xt731z41v99z https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt731z41v99z/data/mets.xml West Virginia Writer's Program of the Works Projects Administration in the State of West Virginia 1948 Compiled by workers of the Writers' Program of the Work Projects Administration in the state of West Virginia xxxi, 559 p.: ill., plates, maps (8 on 1 fold. 1., in pocket) ; 21 cm. UK holds archival copy for ASERL Collaborative Federal Depository Program libraries. Call number F241 .W85 1948 books English New York: Oxford University Press This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed in accordance with U. S. copyright laws. West Virginia Works Progress Administration Publications West Virginia - Guidebooks West Virginia: A Guide to the Mountain State text West Virginia: A Guide to the Mountain State 1948 1948 2019 true xt731z41v99z section xt731z41v99z ‘V .‘k
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 . WEST VIRGINIA
A Guide to the Mountain State
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 A GUIDE TO THE MOUNTAIN STATE
711111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
Compiled by workers of the Writers’ Program
of the Work Projects Administration in the
State of West Virginia
AMERICAN GUIDE SERIES
ILLUSTRATED
Sponsored by the Conservation Commission of West Virginia
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS ' NEW YORK

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if“ 3"." 1. E?
{3}“ E COPYRIGHT 1941 BY THE CONSERVATION COMMISSION OF WEST VIRGINIA
i‘u‘ g ' FIRST PUBLISHED IN 1941
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‘15 WEST VIRGINIA STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
Pa- 9* State-Wlde Sponsor of the
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’ ff? West V1rg1n1a erters’ PI‘OJCCt
'1 , '3;
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{1 _ 311 JOHN M. CARMODY, Admzmstrator 1
:3 311 WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION
:3: - If; HOWARD O. HUNTER, Commzsszoner
}; ‘3 3E FLORENCE KERR, Assistant Commissioner
”A JOSEPH N. ALDERSON, State Administrator
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Preface

1 West Virginia: A Guide to the Mountain State represents the work
of many minds over a period of several years. West Virginia’s activi-
ties are as diversified as its topography and borders are irregular;
but finally the multitude of facts was reduced to order and the West
Virginia Guide reached completion. The director, editors, writers, re-
search workers, draftsmen, consultants, typists, and all others who had

i part in its compilation take pride in presenting the book to the public

3 as the first comprehensive picture of the State’s varied life.

The development of West Virginia from a backward frontier State to
one of the most highly industrialized areas in the Nation is portrayed
in text and illustrations. This development has been so extensive, diver-
sified, and rapid that many West Virginians themselves have not been
fully aware of it; to them no less than to visitors it is hoped the Guide
will be all its name implies. In the Tours, important but little-known
phases of activity and incidents of history are recorded for perhaps the
first time in print. In this section and in descriptions of cities, an
attempt has been made to treat each community adequately, with
relation to its background.

Because of the word limit, some of the smaller cities, among them
Bluefield and Beckley, are not included in the cities section, but are
handled at length in the tour division and represented in the picture
folios. Separate treatment is given Shepherdstown because of its historic
interest.

As the 1940 population figures were not aVailable while the Guide
was being written, 1930 figures are used throughout the text, except
in ‘Population and Its Distribution.’ There is, however, an alphabetical
list of the final 1940 figures in the Appendices.

Grateful acknowledgment is due many individuals and organizations
for assistance in the preparation of the book. In addition to aid given
by the State Conservation Commission, valuable services were rendered
by other State agencies, including the State Road Commission, Depart-
ment of Education, Department of Agriculture, Department of Labor,

V

 "'~‘-;§.,\4::¥.l .71 , :- -—~~—- M" u" ‘ "~ ‘*"—" "" "‘ ' "" "*‘""" ‘ " V _ ‘ ’ l l
{531.3
*5?“ . v1 P R E F A C E
3‘ . . .
Department of Mmes and Department of Archlves and Hlstory, and by
W?" the United States Forest Serv1ce. Much assrstance was received also
3 from West Virginia University and other colleges, Kanawha County
2:2 . . .
Public Library, the State Chamber of Commerce, City chambers of
“a commerce, and many private corporations. The staff is particularly
2‘: grateful to Dr. Roy Bll‘d Cook, who was an ever-ready consultant on
g historical matters, and to Professor Rexford Newcomb, dean of the
W School of Fine and Applied Arts at the University of Illinois, who
LC contributed the essay on architecture. For contributions and criticisms
, g thanks are due Dr. P. D. Strausbaugh, Dr. A. B. Brooks, Dr. Frank
é * Gilbert, Dr. Fred M. Smith, Dr. J. B. Edworthy, Right Reverend
3:21“; - . .
gig" W. L. Gravatt, Dr. W. W. Trent, Stanley Dadisman, Paul Olejar,
by; N. P. Rinehart, Dr. Paul H. Price, Professor Maurice Brooks, Professor
’ Creel Cornwell, Professor L. W. Chappell, and to John L. Stender,
2:1: . .
former State Director of the prOJect.
”it We are indebted to the West Virginia Art PrOJect for the art work.
- -
p 4 BRUCE CRAWFORD, State Supermsor.
: z; -;«srt?‘é " . .
23* PAUL H. BECKER, Asszstant State Supervzsor.
- ., H“
February I, I941
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Contents

PREFACE v
GENERAL INFORMATION xvii
RECREATION AREAS xxiii
CALENDAR OF EVENTS xxvii

Part I. The General Background

THE WAY WEST VIRGINIANS ARE 3
NATURAL SETTING 8
NATURAL RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION 2 I
HISTORY 3O
POPULATION AND ITS DISTRIBUTION 6 I
CONTEMPORARY GOVERNMENT 6 5
AGRICULTURE 7O
INDUSTRY . 76
LABOR 88
TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION 97
NEWSPAPERS I I 2
EDUCATION I I 6
RELIGION I 2 3
MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH 129
FOLKLORE I 3 6
THE ARTS I44
ARCHITECTURE I 59

Part I I . Cities
BERKELEY SPRINGS 169
CHARLESTON I 7 7
V11

 ,4 ‘41-'14, v111 C O N T E N T s
4% 2le CHARLES TOWN I96
’»~,;.,.}{i‘i=, CLARKSBURG 209
FAIRMONT 2 I 6
HARPERS FERRY 224
. l, HUNTINGTON 235
' ».-_1,4 41,: E?“
‘3‘, MORGANTOWN 249
' 5.5. "Jill
4 . PARKERSBURG 260
SHEPHERDSTOWN . 269
,4' WHEELING 28I
Part [11. Tours
Li. ,2. TOUR I (Leesburg, Va.)—Charles Town—Martinsburg—Berkeley
;4_ Springs—Paw Paw—(Cumberland, Md.) [State 9] 301
32,, TOUR IA Charles Town—Middleway—Kearneysville [State 51, Unnum-
:4 bered road] 309
I," file?“
@1 TOUR 2 (Frederick, Md.)—Harpers Ferry—Charles Town—Rippon—
(Winchester, Va.) [US 340] 314
’l TOUR 3 (Williamsport, Md.)—Falling Waters—Martinsburg—Bunker
“'33,, , Hill—(Winchester, Va.) [US 11] 317
2%, TOUR 4 (Winchester, Va.)—Romney—Clarksburg—Salem—Parkers—
“ 4 burg-(Be1pre, Ohio) [US 50] 320
,, ,1, , Section a. Virginia Line—Redhouse, Md. 321
, Section b. Redhouse, Md.—Clarksburg 327
, ,, ii Section c. Clarksburg—Ohio Line 329
<4 ‘
\ TOUR 5 (Cumberland, Md.)—Keyser—Moorefield—Petersburg—Frank-
.[ , ‘3 lin—(Monterey, Va.) [US 220] 334
4; ,“I 7 Section a. Maryland Line—Petersburg 335
,, , Section b. Petersburg—Virginia Line 339
)4“:
gt, 4 TOUR 5A Moorefield—Baker—Wardensville—(WinChESter; Va.) [State
55. State 259] 341
£49 TOUR 5B Junction with US zzo—Hermit Island—Smoke Hole—Ketter-
“a [Unnumb ed R ad]
,. N man er 0 3 44
3:,l TOUR 6 (Cumberland, Md.)—Ridge1ey—-—Fort Ashby—Romney—Peters-
4 l burg—Marlinton [State 28] 347
%I, Section a. Maryland Line—Petersburg 348
3“ Section b. Petersburg—Marlinton 350
:3; 4.1:}: W
J}; “.3g'ig _ , ,_ _. ,...,.... '1... . ... 4.. ..... . -.-‘.‘-'-'.:.:.'.'.'.:.“

 CONTENTS m
TOUR 7 (Harrisonburg, Va.)—E1kins—Buckhannon—Weston—Spencer
——Ripley—Mason—(Pomeroy, Ohio) [US 33] 355
Section 21. Virginia Line—Elkins 3 56
Section b. Elkins—Weston 360
Section c. Weston—Ohio Line 363
TOUR 8 (Redhouse, Md.)—Elkins—Huttonsville—Lewisburg—Ronce-
Verte—Princeton [US 219] 368
Section a. Maryland Line—Elkins 369
Section b. Elkins~Lewisburg 3 74
Section c. Lewisburg—Princeton 38o
TOUR 9 Valley Head—Webster Springs—Cowen—Camden-on-Gauley—
Junction with US 19 [State 15] 386
TOUR 10 (Waynesburg, Pa.)—Fairmont—Clarksburg—Weston—Gauley
Bridge—Bluefield——(Tazewell, Va.) [US 19] 390
Section 21. Pennsylvania Line—Weston 390
Section b. Weston—Gauley Bridge , 395
Section c. Gauley Bridge—Virginia Line 398
TOUR IOA Summersville—Richwood—Cranberry Glades—Mill Point [Un-
numbered Road] 402
TOUR II Sutton—Gassaway—CIendenin—Charleston—Yawkey [State 4,
State 13] 405
Section a. Sutton—Charleston 406
Section b. Charleston—Yawkey 408
TOUR I 2 Ellenboro—Grantsville—Belva [State 16] 409
TOUR I 3 (Marietta, Ohio)“Williamstown—Parkersburg—Ripley—
Charleston [US 21] 413
TOUR I4 Charleston—Red House—Point Pleasant—(Gallipolis, Ohio)
[US 35] 4I6
TOUR 15 (Covington, Va.)—White Sulphur Springs—-Lewisburg—East
Rainelle—Gauley Bridge—Charleston—Huntington—(Ash—
land, Ky.) [US 60] 426
Section a. Virginia Line—Gauley Bridge 427
Section b. Gauley Bridge—Charleston 439
Section c. Charleston—Kentucky Line 447
TOUR I6 (Covington, Va.)—Sweetsprings—~Union—Hinton—Beckley—
Racine—Yawkey—West Hamlin [State 3] 452
Section a. Virginia Line—Beckley 452
Section b. Beckley—West Hamlin 46o
TOUR I7 Junction with US Ig—Matoaka—Logan—West Hamlin—Hunt—
ington [State IO] 462

 3 ”w '34: .... . , ...»... A. ., “"-‘ v... _..... . . -.., a 3 ENG—.-. _... a .... E ..-v I I . V 7' ‘
‘ ”72%; -
._ x c o N T E N T S
.‘. 41:32:51]“ . - -
y-Mis‘:,;;;1-,i TOUR 18 (Wythevrlle, Va.)—B1uefield—Welch—Williamson—Wayne—
Huntington—(Ironton, Ohio) [US 52] 469
:5 Section a. Virginia Line—Williamson 47o
Section b. Williamson—Ohio Line 479
1 t;
. TOUR 19 (East Liverpool, Ohio)——Chester—Weirton—Wheeling—
5" Moundsville—New Martinsville—Parkersburg [US 30,
:3: State 2] 480
' QM" Section a. Ohio Line—Wheeling 481
§ 1%, Section b. Wheeling~—Parkersburg 488
' TOUR 20 New Martinsville—Clarksburg—Buckhannon—Webster Springs
; p ‘ [State 20] 494
in; .3 33,; Section a. New Martinsville—Clarksburg 495
-, Section b. Clarksburg—Webster Springs 496
1;,31733‘, TOUR 21 (Oakland, Md.)—Terra Alta—Kingwood—Morgantown—New
Martinsville [State 7] 499
z ' Section a. Maryland Line—Westover 500
: Section b. Westover—New Martinsville 503
5 ~ 3
{I TOUR 22 (Monterey, Va.)—Huttonsville—Elkins—Grafton—Fairmont—
Moundsville—Wheeling [US 2 50] 506
y -‘ ' Section a. Virginia Line—Huttonsville 506
u.- Section b. Elkins—Fairmont 508
‘; , Section c. Fairmont—Wheeling 5 1 1
ii“ ‘_ . $'.,
if“? TOUR 2 3 (Washington, Pa.)—Triade1phia—Wheeling—(Bridgeport,
,3 ’ OhiO) [US 40] 515
,7 Part IV. A ppendzces
; £5 CHRONOLOGY 52 3
‘-.' [97,};
1 g. 1;, ”E‘-
; éigs;;f--_ 35;: ; BIBLIOGRAPHY 533
-‘ 7“ ‘
. i‘iii-Z-‘V; i
= . 1940 CENSUS FIGURES 542
fr INDEX 545
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Illustrations
THE MOUNTAIN STATE Between 62 and 63
Cacapon State Park
Champe Rocks, near mouth of Seneca Creek
Mountain Panorama
Seneca Rock, near Petersburg
Entrance to Smoke Hole Section, Monongahela National Forest
Meeting of the Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers, Harpers Ferry
Blackwater Falls, near Davis
Mountain Stream, Monongalia County
Winter on Cheat Mountain
Germany Valley
Black Bear, in the Monongahela Forest
Rhododendron, the State Flower
HISTORY Between 92 and 93
Old Market Building, Shepherdstown
Home of General Charles Lee, Leetown
Harewood (1770), the Washington Home, near Charles Town
Portrait of Colonel Samuel Washington, and Fireplace, Harewood
Old Stone Church (1796), Lewisburg
Richard Morgan House, Shepherdstown
Home of Horatio Gates, near Charles Town
, The Lee Barn, Leetown
‘ Home of Alexander Campbell, Bethany ”
Birthplace of Pearl Buck, Hillsboro
The President’s Cottage, White Sulphur Springs
Harpers Ferry Arsenal
Fire Engine House, Harpers Ferry
xi

 {e xii I L L U s T R A T I o N S

:31; “Z;

Z INDUSTRY Between I 54 and 155
{Z ‘Still Columns’—Gas Purification Towers, Belle

aZ ‘ Chemical Plant, Blaine Island, near Charleston
Z I, ‘Hypers’—Gas Compressors in Belle Plant
y; ' Oil Well Derrick
45', Steel Mill, Wheeling
‘ :3 Z Cold Reducing Mill, Wheeling
13* «Z, Oil Refinery, Falling Rock

-' Z“ Railroad Yards, Bluefield

,1” Coke Ovens, Longacre
It: Picking Tables in a Colliery

ZZZ“ V Loading Booms, Mine Tipple, Bartley

f7 ‘ 3;: Transporting Timber

f i River Cargoes of Wheeling Pipe for Southern Market, Benwood
Z i,“ AGRICULTURE Between 216 and 217
If I Z} ’ Young Farmer, Tygarts Valley _

a] ‘ Farm on a Mountain Top I

Z Farmstead

“—i Fodder in the Shock
i» Z Pasture .

“We“ 1! In the Co-operative, Tygarts Valley

T Z: An Arthurdale Resettlement Project Dwelling

Elk River Farming Section

;. v, : j 3 b T ygarts Valley Homesteads

-‘ _. ‘i ‘ Apple Picker

;:'- g» i' . Apple Harvest ’ ,

l 3, The County Agent Visits

» ‘ Wool Grading at Farmer’s Pool

Z L Threshing

- Washing Prize Bull, Red House Resettlement Project

; . IN THE CITIES AND TOWNS Between 278 and 279
'Z L., The Capitol, Charleston

M'Z: Governor’s Mansion, Charleston

;:, County Court House, Clarksburg

3% I”; Greenbrier College for Women, Lewisburg

 ILLUSTRATIONS xiii
Woman’s Hall, West Virginia University, Morgantown
Mansion House, Oglebay Park, Wheeling
Airview, Huntington
Charleston’s New Kanawha Boulevard
County Court House, Beckley
McMurran Hall, State Teachers College, Shepherdstown
THROUGH THE MINING COUNTRY Between 340 and 341
Billion-Dollar Industry
Modern Coal Tipple, Penman
Miners’ Houses
Commissary at Faraday
Man Trip to the Working Face
Cutting Machine, in a Pocahontas Mine
Loading Coal (Old Method)
Mechanical Loader (New Method)
Motor with Loaded Trip, Two Miles Underground
Blue Rhythm, after a. Day’s Work
Miner’s Bath
Modern Bath House
Miner
Negro Miner
COUNTRY FOLK AND COUNTRY WAYS Between 402 and 403
The WPA’s Millionth Pupil
The School Truck, Red House Resettlement Project
, Shopping Trip
Mountain Home
Boiling Sorghum
Quilting Party
Demonstrations of Woodsman’s Art, Mountain State Forest Festival
Timber Drag
Old ‘Up and Down’ Sawmill, Pendleton County
Old Mill, Mill Point
Log Church, Smoke Hole
Covered Bridge, near Beverly
As the Earth Turns . . .

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El xiv ILLUSTRATIONS
HIGHWAYS AND BYWAYS Between 464 and 465
»
a, Fishing in the South Branch of the Potomac, near Romney
gt ’ The Greenbrier, White Sulphur Springs
V if," g in Spring House, White Sulphur Springs
1 Garden, Claymont Court, near Charles Town
' "33' Black Knight Country Club House, Beckley
$3 fr, Stone Face at Beckwith Cut—Off, near Chimney Corner
.{.,'-. ‘ »_ ;L _
$1 New River Gorge from Hawks Nest
, A 5' Country Road, through Germany Valley
,5]. , a W Barge Shipment on the Ohio (Wheeling in Background)
{if T u-Endie-Wei Park, Point Pleasant
g; Blackwater Canyon
1: Swimming Pool and Recreation Center, Babcock State Park
3‘ fl. Bass Fisherman
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List of Maps
STATE MAP AND RECREATIONAL AREAS back pocket
TOUR KEY MAP front end pa per
TRANSPORTATION MAP 100 and 101
CHARLESTON 188 and 189
CHARLES TOWN 198 and 199
HARPERS FERRY 2 2 8 and 2 2 9
HUNTINGTON 238 and 2 39
PARKERSBURG 2 62 and 2 6 3
SHEPHERDSTOWN 2 7 1
W HEELING 290 and 291

 f11111111111fffff111'711fffff‘ffffffffffff'fffffffffffffff'fffff
General lnformatwn
Railroads: Baltimore & Ohio R.R., Chesapeake and Ohio Ry., Norfolk
and Western Ry., New York Central System, Pennsylvania R.R., Vir-
ginian Ry., Western Maryland Ry.
Highways: 16 US highways; 2,243 miles of Federal Aid highways;
33,163 miles of State roads, including Federal Aid and local roads
under State control, of which 5,011 miles are surfaced. State police
patrol highways regularly; inspection of driver’s license and registra-
tion. Gasoline filling stations numerous on all main highways. Federal
gas tax I¢, State gas tax 5¢ (total tax 6¢). Red Cross first-aid stations
and State—maintained drinking fountains at frequent intervals.
Bus Lines: Interstate: Greyhound Lines, Blue Ridge Lines, Lincoln
Trailways, Penn-Ohio Coach Lines Co., Red Star Way Lines, Tennes-
see Coach Co., Consolidated Bus Lines, Arcodel System. Intrastate:
West Virginia Transportation Co., Reynolds Transportation Co. Many
local lines serve parts of State.
Air Lines: American Airlines, Inc. (between Washington, D. C., and
Cincinnati, Ohio), stops at Elkins, Charleston, and Huntington. Penn-
sylvania Central Airlines (between Pittsburgh, Pa., and Birmingham,
Ala), stops at Charleston.
Trafic Regulations: Certificate of registration required for each motor
vehicle operated on highways, and driver’s license required of all per-
sons driving same; driver’s license issued to persons over 15 years of
age, after examination by the (superintendent of ) department of public
' safety; Vehicle registered or operator licensed in any other State that
grants reciprocal privilege is exempted for period not to exceed three ‘
months. Maximum speed 45 mph. on open country road, 25 mph on
suburban streets or at any railway crossing where view is not ob—
structed, 20 mph. in any business district, and I5 mph. in school 'I
XVII

 Miilf‘i“""" awgrflrvx.:.-.5_,.,5q.QW,,-n.see— . we? w~"= '~"~ =-=L ' ' ' '“ ‘ " """ ’ .
' i “xiii
B ‘
i xvm GENERAL INFORMATION
33* 5 zones; speed not to be greater than reasonable and prudent, consider-
, ing traffic and hazards. Make full stop before entering or crossing main
Q routes marked by STOP signs. Right and left turns are indicated by
* l " signs at intersections. In case of accident in which anyone is injured,
i," the nearest State police detachment should be notified. Hand signals
required for turns and stops; full stop 5 feet from busses or streetcars
3‘ while they are stopped for passengers to enter or alight; projections
i; ' 3g: ' extending 5 feet or more from vehicle require red flag by day, red light
2.52 by night; light required at left front end of trailers; no more than 3
' persons in front seat of any motor vehicle; cut-outs and passing other
6: .,, vehicles on curve or on top of hill prohibited.
. Q Road M aps: Issued bi-monthly; may be secured from State Road Com-
- mission in Charleston and from most hotels.
62' '
- Information Bureaus: West Virginia Chamber of Commerce, Great
4342 Kanawha Bldg, Charleston; West Virginia State Road Commission,
1340 Wilson St., Charleston; West Virginia Dept. of Agriculture, Capi-
tol Bldg, Charleston; State Conservation Commission, Capitol Bldg,
‘ Charleston; American Automobile Association in principal cities.
fit" i State Police Service: State police maintain detachments in cities, larger
’:g *t‘. towns, and keypoints for heavy traffic. To call State police: From dial
é” " telephones, dial 0 (operator) and ask for State police; from all other
telephones lift receiver and ask for State police.
"5 Accommodations: Tourist accommodations of all types are available in
’ i. most parts of the State. Inns, hotels, tourist homes, and cabins located
‘ 2 at frequent intervals, except where otherwise noted in tours; rates 7 5¢
e '
fist if, Climate and Equipment: Summer travelers should expect moderately
S... , warm weather, with infrequent hot and muggy days. Winter visitors
23:2' should be prepared for subfreezing to near-zero weather, occasional
3', ”“1 2Q snowstorms and dangerous ice; driving hazardous until highways are
1‘ t. cindered.
if ' ’2 ;
~ in
fin ' Poisonous Plants and Reptiles: Poison ivy, or three-leafed mercury, is
2., common throughout State, growing on trees and stream banks and
. . .5 g2

 GENERAL INFORMATION xix
over stone walls and old buildings. Poison sumac found near Cowen in
Webster County and Elkins in Randolph County. Rattlesnakes in most
parts of the State but more numerous in Pocahontas and Greenbrier
Counties and in vicinity of New River Gorge. Copperheads throughout
the State. Boots or puttees should be worn when hiking in mountains.
Plant Regulations: Picking flowers and shrubs within 300 feet of high-
way is prohibited, and likewise the transportation of flowers and shrubs
picked elsewhere without permission of property owner.

Fishing: Game fish are defined as trout, black bass, green bass, white
bass, willow bass, white salmon, landlocked salmon, jack salmon, wall-
eyed pike, muskellunge, pickerel, and perch. Seasons usually range from
mid-April to November 30, but regulations are frequently changed, and
fishermen should obtain latest fish and game bulletins on season dates,
minimum length of fish, and daily catch limits from State Conserva—
tion Commission in Charleston or from county clerk where license is
purchased. Fishing by means other than rod and line is prohibited,
except that small seines may be used for securing bait minnows.
Hunting: Small game is defined as squirrel (gray, black, and fox),
ruffed grouse, quail, rabbit, raccoon, opossum, skunk, red fox, muskrat,
and waterfowl. Large game, whitetail deer, wild turkey and black bear.
Seasonal regulations sometimes changed, and hunters should secure
latest hunting bulletin on season dates, daily and season limit from
State Conservation Commission.

Prohibited: Transporting game birds or game fish out of State (except
that nonresident licensee may transport own catch or kill not to exceed
limit taken in any two days); sale or purchase of squirrels, any game
bird or game animal and any but a few species of fish.

Licenses: Required of all persons above 15 years of age. Fees: Resi-
dent: combined hunting and fishing license $2. Nonresident: combined
hunting and fishing license $15, fishing license $ 5, tourist license, fish-
ing only, 24 hours, $1. (No hunting license issued to nonresidents un-
less combined with fishing.)

Hi/aing: Most State parks and forests have well-marked trails.

Riding: Larger cities and most smaller communities have stables where
saddle horses may be rented. Several hundred miles of dirt and gravel

 ‘3‘
4.} xx GENERAL INFORMATION ‘
921:“? i . . .
E39;- ‘ 4‘ roads available, where traffic is light and where riders can explore the
back country. Fine horses and riding trails are available in most State
1 ‘ parks.
l. Horse Shows and Racing Meets: Horse shows held each year in Hunt-
I ington, Wheeling, Lewisburg, Elkins, Charles Town, and Parkersburg
', 9 and at some annual county fairs. Two race tracks: Wheeling Downs,
fig , 9 Wheeling, and Charles Town Race Track, Charles Town, where racing
9. r meets are held each spring and fall, with betting legalized under pari-
fh mutuel system. .
lg
2 it Mountain Climbing: NO guides, instructors, or special facilities for
- _ ~ ‘95 , . . . -
9 ‘ mountain climbing are available.
i g " Bicycling: Bicycles may be rented at most State parks. Light on front
ii: and reflector on rear required at night. A few cities require license fee
_, l‘ of 25¢ or 50¢.
ti
. sail . . .
3.} Golfing: There are about 50 golf courses, one Within a short distance
. ‘ of practically every large community.
71“" I . Tennis: Ample faCilities for tennis in or near most large communities;
2““ ,, courts also in some State parks.
-'.s i;
".18 - Ii . . o n o
j :9 Swimming: In central and southern parts of State, sw1mm1ng is con-
1% " fined to commercial pools (about 45 in State) ; a few public beaches on
, '9 northern rivers.
.1, :i j’ State Parks: Babcock State Park, 10 m. W. of East Rainelle on State
Q 41; Blackwater Falls State Park, 2.6 m. E. Of Thomas on State 32;
W t Cacapon State Park, 9 m. S. of Berkeley Springs on State 38; Hawks
I: : Nest State Park, 2 m. W. of Ansted (43 m. E. of Charleston) on US
if; . 60; Lost River State Park, 3 m. W. of Mathias; Pinnacle Rock State
5, Park, 6.7 m. NW. of Bluefield on US 52; Tomlinson Run State Park,
9g just W. of Pughtown on State 2; Watoga State Park, 8 m. E. of Hun-
t, tersville on graveled road.
'r’ffs-‘f 1 p "i5 .
€11“ State Monuments and Historical Sites: Berkeley Springs; Carnifex
W“ Ferry Battlefield, Io rn. W. of Summersville on US 19, thence 6 m.

 GENERAL INFORMATION xxi
SE. from Drennen on secondary paved road; Corrick’s Ford State
Monument, S. of Parsons; Droop Mountain Battlefield, 26 m. N. of
Lewisburg on US 219; Morgan-Morgan State Monument, Bunker Hill;
Nancy Hanks State Monument, N. of Ridgeville to Antioch, then 4 m.
W.; State 4-H Camp (memorial to General Jackson) NW. of Weston
at Jackson’s Mill; Tu—Endie-Wei State Monument, Point Pleasant.
State Forests: Cabwaylingo, 45 miles S. of Huntington on US 52 and
E. of Missouri Branch; Cooper’s Rock, IO miles NE. of Morgantown
on both sides of SR 73, immediately adjacent to Cheat River; Kum-
brabow, 4 miles W. of Elkwater (Randolph County, US 219) on State
Forest gravel road; Seneca, 10 miles NE. of Huntersville, Pocahontas
County, on Brown’s Creek secondary gravel road; Greenbrier, 3 miles
S. of White Sulphur Springs on Hart’s Run secondary gravel road;
Kanawha, 3 miles W. of Hernshaw (US 119, Kanawha County) on
secondary gravel road.

 , .
111111111111111111111111ffffff‘f‘ff‘ff‘f‘ffffffffffffffffffffffff
Recreation Areas
(For location of West Virginia recreation areas see reverse side of State map in
back pocket, on which they are numbered as below.)

West Virginia’s recreation system is being rapidly developed, with
vacation cabins and incidental facilities being completed in many parks
and forests. The vacation cabins are built of log, native stone or clap-
board and are conveniently equipped for housekeeping with hot and
cold water, shower, modern sanitary facilities and practical cooking
ranges. The cabins range in size from normal accommodations for 2
persons to similar accommodations for 6 persons, with rates starting
at $10 per week. Reservations must be made in advance through the
Conservation Commission, Division of State Parks, Charleston, West
Virginia. A check or money order in the amount of $5, to apply on
rental charge, must accompany application. Application forms are avail-
able by writing the address above.

Cots for auxiliary sleeping accommodations are available at 35¢
per night.

The U. S. Forest Service has developed a number of recreation areas
in the Monongahela National Forest, but the emphasis is on camp
grounds and swimming places. No cabins are available in U. S. Forest
Service areas. Camping permits may be obtained from the supervisor’s
office at Elkins, or, for the George Washington National Forest, from
headquarters at Harrisonburg, Virginia.

I. CACAPON STATE PARK, 9 m. S. of Berkeley Springs on State
38 (see Tour I). Comprises 5,400 acres of low but rugged and forested
mountain area with superb view of 4 States and of a picturesque bend
of the Potomac River. Fine picnic area with large parking area, 31
picnic tables, 21 outdoor fireplaces, and I picnic shelter; 13 cabins.
Bicycling. Boating on 6-acre lake at nominal hourly charge. Fishing
in lake for trout; bathing beach. Hiking and riding with 24 miles of
trails; lodge for overnight accommodations and meals.

2. HAWKS NEST STATE PARK, 43 m. E. of Charleston on US
60 (see Tour I 5). Notable View from Hawks Nest, 585 feet above
New River, of picturesque gorge. Park area of 41 acres, contains
museum with pioneer exhibits, parking facilities, picnic area with
shelter, completely equipped picnicking units and hiking trails. Con-
cession and sanitary toilets along main highway.

XXIII

 If . g1 xxiv RECREATION AREAS

9. .7 3. LOST RIVER STATE PARK, 3 m. W. of Mathias (town on
‘ State 2 59) (see Tour 5A). Magnificent View of mountain country from
f; '* V Big Ridge (elevation 3,200 feet) reached by steep park road. Seven-
i; ‘ teen mile drive to park from Moorefield affords superb views of Moore-
; field valley. Old Lee White Sulphur Spring restored for use. Park con-
' , ' tains 3,760 acres. Developed area contains grills, 16 cabins, picnicking
. facilities, bicycling, hiking over 10 miles of trail, swimming in concrete
. pool. Deer and turkey abound in developed area.

{53' 4. SENECA STATE FOREST, 5 In. E. of Marlinton on State 28
. , ’ thence N. on gravel road (see Tour 6). Wooded foothill country, 11,049
, . acres, along Greenbrier River, between Allegheny and Back Allegheny
‘ Mountains. Forest has many deer, and timber stand improvement
projects are under way. Numerous game food and cover patches have
been established. Fire tower at highest point on forest. 8 cabins; picnic
‘ facilities; boating and swimming in artificial lake; hiking over moun-
l tain trails.

5. WATOGA STATE PARK, 5 m. E. of Marlinton on State 28,
thence 8 m. from Huntersville on gravel road. Ferry entrance from
5; . Seebert. Largest State park, 10,960 acres in area. Rugged foothill coun-
‘ i ‘ try along Greenbrier River with altitudes to 3,264 feet. A natural refuge
territory, the park has deer, turkey, grouse, and other small game.
' Brooks Memorial Arboretum denotes an abundance of varied flower
growth. 25 cabins; picnic site, fully equipped; restaurant concession;
; bicycling; horseback riding at a reasonable charge; boating and fishing
is} j (on 12-acre lake) form the recreation nucleus of the park. Swimming,
! beach, on Greenbrier River. Concrete pool now being construc