xt72z31nkb6h https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt72z31nkb6h/data/mets.xml President's Conference on Fire Prevention (1947: Washington, D.C.) United States. Public Buildings Administration United States. Federal Works Agency  President's Conference on Fire Prevention (1947: Washington, D.C.) United States. Public Buildings Administration United States. Federal Works Agency 1947 ii, 15 pages UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries. Call Number: FW 6.9:R 31/1947 books  English Washington, D.C.: Federal Works Agency, Bureau of Community Facilities  This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. Works Progress Administration Administrative Publications Fire prevention -- United States Research The President's Conference on Fire Prevention: Report of the Committee on Research, 1947 text The President's Conference on Fire Prevention: Report of the Committee on Research, 1947 1947 1947 2020 true xt72z31nkb6h section xt72z31nkb6h 5, \‘.‘ '
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5 ”55685

g The President’s Conference on


Repart 0f the Cam/mittee 0n





lVIay 6, 7, and 8, 1917



“The serious losses in life and property resulting an-
nually from fires cause me deep concern. I am sure
that such unnecessary waste can be reduced. The
substantial progress made in the science of fire pre-
vention and fire protection in this country during the
past forty years convinces me that the means are

available for limiting this unnecessary destruction.”





Bibliography _____________________________________________ 1

. Human Behavior _________________________________________ 1
. Fires 0n Shipboard _______________________________________ 5
Aviation _________________________________________________ 6
Industrial Research _______________________________________ 8
FheJfighUng (Exfingufihngfl Equhnnmm‘ _________________ 10
Forest, Brush, and “Vim-Land Fires ________________________ 12
Mine-Fire Prevention _____________________________________ 12






Responsive to the objectives of the conference and pursuant to the
Scope assigned it: by the Coordinating Committee, the Conference’s
Committee on Reszarch submits the following report.


An essential tool for planning, and for the conduct of both funda—
mental and applied research. is means for reference to results of past
experience, to experimental data. and to conclusions that have been
competently arrived at in view of them.

rIhe Committee concurs with the saying that:

“Farts hidden away in a tilirr;r cabinet” (or hidden in our minds)
“are of little practical value; only when the“ are made available to
people can they be translated into action.” (Author unknown.)

Loss of life, waste of property. and interference with private and
public affairs by fire have been and are within the experience of all man-
kind. Ore‘anized lire fie‘htiirer was practiced when history was first
written. Fire prevention. in its modern aspects, is more than an art;
but seientitic application of most of its branches is sadly hampered
by lack of bibliography and contrilnitions from all sources thereto.

The Committee on Research recommends, therefore, that:

The ('onfwre/iee NHZ‘ to bare made (Irr/z'lrrb7e (Z Central library fa-
ci/x’iy. /o 2/3/22'e/2 I‘e/mr/N on (1/! (IN/HMS of fire jz'f/bz‘z'ng, fire prerenz‘z‘on,
(17er fire tow eon be mar/e. am] Ir/z/r-iz 8/1/17] Mil/r0 (12‘t’lz7ab7e. Hie, bibli-
of/mp/ij/ of fire? pelw‘ and /)/‘4N(,’/t/.' (vafmcfee/ (IN/Z Zia/erred. Thereby
sou/we under/rt] for pubb'e inferno/Hon. 1mm seer/(3e, and the 727m will
bee/nae nee/bib/e: enforcinf/ outlier/fies (II/(7 7/211](//f/(7/‘S of properties
can, eerie/2 (b'f‘l'A'I'U/irx‘ upon fee/WI] be/MN,‘ and fine/Hy, 'i‘c‘S't’fli‘Cll on. fire
pmbbmx u-i/l be so (wit/u] (IN to r/em'd (hip/[eufz'tma of planning and


This Committee is eonlident that the Committee on Fire Prevention
Education of the Conference will devise constructive plans for com—
bating the crime of carelessness in which we Americans so freely in-
dulge. ,It is also eonlident that the Conference‘s Committees on Laws
and Law En‘l"oree1ne11t and on Building: Construction. Operation and
Protection will not, fail to consider the economic and other factors





that have been and continue to be responsible for so many little
fires in which life is wasted and essentials to decent living standards
are destroyed each day throughout: the land. Therefore the Committee
on Research discusses only the following few characteristics of human

A. Causative Factors of Panic Behavior

The Cocoanut Grove Night Club tire and the circus disaster in
Hartford are but two examples (comparatively recent) of the ap—
palling waste of life which results, at least in part, from panic be-
havior induced by fear of fire.

Panic behavior, as contrasted with 'ational behavior, is more likely
to be the action of the individual and the group, when the individual
or the group has insufficient information. In other words, rational
behavior is a greater possibility when individuals placed in situa-
tions of stress are familiar with the possible results of the situation
and the means to overcome the difficulties. Knowledge, then, through
education, is a means to combat panic behavior. On this basis, and
since panic is expressive of fear and lack of confidence, with an emo-
tional coloring, serious consideration should be given to initiating a.
program of public education. Such a program. conducted through
the medium of the press and radio, should be very beneficial. The
public should be informed of modern advances in fireproof construc-
tion; of the present—day use of the various type of fire extinguishers;
of the various means utilized to evacuate burning buildings; and of
other matters having to do with the restoration of individual conti-
dence in an emergency. The public, and especially the occupants of
large buildings such as hotels, hospitals and office structures. should
be taught to familiarize themselves with the means of escape from the
building, or parts of it, prior to the development of an emergency: and
they should be taught how to safeguard themselves within it if: escape is

The Committee on Research accordingly recommends that the

Take steps sponsoring addition“? prof/mans fie/at will 'zdflzizc Z’nmtm
facts, 80 as to indoctrhmtc the public in Hm CRMMMJS pertaining to
the conduct of the individual and of the group in H10 stress of an, emer-
gency created by fire.

B. Fireman Evaluation

Psychological selection methods are well—enough advanced and of
sufficient accuracy to promise the development of selection techniques
that will pick out the most desirable type of man to receive training
as a fireman. The desirability of applying our knowledge of normal





psychological reactions in selecting and training personnel cannot be
questioned. The military, during the recent war, very satisfactorily
applied this principle in creating screening methods to eliminate
individuals who were believed to be incapable of making a satisfac-
tory service adjustment. This method was used also to select per—
sonnel for designation to specialized duties involving unusual danger.
Experience with the procedure revealed the fact that it was very satis-
factory in directing attention to individuals with borderline person-
ality defects, as well as to those who were frankly abnormal. There
appears to he no good reason why the utilization of this principle
Would not be successful in determining the proper type of individual
to be assigned to fire departments.

Before a screen can be applied, of course, it is necessary to make a
job analysis, to determine the type of personality best suited to meet-
the needs. Ordinarily, in a fire-fighting force, or in any group selected
to function without confusion in an emergency, special consideration
should be given to the stability of the individual, his ability to think
clearly under adverse circumstances, his judgment, his initiative, and
his ability to function quickly without reservations. In the appli-
cation of such a screen, it would be necessary to eliminate the inferior
types of personality—the psychopath. the introvert, the individual
with marked manic—depressive tendencies, and others exhibiting evi-
dence of instability.

It-is the recommendation of the Committee on Research that:

Standard means of xalrcting and training/ firemen and other persons
iii/um: 'zrorle Witt/(PR them, responsible for fire safety should be deter-
mined. Thai; (means shoalil ZN? applied through the adoption of a
screen baxcd on. hnm/‘n psychological and psychiatric determinations-
7nadc by the zzzili/arg/ and other authorities and appropriate for use by
properly Qualified arr/miners. It is essential that trained emamz'ncrs
apply thins-c screening tbs-ts, and 1171ch arailablc. State agencies should
be called upon. for assistance in the selection of tests and in. the evalua-
tion of their results.

C. Pyromaniacs

Pyromania is another type of human behavior that is of significance
in fire prevention.

Apart from persons guilty of arson or of incendiarism, fire setters
may be classified under three general headings:

1. Accidental fire setters, including normal persons, mental defec-
tives, psychopathic personalities, and psychotic. persons.

2. Occasional fire setters would include normal persons, mental de-
fectives, psychopathic personalities, and psychotic persons.

3. Habitual fir. setters would include psychopathic personalities,
mental defectives, and psychotic persons.




In these categm'ies so-called normal persons are for the most part
not informed regarding tire hazards and are without instruction and
training in mechani ‘al and techni ral means of tire prevent ion and tire
fighting. Management in industrj and other fields must concern itself
with educational measures that will eliminate tire setting by normal
persons. Brief mention is made *arlier in this report ot ~arelessness as
a cause of fire, and in which, it must be assumed, normal persons, with
others, generously indulge.

In the past, considerable publicity has been given to the fact that
pyromaniacs have been responsible for starting a high percentage of
fires. Studies have revealed that certain abnormal individuals have
actually been responsible tor a certain percentage: but it is not believed
that the problem with relation to these individuals is insoluble. Sta-
tistics currently available point to the fact that about 4,18 percent of
pathological tire setters are imbeciles or morons, and another '22 per-
cent are “dull normals” or borderline. while 17 percent are of superior
intelligence. These same studies have pointed to the fact. that among
1,145 male lire setters. the highest rate occurred around the age of 17.
l’yroniania is outstandingly the crime of the adolescent or young adult.
Occupational or mental :uljustments have a considerable bearing on
the problem; and it has been found that alcoholic complications are
frequent in those tire, setters past the twentieth y air of age.

In approaching this over—all problem, it is important to keep in
mind the fact that no normal person sets fires habitually; that psy—
chotic, habitual lire setters usually do so for delusional reasons: and
that they constitute a fairly large group.

Psychoties, psychopaths, and mental defectives deliberately set tires
for one or more of the t'olloyving motives:

a. As a reaction against a social order which they believe is oper—
ating against their interests.

b, To \vre: l( vengeance against an employer.

c. As a revenge for injured vanity.

d. As a jealous ‘age reaction.

0. As an opportunity to perform heroic endeavors as a tire tighter.

f. As a perverted sexual pleasure. in the nature of a conversion of
the sexual impulse into a special substitutive eXcitement.

This Committee on Research recommends that the Conference
take steps so that:

All /'))(]II'77/'(Zl/(t7v9 [cf/(777.” diary/m] 1027/1 originating firm of 7710 pyro-
mmu'ac typo tiff/l Zn: w/1jm-fm] {0 n, dc/ni/rt/ mental art/aminoz’hm by
cmnpei’cmfi 7761290179, and when, 2'2? 2'8 (Zeta/'nzivwl an, ’Zi’)t(Z/il‘/'(]'?l(tz 12's abnor-
m/r7. 72/: 71c 720.9/257H/2'3'c/Z [0 prof/(V5 l/m pub/h}. In, this" morncction, Hag
policies for (Io/manirnhrr/ Hm release of habitual fire setters, 07' those
SUSPFCZP/Z of being so, from carious public hospitals. reform(/forics,


State .S'C/Ioo/s, and prixons throughout the United States, shot/7d be
Y't‘L’tt’Il‘t‘tl and standardized.


Fires on board ship too frequently have demonstrated their menace
to me and property. Nevertheless this committee is agreed that exist-
ing law and regulations with respect to the marine fire hazard are
adequate. according to the present state of the art of fire protection,
hut should be reviewed from time to time in the light of experience and

The basic innlerstaiuling of these hazards, both on hoard ship and
at short-side. and the liest‘ methods of their control and extinguish-
nient. are well known.

The dissemination of this, knowledge, of experience with respect to
fire prevention and extinguislnnent. is inadequate. An appropriate
educational program should be devised and applied. 'All available
results of experience from research and of statistical studies should be
pooled to heeonix a part. perhaps. of the Bibliography Organization
heretofore proposed.

The joint investigation ol’ marine fire deteet ion and extinguishment
started h_\' the Army. Navy. Maritime Commission and the United
States Coast Guard has promise of substantial contribution to safety
to lit' t at sea and to safety to ships and their cargoes.

The Committee on Research recommends that:

77H we 7m (wt/flflis‘lzer/ (m Ol'f/anz'sotton, [/1 tt‘fitC/t J[arz'time and altied
tm/mtrim um] (#0710272222th agencies may cooperate on a permanent
7)!erth. [timid/"no

(I) A National Marine Fire Conference

(‘2) A. elan‘ingliouse for all information relating to marine and
shoreside fires.

7711' Airway. Wary. J/rlritinui ("o/mnvz'ssion and the United States
('m/xt (r'z/m't/ shot/.717 we ( re/y/ effort to complete their 2'721‘682‘tiflaftitfll
of mar/m 7m (/(tt’r‘fl'mt (/nt/ muting/212's]:meat. Faitiny/ this. the Coast
(r'u/m/ N/mH/Ii pro/mm tnstrzzet/om for gazette we 60th upon. t/ie
/)/'/‘/tl';/’/( x HUM for determined.

Navy Fire-Fighter Schools

The sueeess of the Xavv tire—lighter training schools developed dur-
ing World “'ar II is well known and is eonnnended by every fire—
prevention and lire—lighting otlieial. During peace times. the Navy
will he. to a great extent. dependent upon outside lire—lighting aid in
controlling large tires at its shore stations and on hoard ships in port
l‘lxperience in the use of Navy lire—fighting equipment and knowledge

749-149 H's—‘3




of the fire— fi11'11tin11' t'e11111i11ue 11s taught in the Navy s1'1111o1s is ess11ntia1
if 1-ivi1i1111 firemen and \11\\ [1111'son11e1 11111 to 11'111111i1111t11t1111i1'11if111'ts

'11111 Na\'_\ :11"111111p1is111n11nt to \\11i1'11 we refer was the 1'11w'111111
research. It's 1111111i1'11ti11n 1'111' applieation to fi1'11-1oss 11111\11nt1on 111111-
91'11111' s11ou1d be unnecessary.

Accordingly the Committee on Research. recommends that the
Conference endorse the use of these Navy facilities under appro-
priate conditions, whereby:

Train/11.0 1'11 11'1/17/ fire-fighting 11711111711 1's 11111117111171» upon request to
the 111'/2111111111 11f 11111/1/111'2'1'1/ /111h/1'1' fire 111'/1111't1111'111’s. 11'h11s1' {newer/~11]
Nh'i/l IN” 61' 1'11 fh1' 1'111‘11'11-1‘11f1‘1111/111717/'1-1/1111111'1/Z/‘I/.

111.111 that this 11'1/1'111'111/ 111 1111/1/11 1/1'11/711/1/1' >11/11111 ['1'1/Next 1‘11 1,-1'11'171'1/111-
from 1'111]11NI‘1'1'11/11111/ 11f/11'1'11/1t11'/1/'i.\-1',\- 11'111'1'1'2'11 ability 1'11 71'1/ht1'111/ fires
2'1" 11 111't117 necessity.

1111] fi/l't/ur. H1111 1711M 11"1/11/ 71'11-1'77'4/1/1'111/ w-hoo/v 7111 0/11'11 to 117]
[1111'11111111/1111'1'11'1/1'1/11/ 11111/1'11t1'111/ 1'11 #11 [11111'1'1'1/11 1/1117111111‘ 1/111'1'111'
since 1121'11-1/11/111‘1/11'px 1111.11'11'11/"1111‘0 the 11'11'1/1'11 11'111'1‘1/111' I)?l(\'2' 1'11/111111
have every /111sxz7)71 f1/11'/1'1‘// ['111'111111'1111'111/ x11f1' fly to //'f1' 11111] 1‘11 [11"11/11 I t_//.

The Committee on Research further recommends that the Con-
ference arrange, through the Committee on Fire-Fighting Serv-
ices, or otherwise:

No that 11:111'1'1'7'1'11111‘ fire-fighting form's 11/11/17113/ 1111'th111is (1111] 1711/5/1—
ment that 101']? 11111Z'1' 111111111'1/m11'1'J/1 .10 far as /111.\-1x'1'h/1°. use of sue/1, quan—
tities of water that the 1wt1/711'l1'f'1/ 11f 1‘h1' 1'1'1'1'111 1's 1'111/11111/11'1'11.


Because safety is 11 111'i11111 consideration in the operation 111' air—
craft, fire prevention and extinguishlueuti have 11111111 111111 continue to
1111, the subjeet of1'11s11a1'1'11 111'11111 industry and 113' both civil and 111i1i-
tary units 111'11111 Goverinnent.

'11'11011 main phases 1,+' t11is 1'11se1'111'11 111't i\ itV 1'1111 apparent:

Dash/11, 11111.1t/"'11111‘111/1, 11ml operation of (11'1H'1111ft.

Desi/[11, 11111.11‘1'11111‘1'1111, 111111 (11111111111111 of airports (/1111 (111'/1111f 7111171]—

Crush 7‘1'1'12/11'11101'11'071.

In 1111! design and 1onst’ru1 ti1111 of 11i1'1'1'a 1't' 111111'11 has been 11111111 to
insure 111111i11st‘t1111 (11"1111'1'1111111111 fir.11 t11 1"1111t1111 its s111111111 to 111'11\ ide
the pilot \\it11 warning. and 10 11111111111 111'1111111t extinguishment. 11111
new Civi1 Air Regu1ations 111'111111ti11ite1y a step in the right 1'li1'e1'ti11n.
A l1r11;:ra111 is under way w11i1'11. within 11 year. will make mandatory
1111 any aircraft in 1'11111111111'1'ia1 air transportation the use 111'. and f1111

1-11111111ian1'11 with, 11111 safeguards stipulated in 11111 new regu1ations.

C: 1;.

 C7 L“

Test and research work is now being done by the Civil Aeronautics
Administration. Much development work is constantly being carried
on by the military services and by individual manufacturers of
aircraft and aircraft equipment. This development should be

Many air lines have undertaken extensive programs for the training
of pilots. stewards. stewardesses. and other flight crew members in
practical emergency procedures. These procedures have been de—
veloped largely as a result of experience. and there app )ars to be lack
of uniformity. // is reconmu'lulwl U111? 11/: /.Il(]l/v\‘f/'.I/-I/‘/‘(I(’ ('(JI/t/III'HIH
I)! r/[I/H/ht/(‘I/ f0 lull/rt II Nf/ll/‘I/ (If f/II' [I/‘M'I’I/Ill'cx I'lll‘l’l‘llfi'l/ ;Il I/Nc (II/(Z
to pro/u I'lg/ I't‘II/Imfc l/uv'l' cffcrl’f/‘rmsx,

The problem of lire protection and tire prevention at airports is one
of particular importance. and has always been so recognized by fire
protection engineers. The tremendous impetus that war gave to the
industry created many problems. because of the larger planes and
larger hangar buildings in which to repair. service. and maintain
them. Iz'z'cl'j/ pl'og/I'mxirc cmu/m/m‘fg/ ///l/.\‘/ rum/yaw its fad/Him. 1/7th
flu object of c/wa/m/ Hir/mrf fil/‘l‘f/‘fl‘ox flu/t (Il'c modern. The com-
Im'l‘lcr rcr-omnu m/N flu/l Ill/x slum/r] 12w done (1/ once.

Both the National Board of Fire linderwriters and the National
Fire Protection Association have prepared standards for hangar con-
struction and protection. They also have committees at work on
\‘arions phases of the problem. dealing with the construction and pro—
tection of hangars and other lixed airport installations. crash tire
fighting and rescue work. provision for fire—detection and extinguish—

ing systems. and other associated matters.

Fire experience at airports and in hangars points to the following
factors as principally contributing to serious tires; dependence on dis-
tant public tire departments; deficiencies in water supplies. mobile
equipment and installed interior protection at airport facilities;
inferior construction. with failure to segregate hazards: substandard
heating equipment: and improper storage of aircraft.

Hangars are the lnain problem from a lire—prottwtion standpoint.
as in most instances they are structures distinct from types of build-
ings in general use. They are. lunvever. subject to most of the time-
honored and accepted principles of fire protection and prevention.

Recent surveys have shown that crash protection at airports is
woefully inadequate. “ibile it is recognized that no field could pos—
sibly support a crash crew that would take care of every conceivable
.ontingency. any airport. no matter how small. should make some
provision for such protection. 'l‘be military services during the war
did considerable work in the development of practical crash equip~
ment and the training of crash creWs. This work should not be lost.
but. rather should continue so as to keep abr last of new developments.




The larger airports will be able to provide full-time, crews. while at
smaller fields it may be necessary to train 1111 airport personnel in crash
procedures. If ix ween/unicndcd ”lat Hm requixfh' Nh/(Iim Moi/M, he
711111111 prmnpt/y.

As to equipment, the present thinking is that, the maximum 11111 111ctic 11
size in appa'atus has been reached and perhaps passed. 1‘1111111111'j
more 111:1111111verable units that can get to the scene in 11 hurry. with
r111 -1sonal1le exti11<,_1ui811i115_r c11p11ci1_\ 111111111111 'an be backed 11p by larger
tank units that do not 1111111 the 11111111 speed. appear to 11111 p1 1-1111ic111

In the event of 11 crash. rescue of personnel is of prime importance.
Extinguishing 11111 fire is secondary until this has been accomplished.
Crash equipment and crash procedures should be planned with this
in mind.

(lousidcraf/m/ x/zo'zflr/ 711' (/imw 1‘0 [111011517/111/ 01111711111111, regulation of
fly/[Hf] 011/11101'P0s1 of .s-pm'i'fl] 111721711] 1‘11 /if/' 01' property.


Since. “Vorld “'111' 1' especially. findings from both 1'1111111111111111111 and
applied research. with respect to established and to new industrial
activities, have resulted in great expansion of the national economy
and in substantial adv-1111111 in living standards. The great accom—
plishments 1111111 rese: 111-11 111 11111 period of prepaledness 101'. and later
in conducting “7111111 11 111 11, are not )et full_v evaluated.

Much of the technique of fire prevent ion 11nd tire fighting. developed
during: this first half of the twentieth 111n1111ry.l1as been etl'ect'ively ap-
plied to both old and new problems met in the two wartime emer—
gencies and in the 25-year interim. The present industrial pace, how—
ever, demands that improved 111' new facilities and methods 1111 devel-
oped. so that newlv created resources of national wealth will not be
self— destroyed for the lack (11 fire prevent ion 111111 sateenards afrainst
inhe1ent or byproduct hazards.

Investors. inanagenlent, and employees have 11 11111111111111 obligation
to themselves and to the, publie to provide. by research. basic knowl-
edge of all properties of newly developed raw materials. natural
or synthetic; 111111 to investigate toxic and pl1.\si111l hazards that may
appear in their processing. application. and handl ine‘. Full 1lis1l 1111_1e
of this responsibility is part of the price to be paid tor the pl iv ilee‘es
of the free—enterprise system. It is essential. too. that waste(11111111111111
resources that are irreplaceable when destroyed by fire has due con-
sideration when assessing the need for industrial fire prevention. \p—
plied. and perhaps fundamental111s111111 1 likew 1s11. is not 1on1pleted it
the 1111p1 net of its pr51odu1 s upon salet\ to persons and plopci t.) is not
measuied and evaluated.

There is warrant for much satisfaction because of the attention that
has been and is being given to the problems concerning safety that are
mnnected with storage, handling, and processing by 'arious eon—
sumers of raw materials, and by producers of finished goods. Many
groups contribute substantially, by joint organized effort in research
and self—regulation within the scopes of their respective industries.
Their contributions to the objectives of public authorities and of in-
surance, groups, as well as to their own safety, are outstanding.

The following list enumerates (by no Ineans completely) the sub-
jects requiring research in order to further fire prevention in industry's
me of materials and processes. It may help toward an appreciation
of the extent. and variety of safeguarding which research may con—
tribute to safety to lif’, and property and the stability of our economy.

Compa 'atiive classification of fire hazard Characteristics and prop-
erties of materials for building construction.

Contributions to the rapidity of tire spreading and to the toxic
haZard of burning coatings and other interior trial and finishes. and
of dworative materials, including furnishings of places of public

Determination and classification of the fire hazards of wearing
apparel and costume accessories.

Fire and explosion hazard performances of chemical heat—transfer
media while in use or standing by.

Storage and handling of hazardous chemicals: in bulk form, during
and after handling. or while in use.

Relative dangers or hazards to fire fighters and the public when
hazardous materials are burning.

Explosion prevention and emergency safeguards when flammable
liquids. gases, and comluistible solids are stored. handled. or processed.

Reclassification and color coding of flammable liquid containers for
extraordinary enviromnental conditions, such as high : f itude flying
cargoes. high oven temperatures, catalytic influences on ignition
tenmerat ures.

("ompilation of trade—name materials of commerce. with tabulations
of their respective tire and safety—hazard properties; identification by
package labeling of such cha 'acteristics is desirable.

Develoinnent of procedures for inspection, counterchecking of auto—
matic instrmnentation for safety controls, periodic service tests, and
similar factors in maintenance of safety measures.

Development of damage control methods when safeguarding is by—
passed by unusual happenings.

The occurrence of spontaneous ignition—muses and inhibitors.

The control and elimination of static electricity.

The control and elimination of corrosion and its impairment of
materials and devices.




The significance of mechanical factors, Vibration pressure, friction
rupture, etc., With respect to the fire hazard.

The Committee on Research recommends that:

The Conference invite the continued cooperation of all conccnwl 27/;
our industrial afl'aérs, in the ciao/1cm {/6 of findings from research will
from field cwperz'enco, whether good or bad, R0 that fire prevention, may
add to its accomplls'lmzcnts in safety of persons and COHWV'Fallon, of
created resources.


An earlier section of this report discussed Human Behavior as a
factor in fire prevention. Man’s use of fire as his servant has developed.
his individual mastery of fear of fire, controlling the panic impulses.
and prompting his taking appropriate steps for fire lighting. Various
measures and tools. useful in such individual etl’orts, have been de-
vised. Aside from those employed in the organized and professional
fire-fighting services, many forms of fire—fighting equipment now
serve to reduce fire’s toll of life and property.

Early discovery and promptly taken steps are jointly essential in
preventing lit: le fires from becomingr big ones.

Fire detection and initiation of alarms, closing of opening pro—
tectives, and similar ways for confining tire to the place of its origin
are fundamentals of fire safeguarding. Their automatic operation is
generally most effective, overcoming certain aspects of human be—
havior that cause detection and warning:r of fire to be too late. Ther—
mally sensitive and heat— or electronically—actuated methods of signal—
ing appearance of fire and its location are products of research now
being effectively applied in fire—prevention service.

Early discovery of tire permits application of first aid. so—called. to
putting it out, to exiting. and to rescue when necessary.

A multiplicity of types and sizes of hand fire extinguishers are
marketed; and the sum total of tires that are extinguished in the in-
cipient stage doubtless greatly exceeds that of tires that grow so as
to require action fr< m Ol‘;fllan.‘