi  25  Medium Ordinary Notinoculated 0.9 rotl.
           2,5    it      1"    Inoculated   0.55
           25     "    Short
                          Gashes Not inoculated 0.28 "
    "t     25      "    "    "   Inoculated   0.14 "



2

 





ACONITUM



  "This quite unlooked for result is not without signifi-
cance of practical value.        It goes to show that the yield
of gum is affected to a very great extent by conditions
other than the mere stripping of the bark. The ex-
planation of the lower yield may be that inoculation
takes place ordinarily by the microbes falling upon the
sap which exudes in slight quantity when the bark is
stripped off, and that when the water was rubbed over
the bark and then into the cut the effect was rather to
wash away this sap and render inoculation less complex
and effective." Third Report of the W1'ellcome Research
Laboratories at the Gordon Memorial College, Khartoum,
1908.'
                ACONITUM (Aconite)
   Official in all editions of the U. S. P. from 1820 to 1910.
   Aconite, Aconitum Napellus, was familiar to the
ancients as a poisonous plant. It was used by the
ancient Chinese as well as by the hill tribes of India.
In a work published by the Welsh MSS. Society, 1861,
titled, The Physicians of Myadvai,2 it is designated as
"a plant that every physician should grow."         Aconite
is native to the Alps and the Pyrenees, as well as to the
mountains and highlands of Germany, Austria, Den-
mark and Sweden. The whole of Siberia, and the
Himalaya Mountains, to the altitude of 16,000 feet,
are said to harbor the plant. Waring (669) states that
it is found in Northern India, and Dymock (208) gives
   ' It should be stated that Greig Smith (Proc. Linn. Soc. of N. S. W., 1902. Part
III, Sept. 24th), is the original investigator of the bacterial origin of acacia, and has published
several papers on the subject. These should be studied in connection with the Wellcome
Report.
   ' PersxcCINS or MYDDVAi. The domestic physician of Rhys Gryg, prince of South Wales
who died 123.3, made a collection of recipes used in medicine at that date in his country. He
was assisted by his three sons, the collection being a valuable historical record concerning
remedial agents and methods of that date. Of this work, two compilations have been issued,
the two appearing together, 1861, with a translation by John Pughe (470 pp.). The original
manuscript is in the British Museum. (See Fluckiger and Hanbury's Pharmacographia,
page 761).
    2



3

 




PH-ARMACOPETAL DRUGS



the various names applied to the drug, stating that "it
is important in Sanskrit," and that of the eighteen
varieties of aconite mentioned by Hindu writers, ten
were considered too poisonous to be used in medicine.
Indeed, under the Sanskrit term Visha, and its equiva-
lent Bish and Bikh, of modern Indian languages, aconite
was accepted as "the most virulent poison known."
Everywhere it is known to the common people as a
poison. Stbrek, of Vienna, (617), introduced the drug
to the medical profession in 1763, and from that date
it crept into European dispensatories, and from thence
into general practice. Aconite, in small doses, is a
great favorite with American physicians.

                    ALOE (Aloes)
   Official in all editions of the Pharmacopeia, 1820-1910. As
official sources of aloe, the U. S. P., 1910, names Aloe Perryi,
(Socotrine aloes), Aloe vera, (Curagao aloes), and Aloe ferox,
(Cape aloes).
  The name aloe embraces a large number of succulent-
leaved plants native to tropical countries. Most of
these have showy flowers, and many are cultivated in
hot-houses. The official variety, Aloe socotrira, "grows
in the Indies, and especially in the island of Socotra."
(Lam.)
  The early history of the aloe plant is much obscured
by the fact that the name aloe, for example as it occurs
in the Bible, relates to a substance entirely different
from the inspissated juices of the various species of the
modern aloe plant, with which it has nothing in com-
mon, except its bitterness. The aloe of the Bible is the
wood of Aqui7laria agallocha (Roxburgh), or lignaloes,
which was used among ancient nations as an incense,
and highly prized on account of its scarcity. References



4

 






to this substance thread the Arabian Nights, (Burton's
Translation). The following excerpts from that well-
known publication show conclusively that "aloes" of
the present day could not have been the "Ligna Aloes"
of past Oriental lore:
  "Furthermore, they decorated the cities after the
goodliest fashion and diffused scents from censors and
burnt aloes-wood and other perfumes in all the markets."
Vol. X: p. 56.
  "Then the barber made him sit on the dais and the
boys proceeded to shampoo him, whilst the censers
fumed with the finest lign-aloes." Vol. IX: p. 150.
  That the substance named could not have been a
mixture, is illustrated by the following:
  "So I bade them set before him a box containing
Nadd [a mixture, Burton] the best of compound per-
fumes, together with fine lign-aloes, ambergris and musk
unmixed."
  By modern writers, the aloe plant is considered to
have grown wild in India from a very remote period.
It was probably introduced into that country by the
Arabs, the disseminators of knowledge concerning the
medicinal virtues of plants. Aloes was employed by
Galen (254 a), and was described by the Greek and
Roman writers of the first century, chief among whom
were Dioscorides (194) and Pliny (514), whose de-
scriptions of this drug and its uses, however, bear much
resemblance to each other.
  Socotrine aloes appears to have acquired its reputa-
tion at an early date. Clusius (153), in 1593, reports
that Mesu6, the Arabian pharmaceutical writer, "the
father of Pharmacopceias," (who died about 1028
A. D.), knew of the Socotrine origin of aloes, mentioning



ALOE



5

 




PIIARTMACOPEIAL DRUGS



Persia, Armenia and Arabia as sources of aloes of com-
merce. Ibn el Beithar (214) speaks of aloes from the
island of Socotra as being superior to that of the
Arabian districts of Yemen.
  The name Aloe socotrina was undoubtedly derived
from the island of Socotra, off the entrance to the Red
Sea. Yet, some authors maintain that the name was
by some given to the inspissated juice of aloe (succus
citrinus), on account of the lemon-yellow color of its
powder.' Not all the earlier medico-pharmaceutical
writers who afterwards considered the drug refer to
socotrine, or any other special kind of aloes. Hierony-
mus Bock (82), 1556, merely alludes to the drug being
brought from India and Arabia, a statement already
found in Dioscorides. He relates an instance where
the aloe plant is cultivated in Germany as an indoor
ornamental plant, under the name sempervivum.
  Samuel Purchas (527), however, in his important
collection of travels, 1625, gives prominence to Soco-
trine aloes, and places on record the commercial trans-
actions of British merchants with the king of Socotra.
One of his contributors, (William Finch, merchant),
gives the following interesting information, which he
gathered about 1607 A. D., concerning the preparation
of aloes in the island of Socotra:
  "I could learne of no merchandise the iland yeeldeth,
but Aloes, Sanguis Draconis, and Dates and, as they
say on the shore of Aba del Curia, Blacke Ambergreese.
Of Aloes I suppose they could make yearly more than
Christendome can spend, the herbe growing in great
abundance, being no other than Semper uivum, in all
   U Usage accepts that Aloe succotrina is the plant described by Lamarck, and that
aloe socotrina is the commercial extract derived from certain species of aloes. Exceptions
in the spelling of the latteryword have occurred in older Pharmacopeias.



6

 






things agreeing to that description of Dioscorides in
seed, stalke, etc. It is yet all of a red pricklie sort, and
much chamfered I in the leaves, so full of a resin-iuyce
that it is ready to breake with it. The chiefe time to
make it, is when the winds blowe northerly, that is,
about September, and that after the fall of some raine,
which being then gathered, they cut in small pieces,
and cast into a pit made in the ground, well cleansed
from filth and paved; there it lieth to ferment in the
heat of the sunne, whereby it floweth forth. Thence
they take and put it in skinnes, which they hang up in
the wind to dry, where it becommeth hard. They sold
us for 20 Rials a Quintall which is 103 pounds English,
but we were after told that they sold to others for 12,
which considering the abundance and easie making,
may be credible."
  Elsewhere the statement is made that "the Aloe of
Socotra exceedeth in goodnesse that which is gathered
in Hadhramut of the land of Jaman, Arabia, or any-
where else."
  From the same authority we learn that 1800 pounds
of Socotrine aloes were bought at one time, and 2722
pounds at another.
  The ancient trade of the island has never increased,
and in 1833, we are informed, only two tons were ex-
ported. At present the manufacture and export seem
to have ceased altogether, due no doubt to unfavorable
local conditions, as well as to the intrusive competition
of other countries. In the 16th century, or perhaps
before, the aloe plant was introduced into the West
Indies, Lignon, (383) 1763, dwelling especially on its
having occurred in Barbados as early as 1647-1650,
  l Grooved.



ALOE



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PHARNIACOPEIAL DRUGS



which is only about twenty years after the English
came into possession of this island (365). From this
point aloes soon became an article of export, appearing
in the London market in 1693 (239). In this con-
nection, however, it is strange that J. B. Labat (365),
a French monk and careful observer of nature, who
visited the island of Barbados in 1700, fails to mention
Barbadoes aloes among its staples (365). He says:
  "Formerly much tobacco was planted, and sub-
sequently ginger and indigo; cotton is now grown up in
some parts of the island, but sugar is