xt72z31ngn6x https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt72z31ngn6x/data/mets.xml McAllister, A. (Alvan) 1832  books b98-53-42679626 English Peirce & Parker ; H.C. Sleight, : Boston : New York : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Tobacco habit. Dissertation on the medical properties and injurious effects of the habitual use of tobacco  : read, according to appointment, before the Medical society of the county of Oneida, at their semi-annual meeting, January 5, 1830 / by A. McAllister.r. text Dissertation on the medical properties and injurious effects of the habitual use of tobacco  : read, according to appointment, before the Medical society of the county of Oneida, at their semi-annual meeting, January 5, 1830 / by A. McAllister.r. 1832 2002 true xt72z31ngn6x section xt72z31ngn6x 




        19 q aA Q           Q 3 Qln

          BY A. UcALLISTER, M. D.

    Improved and e nlarged, vwiih an Introductory Preface,
              BY MOSES STUAI..T,
        Asso. Prof. of Sac. Lit. in Anfdorer Iust.












i Ii 





 This page in the original text is blank.




                     ON THE


                     OF THE



              JANUARY 5, 1830.

        BY A. McALLISTER, M. D.

            .icconb -bittfon.
   Improved and enlarged, with an Introductory Preface,

           BY MOSES STUART,
Associate Professor of Sac. Lit. in the Theol. Inst. at Andover.

               No. 9. Cornhill.
          NEW YORK:-H. C. SLEIGHT,
                Clinton Hall.


  Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1832, by PEIRCI &
PARKER, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.

        No. 9, Cormibill.



  The first edition of Dr. McAllister'a Essay, was printed without any
Appendix. Having myself been in the habit of using tobacco very
moderately (usually but once in a day) from early life, i read the Es-
say as first printed with great interest. It appeared to me a sober,
judicious, rational appeal to the understanding and judgment of the
public, with respect to the subject of which it treats. A highly re-
spected friend of mine desired me to give hirn my opinion of-the Es-
ay in writing. I consented to do this ; and when I had done it, he
judged it expedicet to publish that opinion; to which I gave my con-
secnt. It was published in the Journal of Humanity; and for sub-
stance it was made up of an abridgement of Dr. McAllister's views,
and some strictures on his style and method of treating the subject.
In particular, a desire clois exipressed that Dr. McA. would discuss
more fully some of tho arguments employed in defence of using to-
bacco. This critique was sent to the author of the Essay; who in
consequence of it expressed a willingness to revise his work, and
make such additions as had been suggested. Sonne weeks since he
transmitted Lo me a copy of the original edition, with a manuscript
containing the Appendix to the present edition. At the same time
he reque.ted me to make any alterations in either part, which I might
deemn expedient. I have used this liberty so far as to change a few
technical words for popular and intelligible ones. In some of these
cases, I have detracted from the specific accuracy of the writer, as a
medical man, for the sake of makin r his expressions more intelligible
to the mass oft readers. IV hat lie will thus lose, in his reputatiomn for
scientifieal accuracy, he will gain by becoming more useful, A few
other slight alterations and modifications have been made; but only
such as 1 judfred tIle womthy author would at once cheerfully admit.
I have kept within the b unds oif the liberty which lie gave me ; and
I trust lie will not be dissatisfied with what I have done.
  I corn i1iemid the serious perusal of the following Essay and Appen-
dix to every msan, who wishes to become well informed respecting the
properties of tobacco. Whoever uses this substance as a luxury, is
bound by a due regard to his own physical welfare to make himself
acquainted vithi its propeitics and their inflenice. If any man can
soberly peruse the following lrages, without conviction that he is
"playing with edge-tools," while he is indulging in the use of tobac-
co, I mist confess his mind to be of a composition different from
  One word as to brcakinz off the habit. The difficulty, I fully be-
lieve, is not intmch less tiai the breakinigr off fro.m ardent spirits. But
as to any danger to health ir. breaking off the fear is idle; excepting



in case of delicate habits, where small changes produce great effects;
or in case of advanced years and inveterate habit, where the course of
those fluids which are so much affected by tobacco, if suddenly and
entirely changed, may give rise to serious inconvenience. My
belief, however, is, that there no case in which a judicious and
proper course may not efect an entire weaning from the use of
tobacco. Most persons in good health, and all in younger life, may
break off at once, without the least danger. Two or three days
will overcome all difficulty. Those whom slight changes in regi-
men affect very much, may break off more gradually; and so of
persons advanced in life. A good way of accomplishing this, is to
procure some of the most detestable tobacco which can be found,
and when appetite will not forego the use of it without an evil great-
er than to use it, then take it in such a quantity as will be sure to
nauseate and prostrate. This will put the next dose farther off; and
two or three doses thus administered, will so blunt the appetite, that
quitting the practice will appear to be quite a moderate degree of self-
denial. Those who never felt the appetite may laugh at such direc-
tions as these; but those who know its power, will at least think them
worth some consideration.
  I do not place the use of tobacco in the same scale with that of ar-
dent spirits. It does not make men maniacs and demons. But that
it does undermine the health of thousands ; that it creates a nervous
irritability, and thus operates on the temper and moral character of
men; that it often creates a thirst for spirituous liquors ; that it al-
lures to clubs, and grog-shops, and taverns, and thus helps to make
idlers and spendthrifts; and finally, that it is a very serious and need-
less expense; are things which cannot be denied by any observing
and considerate person. And if all this be true, how can the habitual
use of tobacco, as a mere luxury, be defended by any one who wishes
well to his fellow-men, or has a proper regard to his own usefulness 
  I have been in the use of it for thirty-five years; but I confess my-
self unable, on any ground, to defend or to excuse the practice. The
wants which are altogether artificial, are such as duty calls us to avoid.
The indulgence of them can in no way promote our good or our real
  I commend, therefore, the following sheets to the public; hoping
that all, and especially the young, ill read and well consider the
suggestions they offer.                                    __


ANOVERx, JAN-. 10, 1832.


Gis I LE3 FN,
    We have accidentally seen the manuscript copy of an address pronoun-
ced lately belore your soc!ety, by Dr. McAllister. 'Ihe research on which it is
founded, and its perspicuity and arrangement, entitle it to a lorm more perma-
itent titan mariubcrilt. ilut if the results are true, which it attempts to sub-
stantiate, they prevent imperious considerations for the publication of the
  We are not disposed to (contract the circle of enjoyment; but if mischief
crouches uider tile covert of atly pleasure, propriety requires a notification co
the unwary. Even should experience warrant the conclusion that habit ena-
bles us to use tobacco withs physical imputtity, (a cnoClLsiolt which Dr. McAl-
lister powerfully controverts,) s1c must coltcede, that its use is disgusting to
persons not intected with the habit.
  Civilization is composed of innumerable acts of self-denial; while the grati-
fication of appetites, regardless of others, is the strongest feature of barbarism.
Wc see then, eveit as a dictate of regnetinent, that tho use of tobacco should
be abandoned, and it has been abandoned by all the polite circles of Europe.
  But tobacco possesses that strong characteristic of a bad habit; it seldom
leaves its votaries the 1I)ertv of abandonment. All which the address can ef-
fect, is alt adinotition to youth, over whomi tobacen has not yet acquired its
bad supremacy. As parents, then, anxious to see our children uncontaminat-
ed by disgustful piactices; as citizens, eatulous that our country shall not be
surpassed in refittemettt by the nations of Europe, we are solicitous that the
address of L)r. McAllister should be published, and in a pamphlet form, under
the authority of your society.
  We are aware that this request involves a departure from your general dis-
position of the periodical addresses of your members, but we beg to suggest
that the general interest of the present prodttction renders a departure from
your usual course toot itvitlious, but a duty which we humbly think you owe to
philanthropy. In support of our opinion, we take the liberty of enclositig you
a letter from a distitiguished fellow-citizen ils Albany, who also accidentally
saw the address: and we are, Gentlemen,
             With very great respect, your ob't serv'ts,
                     A. B. JOHNSON,           EDM'D A. WETMORE,
                     1). C.( LANSING,         WILLIAM      WILLIAMS,
                     HIRAM D)ENIO,            SAM'L D. DAKIN.
                     R. R. LANSING,
  UTICA, FEB. 27, 1830.


                                      LyYnus STREET. ALBANY,  
                                 Friday Evening, January 22d, 1830.  
    I have just completed an attentive perusal of the manuscript discourse on
tobacco, which 3ou hassded to me this afternoon; and I really feel obliged to
the author for tihe interest and instruction which it has afforded me. I am sin-
cerely of opinirn that the respectable society before whom it was delivered,
owe it to themselves, to the public, and to the author, (if they have not already
done so,) to request its publication. And, favorably as it leads me to think of
the author's intellectual and professional endowments, he must be still more
distinguished for his modesty, if he declines a compliance with such a request.
He has treated a highly important subject, in a clear, forcible, and striking
maaner; and the public are deeply concenied in knowing what he has said of
it. I will only add, that in point of literary execution, it is, in my judgment,
most decidedly respectable, and would in that respect reflect tio discredit upon
any medical gentleman in this state.
                    Very respectfully and truly yours, &c. &c.
                                                        A. CONKLING.
  R. R. LANsING, Esq.

At a meeting of the Medical Society of the County of Oneida, on the 5th of
  March, 830, a communication was received, signed by a number of highly
  respectable gentlemen from this atid other counties of this state, on the sub-
  ject of a dissertation delivered before this society, at their late semi-anntual
  meeting, by )r. McAllister, "oft the properties and effects of tobacco."
  The communication was referred to a committee.
  The committee reported, "That although dissertations so delivered became
the property of the society, yet believing as we do, that the subject is one of
great importance, and the dissertation highly meritorious, and as we have not
Funds to defray the expense of publication, we will cheerfully relinqnfish our
claim thereto in favor of our correspondents, and cordially unite vithl them in
the desire which they have expressed to us, 'that the dissertation be published
in a pamphlet form,' for their gratification and the benefit of the public."
  RESOLVED, That the above report be accepted, and that a copy of the pro-
ceedings be delivered to the gentlemen who presented the comniurucation.
                                    C. B. COVENTRY, Sec'y pro. tem.



  In consenting to the publication of the following pages, the
author yielded to the request of gentlemen whose opinions he
did not feel at liberty to disregard; he therefore hopes to avoid
the imputation of vanity, with which he might have been charg-
ed, had he obtruded himself on the attention of the public, un-
solicited. That the habitual use of tobacco is a wide spread,
and spreading evil, will be acknowledged by all. This has been
felt for years by the most enlightened members of the Faculty.
That it causes many diseases, particularly visceral obstruc-
tions, and renders many btthers exceedingly difficult to cure, is
demonstrated in the daily experience of every practitioner.
The conviction that this habit was constantly extending by the
advice and example of physicians, first induced the author to
undertake the discussion of this subject before the respectable
Society to which he has the honor to belong. Whether the
attempt has been successful, the public will judge. That it is
imperfect, will not be denied; but it is believed to have claims
as a candid statement of facts.
  To literary distinction the author makes no pretentions; he
therefore craves the indulgence of the learned, as they can best
appreciate the labor of writing well. He has chosen a free,
popular style, believing that the best calculated to do good;
and to render it still more familiar, at the suggestion of some
friends, the technical terms have been mostly expunged. Aware
that affectation consists no less in studiously avoiding, than in
unnecessarily using technical language, the author submitted
to this, in the hope of being better understood by persons out
of the Profession. His medical brethren will, therefore, know
how to excuse him, for attempting to make this essay more
plain, though it should be at the expense of technical accuracy.



  Should the prevalence of the practice, be a fair index to pub-
lie sentiment, the author is aware that he wars against a fearful
odds. But many who use this noxious weed, without hesita-
tion acknowledge its deleterious effects, and urge in extenua-
tion the inveteracy of habit.
  One consideration had considerable influence to induce the
author to consent to the publication of this paper-the hope
that it might aid in putting away the evil of intemperance, by
pointing out one grand source of that desolating scourge.
When public attention shall be fully awakened to this subject,
innumerable instances will be found, where drunkenness has
followed as the legitimate consequence of using tobacco.
  Should that hope be fulfilled-should it be found that the
labor of the author has exerted any salutary influence, in re-
straining young men from falling into those habits which are
inevitably followed by much physical suffering, if not by abso-
lute ruin, such a result would be to him an ample compensa-
  UTICA, MAY, 1830.




  The confidence of an enlightened community has assign-
ed to you, as guardians of the dearest interests of society, an
elevated and highly responsible rank among those who la-
bor to promote the great cause of human happiness. Your
influence in the medical councils of this great and flourish-
ing State, gives a lasting effect to your deliberations, and
stamps a value on those productions which you are pleased
to approve. While the opinions of other men are often ex-
hibited and forgotten with the occasicni which gave them
birth, those of the physician continue not unfreqiuently to
affect at least the physical wvelfare of the world, after his
"dust has returned to the earth as it was, and his spirit has
gone to God who gave it."  In view of this momentous
truth, an humble attempt will now be made, in discharge of
the duty assigned me, to examine the cause of some of the
" ills wvhich flesh is heir to."
  I regard this principle as an axiom, that whatever con-
duces to augmtent the sum of human happiness, mtist be an
object of solicitude to the conscientious atid intelligent phy-
sician. lie will be anxious that his fellow citizens should
be sober, peaceable, and virtuous; that they should be in-
dustrious, frugal, and prosperous. Whatever will produce
such results should receive the decided approbation of every
benevolent member of the Faculty. It tiolows, of course,
that whatever has an opposite tendency should meet his
frown. Pursuing this principle, you have condemned the
use of ardent spirits, unless sickness demands their appli-
cation as a medicine.
  The physical evils resulting from intemperance were elo-
quently exhibited in the address, presented by your com.
mittee, during the last year. That address, with its accom-



panying resolutions, now exerts a beneficial influencethrough
a widely extended community. We are cheered by the
kind wishes and prayers of the friends of good order, in our
efforts to destroy that vice which has not only " walked"
through our country " in darkness," but " wasted at noon-
day." But while we exult in the triumph of correct prin-
ciples on thi.s subject, do not other vicious indulgences de-
mand our attention  Should we slumber over the mischiefs
resulting from such indulgences, while the public look to
us as pioneers who should trace out the pathway to health
and happiness, and demand from us both precepts and ex-
amples of sobriety and virtue Unfortunately, in ail our
attempts to abolish practices prejudicial to the best interests
of man, we are compelled, in the outset, to encounter our
own inveterate habits-habits which rise up in mutiny
against reformation, and with clamorous note forbid us to
proceed. Are we so fortunate as to be free from their in-
fluence ourselves, we look around and see our friends bound
in chains, from which we should rejoice to deliver thein ;
but we fear, perhaps, to make an experiment which may
rouse their passions, rather than convince their under-
  Who can count the multitudes yearly consigned to the
tomb, by the indulgrence of a fastidious and unnatural ap-
petite I Headaches, flatulencies, ci.lics, dysl)epsias, pal-
sies, apoplexies, and death, pursue the Epicurean train, as
ravens follow the march of an armed host, to prey on those
who fall in the " battle of the warrior, with their garments
rolled in blood." The truth of this statement wvill not be
questioned. Yet where is the physician, possessing suffi-
cient moral courage to raise his voice against the system of
modern cookery  Should it be thought, that, as medical
men have given no more encouragement to that system than
any other class in society, they are not bound to use any ex-
traordinary exertions to produce a chance; still a wide field
is left ol)en tL benevolent action in reference to those things,
the influence of which is injurious to mankind.
   Gentlemen-there is a baneful habit, diffused, like the at-
mosphere, through all classes, and affecting all the ramifi-
cations of society. And this habit owes much of its preva-
lence to the advice and example of respectable physicians.
We indulge the hope, from the great increase of medical
knowledge, that the time will soon arrive, when persons
disposed to vicious indulgence will be unable to entrench




themselves behind our professional advice. I am aware
that I tread on dangerous ground, in attempting to investi-
gate the propriety of a practice which has been introduced
and approved by a large portion of the members of this res-
pectable Society. You may start at the suggestion, and re-
gard it as unworthy of your notice. Let me hope, however,
that you will suspend your opinions,,while I endeavor to
present the natural history, chemical composition, and med-
ical properties of one of our most deadly narcotics-the
Tabaci Folia, orNicotiana Tabacumn, i. e. tobacco. If in the
prosecution of this inquiry, we shall be able to discover the
great and injurious effects which the use of this poisonous
plant produces on the constitution, I shall be excused, if I
urge this subject on your consideration with more than or-
dinary importunity.

                  I. NATURAL HISTORY.
   "This plant was unknown in Europe until after the dis-
covery of America by the Spaniards, and was first carried
to England by Sir Francis Drake, A. D. 1560. The na-
tives of this conti nent call it petun; those of the islands, yo-
li. The Spaniards, who gave it the name of tobacco, took
that name from 'I'Ahaco, a province in Yucatan, where they
first found it, and first learned its use. Some contend that
it derives its name from 'I'obago, one of the Caribbee Is-
lands, discovered by Columbus, in 1498."  It received the
name tobacro from Ilernandez de Toledo, who first sent it
to Spain and Portugal.
   The botanic (lescription of this plant may be found in
 most works on the science of botany: and therefore I shall
 not detain you wit!i it at this time. The plant, while grow-
 ing exhibits a very bewitifuil appearance, but is so-extreme-
 ly nauseous, that ill all the variety of insects, only one is
 found to feed upofnl it. This is a worm " sui generis," the
 mode ot its prorag-ition being entirely unknown; and from
 its being the only living creature (man excepted) that will
 devout this plimut,; it is called " tobacco worm."

                 It. SENSIBLE QUALITIES.
   It is of a yellowvish green color; it has a strong, narcotic,
 and feotid odor, with a bitter and extremely acrid taste.


 See Rees' f'P++e ia.

t INC-tionary of Arts and Sciences.



  "Mucilage, albumen, or gluten. extractive, a bitter prin-
ciple, an essential oil, nitrate of potass, which occasions its
deflagrration, muriate of potass, and a peculiar proximate
principle, upon which the virtues of the plant are supposed
to depend, and which has therefore been named Nicotin.
This peculiar principle is considered by some, as approach-
ing the essential oil in its properties. It is colorless, has
an acrid taste, and the peculiar smell of tobacco; and occa-
sions violent sneezing. With alcohol and water it forms a
colorless solution, from which it is precipitated by a tincture
of galls. Tobacco yield its active matter to water and proof
spirit, but most perfectly to the latter; long boiling weakens
its powers. A most powerful oil may be obtained by distil-
lation, and separating it from the surface of the water on
which it floats."

               IV. MEDICAL PROPERTIES.
  These are considered to be those of a powerful narcotic,
antispasmodic, emetic, cathartic, sudorjfic, and diuretic.
  " As a narcotic, it is endued with the most energetic,
poisonous properties, producing, when administered even
in small doses, severe nausea and vomiting, cold sweats,
universal tremors, with extreme muscular debility." From
its exerting a peculiar action on the nervous system, as as-
certained bV the well directed experiments of Mr. Brodie,
it powerfully controls the action of the heart and arteries,
producing invariably a weak, tremulous pulse, with all the
apparent symptoms of approaching death. And so differ-
ent is its operation from that of other narcotics, that it ac-
tually operates with more destructive efficacy, when used
by way of injection, than when applied either to the skin,
or when taken into the stomach.
  From what has been said of its narcotic powers, you,
Gentlemen, "ill readily infer its virtue as an article of medi-
cine. If we wish, at any time, to prostrate the powers of
life in the most sudden and awful manner, we have but to
administer a dose of tobacco, and our object is accomplish-
ed. Hence its use in obstinate constipation, in cholic, in
the iliac passion, and in stranguary.
  As it is conceded that its efficacy as an antispasmodic




depends upon its power to prostrate every vestige of tone
and elasticity in the muscular fibre, prudence would dictate
that it should be used with the utmost circumspection, when
the system had been previously exhausted by the disease,
or by the antecedent method of cure. Melancholy instan-
ces are on record, of the fatal effects of this medicine when
administered without this caution, both as an internal
remedy, and as an external application in cutaneous dis-
eases. Two instances will suffice.
  " A medical practitioner," says Paris, " after repeated
trials to reduce a strangulated hernia, injected an infusion
of tobacco, and -shortly after sent tihe patient in a carriage
to the Westminster Hospital, for the purpose of undergoing
the operation; hut the unfortunate man arrived only a few
minutes before he expired."
  " I knew a woman," says the same learned author, " who
applied to the heads of three of her children, afflicted with
scald-head, an ointment composed of snuff and butter; but
what was the poor woman's surprise, to find them immedi-
ately seized with vertigo, violent vomiting, fainting, and
conv ilsim is."
  W'e next come to its effects as an emetic. " As such,"
says Professor Chapman, " tobacco claims our attention."
" Cullen and many others opposed its use, on account of
the harshness of its operation. Certainly it exceeds all oth-
ers in the promptness, violence, and permanence of its im-
pressions. But these very qualities, unpleasant as they are,
enhance its value in many cases."
  "Tobacco seems especially to be adapted to the evac-
uation of some poisons; and it has this advantage, that it
acts with equal certainty and expedition, when applied to the
region of the stomach in the form of a poultice, as when in-
ternally administered."  Professor Barton says, he had re-
course to an application of the moistened leaves of this plant
to the region of the stomach, with complete success, to ex-
pel an inordinate quantity of laudanum, in a case where the
most active emetics, ini the largest doses, were resorted to
in vain. But most poisons, particularly the corrosive, are
attended with so much exhaustion, that it woild seem per-
ilous to administer tobacco, lest by its own depressing ef-
fects, the powers of vitality might be irrecoverably extin-
guished. In many instances, however, it appears that it




may be administered in small doses with safety and advan-
  We are informed by a respectable writer, that while at
the Cape of Good Hope, he had a number of Hottentots,
with intermittent fever, under his care. Having few medi-
cines, he resorted to tobacco, and fomud six grains of snuff
as effectual in exciting vomiting, as two of'fartat emetic.
  By many it is preferred in minute doses, as a nauseating
medicine. rT'htis administered, it has succeeded in subdu-
ing sonic of the mos.t violent symptoms of the most fuirious
cases of mania; and wheme it cannot be given by the mouth,
from the obstinacy of the patient, it may with equal benefit
be applied ill the form of a poultice.
  As a cathartic, tobacco is entitled to notice. "Some
physicians have been in the habit of prescribing this pow-
erfiil substance not only for the more dangerous cases of
incarcerated hernia, but in all cases of obstinate constipa-
tion, from whatever cause produced. To relieve these
painful diseases, it has been usually given in the form of a
clyster, regulatina the dose to the age, circumstances, and
strength of the patient; and it is affirined to have proved, in
many instances, very effectual, and to possess the confidence
of practitioners."
  I was informed by a learned and ingenious friend, that,
having an obstinate case of ascaris lumnbricoi les in his own
family, after repeated unsuccessful efforts to dislodge the
worms, he at last had recourse to this potent remedy, a
poultice of which he applied to the region of the stomach.
The worms were almost instantaneously expelled, but with
very alarming symptoms, and a complete prostration of the
patient. From these circumstances, we should be led to
conclude, that its efficacy as a vermifuge depends either up-
on its narcotic properties, or upon its sudden and powerful
effect as a cathartic.
  Its effects as a sternutatory, i. e. as exciting to sneeze,
are known to all. If applied to the nostrils, in the form of a
powder or snuff, it produces violent and repeated sneezing,
with a slight degree of vertigo. The violent agitation pro-
duced in this way, together with a copious discharge from
the nostrils, often relieves catarrh, headache, arid incipient
opthalmnia or inflammation of the eyes.  But habit soon
blunts the sensibility of the organs, and much positive in-
jury follows the habitual use of snuff.  It has been a pop-



               DISSERTATION ON TOBACCO.                15

ular remedy in many places for the cure of scald-head, psora,
and most other cutaneous eruptions. It has also been ap-
plied for cleansing ulcers, and for the removal of in(lolent
tumors. But the dreadful effects produced iry it when ab-
sorbed into the system, have induced most medical men to
abandon it altogether, and prescribe a more safe application.
  Though it is said, by Dr. Brailsford, to be a sudorifif of
considerable efficacy, I am in possessilon of no facts whioh
go to support such a conclusion, unless indeed it be the filct,
that it in an eminent degree brings on that cold perspiration
of which we have spoken, and which is, in niaviy instances,
the imiiied iate precursor of death.
  But of all others, its diuretic properties have been the
most landed. Dr. Fowler was the first to bring them ex-
tensively into notice. In dropsy, dysiry, gravel, and ne-
phritis calculosa or inflammation of the kidneys, the infusion
and tincture were given by him with astonimiisivg success.
In spasmod ic asthma,t!4e same (listinlguished physician found
it to afflord relief.
  Mr. Earle, a stirgeon of some eminence, has more recent-
ly treated several inveterate cases of retention of urine on
the same lpI:Xn and with similar effects, andl adds his tesstimo-
ny to its efficacy in tetanms, trisimnus, and other spasmtodic
affections. 01 its power to relieve spasm thete cat) he no
doubt. What has been related of its sedative qualities, is
abundantly sufficient to estiblish that fict. C'ramips, con-
vulsions, and even the vital priniciple itself, give wly before
the exhilition of this deadly narcotic. Hence, to its power
of p)rostrating the muscuilar energy, it owes its efficdcy in
preventing retention of urine
  We have now gone through with an examination of the
medicinal properties of tobacco. anmd have arrived at the fbl-
lowing conclusion, viz. that few substances are capable of
exerting effects so sudden anda destrnictive, as this poisolnous
plant. Prick the skin of mouse with a needle, the poinit of
which has been dipped in its essential oil, and immediately
it swells and dies. Introduce a piece of comnion " twist,"
as large as a kidney bean, into the mouth of a robust man,
unaccustomed to this weed, and sooni he is affected with
fainting, vertigro, nausea, vomiting, and loss of vision. At
length the surface becomes deadly pale, the cold sweat
gathers thick upoin his brow, the pulse flutters or ceases to
beat, a universal tremor conmes.on, with slight spasms and
other symptomsof dissolution. As an emetic, few articles



can compare with it for the promptness and efficiency of its
operation; at the same time thero are none which produce
such universal debility. As a cathartic, it produces imme-
diate and copious evacuations,. with great prostration of
strength; but its dose can with difficulty be regulated.
   If such be a fair statement of its effects on the human
system; if it requires all the skill of the most experienced
practitioner to guard a