xt734t6f3419 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt734t6f3419/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1946 journals kaes_circulars_004_440_02 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 440 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 440 1946 2014 true xt734t6f3419 section xt734t6f3419 ll (
I-I t C l ‘
QQ 8 GS ,,   (
F °t cl V t bl    
I (
f l * '
PB.g€ l
Equipment Needed .................................................... 2 ‘
Directions for Sealing Jars ........................................ 3
Directions for Processing ............................................ 3 . ,
In steam pressure cooker ..............................,......... 3
ln water bath ........................................................ 4
General Rules for Conning ..............................,......... 4
Vegetables (directions for canning) ........................ 5, 6 . -
Fruits (directions for canning) .................... 7 Y Q _
Sirups to Use with Fruits ............................................ 8
Products Needing Special Methods ............................ 8
Clrculor 440 _ .l 4
JUL 2 3 l947
EXF"E§*€éé%i'€?\l"‘ S"N¤‘z ( 4 ( .
Llzfi 1.,  
College of Agriculture and Home Economics (
Agricultural Extension Division (
THOMAS P. COOPER, Deon and Director  

 i 2
A · FOR SUCCESSFUL CANNING of fruits aud vegetables, all that is
· needed is good equipment and careful following of a few simple
t directions. Home—canned and frozen foods, stored raw vegetables and
( fruits, home-butchered meats, fresh dairy and poultry products sm Screw
practical and thrifty sources of an adequate diet for farm people. lvlost by sc,
farm families produce enough fruits and vegetables, or could easily back
do so, to can most of their supply for winter use. Plenty of canned _
foods in the storage cellar generally means better eating, better growth  
of the children, and better health for all, than when families depend jgwli,
on buying such foods fresh.
The steam pressure cooker is the only entirely reliable canner band
for low-acid vegetables (all the vegetables except tomatoes). This is TWO
because the temperature in the pressure cooker can be kept above the Partl
boiling point.  
The water bath is especially suited to canning acid foods (fruits ther
and tomatoes). However, low-acid vegetables have been successfully [°P‘
canned in the water bath by following carefully the directions in this {Egg
circular. As the temperature in the water bath does not go abort [mm
_. 2l2° F, the time of processing is much longer than in the pressure
cooker, and the danger of spoilage is greater. Ulm
A water-bath canner may be bought, or it may be assembled from {wil
home equipment. A large pail, lard can, or wash boiler is a satisfactory jig
container. It must be deep enough to allow for a rack in the bottom, watt
for the water to extend at least 2 inches above the jars, and for several 1>T€¥
incl1es of space above the water to permit active boiling. A rack raised
l inch from the bottom of the canner allows free circulation of water
under the jars, prevents breakage, and lessens likelihood of loss of
liquid from the jars. The rack may be made of strong %-inch wire
netting fastened on a wooden frame, or of wooden strips nailed
together securely. A flat piece of iron fastened to the bottom of the _
wooden rack helps to keep it from floating. Handles attached to the in
rack and extending above the water line are convenient for lowering ]_
and removing the jars. The lid should ht closely so as to rt·dnn~
evaporation of water.
jars and lids.-- Check jars before they are used to see that the Yr
lids Ht, that the bails on the glass—top jars are tight, and that there are 3
no nicks or chipped places around the rim or shoulder of the glass. rt
Use new or perfect lids for screw—top jars. Test the seal by placing H
rubber on the jar, partly filling with water, tightening the lid and
inverting. If t;here is any leakage the seal is not perfect. 5
Rubber rings.- Buy the best quality of rubber rings and use them G
only once. Rubber loses quality with age, becomes porous, and does 7
not make a perfect seal. jars are made so as to be completely sealed
. with only one rubber. Newer use two rubbers on 0 jar. y
l {This circular is fl reuisbnt of Circular 362.)

 I. I • ·
mple   v
. _ I
` me Sci-ew top (one pl€C€)·— Partly seal Screw top (one piece).- Completely .
MOSI by screwing until tight and turning seal by screwing lid slowly until _
Easily buck L4; inch. Eight, immediately after taking jar ` `
med I rom canner. . I
OIIIIII Glass top (wire bail).- Partly seal I· I ` · I I °
by putting upper barl 111 place and Glass top (wire bail).- Qompletely I __ ;
Pmlll leaving lower bail up. seal by pressing down lower bail ` .
immediately after taking jar from   .I ·
Two-piece metal vacuum seal.- canner.  
Completely seal before processing, »_ q
by putting cap in place and turning Two-piece metal vacuum seal.- I _
II __ band tight. Completely seal before processing. .
dw Don’t turn the band after processing. I
Us IS Two-piece glass top with band.- _ I  
. . ·’ ‘ . h * .
E the r·..r.ryS.a by fitting as rubber mg g;;II;e¤d *4   T en  
around the projection on the under `
I . Side OibthcldlibPtlaCmgtFIh€l.§d S3 Two-piece glass top.- Screw the   .
mm U6 ru sr res C Ween e 1 an band tight to complete the seal. Re-
afullv IOP edge <>f1==¤- P1a°€_th°_b°nd Over move the band 24 hours after pro- ° ··
IIIIII the top and screw it tight, then CCSSIDIII .
b loosen about Mi turn or until the °' `
. ove
“III_ baud he loosely Glass top with clamps.- Remove
" C GIIISS mp with dumps? Place the the clamps 24 hours after processing. .
rmIII rubber and lid the same as with the I _
tI   2-piece glass top jar with band.
C Ol! Adjust clamps around the top, 2 for
l[0m» water bath and 4 for processing in
vera! pressure cooker. »
aised .
rarer ‘ . -
Him] Processing is cooking the prepared product in jars. `
f the _ v
D the ln steam pressure cooker
Cjmg I. Pour enough water into the canner to cover the rack at least l "
(W inch, and heat it to boiling before putting the filled jars in place. .
ln enamel cookers put in at least 2 quarts of water.
r the 2. Be sure the top is on even and fastened securely. .
C me 3. Put the pressure cooker over a hot {ire. ·
lim" tl. Leave etcock o en until there has been a stead {low of steam
me H · P Y `
TIII l0Y 7 minutes, by the clock; then close the petcock and allow gauge I
u` to go to l0 aounds excc ot for tomatoes .
5. Begin counting time when I0 pounds pressure is reached. j
Iljcm 6- Adjust the heat to maintain an even pressure.
  7· when the required processing time is up, remove canner from  
‘ ” stove, allow temperature to go to zero. I
S. Open petcock gradually before unclamping the cover.  
9. Take jars from the canner and complete the seal according to {
directions.   >

 4 4
, I In water-bath canner
l l. Bring the water in the canner to a rolling boil.
i 2. Fill a few jars at a time so they will not cool before putting in
canner. -»-
3. Place the jars or cans on the rack with enough space between ll
them to allow the water to circulate freely. Q
4. Keep at least 2 inches of water over the jars. gf
5. Begin counting time of processing when the water comes back Lim;
to boiling. El
6. Remove the jars from the canner as soon as full time for processing it
is up. $‘
. . . SM1
7. Completely seal the jars immediately. (
` I. Select fresh, sound fruits and vegetables in prime condition and Svyl
' can them immediately. Two hours from the garden to the can  
15 a good rule. Wh
2. \»Vash the fruit or vegetables thoroughly, and discard bruised. (
decayed, or otherwise imperfect products. {
3. \t\’ash the jars and lids in clean, hot, soapy water and rinse them  
in boiling water. i
4. Place jars, glass lids, and screw tops in a pan of water, bring Sm
to boiling point, and keep hot until ready to use.
5. Dip rubbers and vacuum seal covers into boiling water just
before using.
6. Prepare the product to be canned according to directions OH Cm
pages 5 to 7.
7. Precook vegetables by boiling time given on pages 5 and 6.
8. Pack boiling hot precooked vegetables in hot jars, working briskly.
Add l teaspoon salt to a quart, and cover the vegetables with C0
boiling liquid.
9. Pack fruit in hot jars and cover the fruit with boiling sirup.
IO. Process according to directions on pages 5 to 7.
ll. Remove the jars from the canner one at a time, completing rim C1
seal of partly sealed jars as they are removed. t
t l2. Place glass jars several inches apart out of draft to cool. Even H
slight air current striking hot jars may cause them to break.
' 13. Store canned products in a cool, dry, dark place. l

 5 t i . ‘ ,
I. : ¤ ·
. ·
" Processing time i
R¤¤*¤¤= St°i`o°L£°tiZ?§li_ WEQQ, i
¤s in $$5; §t£§‘.iia m‘l?.22t. ‘
As mara us
Ween lwagi-grade for size—cut in l- to 2-inch lengths 55 25 120 _
-precook 2 to 3 minutes-pack in hot jars- (2 hr) _
cover with boiling liquid in which cooked- _ _ . ‘ I
add 1 teaspoon salt per quart-seal (see page A ( — i
3)-process-complete the seal. ` ·~¤ g, `
back Lima beans 1 Q
Shell-grade-precook 5 minutes-pack loosely- 60 35 180 — ’
fill jar with liquid in which cooked, leaving 1 (3 hy) ~ ~
rssing inch headspace-add 1 teaspoon salt per quart- ' ‘
seal (see page 3)-process-complete the seal. · · i M
Snap beans V
· Can only young, tender beans. Wash-string- 25 20 130
cut in convenient lengths-precook by boiling (Bhr) I
5 minutes in uncovered container-pack in hot
jars-fill with liquid in which cooked-add 1 ,
teaspoon salt per quart-seal (see page 3)—pro- _ "
cess-complete the seal. »
1 and Soybeans
2 can Preparation same as for lima beans. (Canning --»--- 00 180
in quarts not recommended.) (3 hr)
Whole beets , ,
med Can only small, tender beets. Leave 1- to 2-inch 55 25 150
tops on beets. Wash-boil until skins slip (about (2% ml `
15 minutes)-peel-pack in hot jars-cover with
them boiling liquid in which cooked-add 1 teaspoon ·
salt per quart-seal (see page 3)-process-conn _
V plete the seal. ~ _. A
bring Sliced beets
(Beets other than baby beets.) 1t\’ash-peel-dice 25 20 150 · ( .
or slice-boil 5 to 8 minutes-pack in hot jars- (2% hr) .
just cover with water in which cooked-add 1 tea-
spoon salt per quart-seal (see page 3)-process- (
complete the seal.
ls On Carrots I ,
Wash—scrub with sti{’i brush or scrape-slice. 25 20 150 .
dice, or leave whole-precook 5 to 8 minutes- (2% hr} ·
pack in hot jars-cover with water in which
cooked-add l teaspoon salt per quart-seal-
·iSk]y_ (See page 3)—pr0cess-complete the seal. `
with Cm 85 55 iso
Select corn in milk stage-shuck and silk-cut  hy)
from cob—measure-add 1 part boiling water to ` i
3 parts corn-heat to boiling-add 1 teaspoon ·
salt per quart-pour mixture into hot jars-cut
through mixture with spatula or knife-seal- ·
(see page 3)-process-complete the seal. _ `
g the Greens (
I Use fresh, crisp greens-wash thoroughly in sev- 70 45 180 2
~ €1`21l waters-steam in covered container`, l1Sif1g (3111*1 .
ven Z1 smallest possible amount of water, until com-  
pletely wilted—pack loosely into hot jars-cover {
with water used for steaming-add 1 teaspoon j
‘ salt per quart-seal (see page 3)-process-com- 1 ?
_ plete the seal.  

 ` 6
`   5--*
Reapu B“i‘$,§,§$§§§"° wgg
Quarts, Piuts, bath. »
minutes minutes minutes __,.
6K—‘—‘_""*"""*‘”‘_"'°_“ ’"`“““ "Q "" Appl
Can only tender pods. Wash—trim-precook 1 40 25 120  
minute in boiling water—cut into 1-inch pieces (2hf) 9
or leave pods whole as desired—pack in hot jars '(
leaving pg inch head space-add l teaspoon salt  I
per quart—seal (see page 3)—process—complete Sc
the seal.
Peas n 555 Ben
Select young, tender peas—shell—wash—preco0k ...... 40 180 (1
3 to 5 minutes—pack in hot jars-cover with (Shi) CS
liquid in which cooked—add l teaspoon salt per li
quart—sea1 (see page 3)—proces—-complete the if
seal. (Canning in quarts is not recommended.) .  
Pimiento -Q
Wash—place in a dry pan in a hot oven (400° ------ - ·-—-- 40  
F) until the skin blisters and cracks—·cool quickly `
by dipping in cold water-remove skins and Clic;
seeds—pack dry in hot jars-—add Mg teaspoon l
salt to a pint-—seal (see page 3)—process——com— 5*
i plete the seal. pm
Pumpkin or \
Winter squash Y.
\zVash—cut in pieces-cook until tender-pack in 90 55 180 (1
hot jars—seal (see page 3)—process-—complete (3*11) H
the seal. C
Summer squash _ ll
Wash—do not peel—trim ends——cut into %-inch 40 30 (150 [
slices——halve or quarter—add enough water to (Zléhl`) C
cover—bring to boil—pack in hot jars—add 1 5
teaspoon salt to a quart—sea] (see page 3)- 5*
process—~complete the seal. pcm
Sauerkraut l
Pack in jars—add no water or salt——seal (see ---·—· - —·--· 30 c
page 3)—process-complete the seal. a
Sweet potatoes ‘
(1) \iVet pack. W'ash——boil or steam until skin 90 55 ····‘‘ 'l
slips easily—skin-cut into pieces—pack hot to l E
inch of top of jar—cover with boiling water, ·'
leaving 1-inch head space—add l teaspoon salt Plu:
to quart—seal (see page 3)—process-—coinplete (
the seal. 1
(2) Dry pack. Prepare like wet pack sweet 95 65 ‘‘‘‘`` s
potatoes—pack hot tightly to l inch of top—add 1
no salt or liquid—seal (see page 3)-process- (
complete the seal. {
Tomatoes 45 `
Wash—scald to loosen skins-dip in cold water- _l0 ‘
Peel and YEIHOVC COI`€——PHCk WhOl(f Of   qu[i]`» I1lll'111t(‘$  
ters in hot jars——cover with boiling tomato Hi
A juice—add l teaspoon salt per quart—seal (see 5 pounds ` `
page 3)——process—complete the seal.
VVhen you open home-canned vegetables, boil them 10 minutes helm _
‘ serving as a safeguard against botulinus poisoning.

 7 l ' . ,
I - · ·
2  *———‘"‘we; (   4
— Kind cl lng time l
$4; Recipes nirup vgzgr _ i
$1.. ,r--..._».-.--.._.~__..-- ...._ E- ~ ·_
"` Apples . I Mi-mites
120 Wash-pare and core. To prevent fruit darken- Thin for . »
mr) ing, put in cold water to which has been added sweet 15 - I A
` 2 tablespoons salt and 2 tablespoons vinegar apples; ’* ~ _
per gallon. Pre-cook in sirup 5 minutes-pack medium for i_ ~ A
in hot jars-fill jars with the boiling syrup- sour apples A"  
seal (see page 3)-process—complete the seal.   j
Berries . .
180 (1) Wash in colander-stem-pack in hot jars- Medium I5 -
gh,) cover with boiling sirup-seal (see page 3)- _ ,`
process-complete the seal. " V
(2) Wash in colandcr-stem. Precook by sim- Medium 5
( mering in sirup 3 to 5 minutes, using Ml as `
much sirup as fruit by measure. Pack in hot |
,10 jars-seal (see page 3)-process-complete the  
seal. ‘ . .
Cherries Mcdiim {912 V i
Wash-pit-pack in hot jars-cover with sirup- swi;t.CkiN}C5’ lg
seal (see page 3)-process-complete the seal. Sourlghcgieg `
Peaches or Apricots `
Wash-scald to loosen skins-dip in cold water- Medium r . ,
180 remove. skins-out in halves. To prevent fruit l·‘
.3 hr) clarkemng put in cold water to which has been
» added 2 tablespoons salt and 2 tablespoons vm-
egar per gallon. Precook by simmering in boil-
ing sirup 3 to 5 minutes. Pack in hot jars, _
150 placing halves in overlapping layers, con- - _ . A
Yléhll cave side down. Fill jars with the boiling
sirup-seal (see page 3)—process-complete the . ( _
seal. V
30 Parc-cut in halves-core. To prevent fruit clark- Medium 20 ~
enmg, put in cold water to which has been _
added 2 tablespoons salt and 2 tablespoons .
vinegar per gallon. Precook in boiling sirup _
...... -1 to 8 minutes-pack in hot jars, concave side ·
down-till with the boiling sirup-seal (see page
3)-process-complete tl1e seal.
Plums lr. I (
lll Select slightly underripe fruit-prick with a Medium J
lorla to prevent bursting-prccook in boiling
``'hl- iilllljl 5 miuutcs—pack in hot jars-{ill jars Wllll ‘
the boiling sirup-seal (see page 3)-process- ‘
rompletc the seal.
(Y) Prick with a lork-pack in hot jars-cover Medium 20 `
45 with boiling sirup-seal (see page 3)-process-
romplete the seal. .
Rhubarb ·
\\`ash-trim-tut in l- to 2-inch pieces-measure None 10
one-fourth as much sugar as rhubarb—cook with- l
  water or bake in moderate oven (250° to  
befort Nil" PF) until tender-pack in hot j1l1`S—S*?2il 9 ,
l 'SPC DWG Ti)-process-—<`omplete the seal. , I

 ‘ 8
Fruits have a better flavor if canned in sirup, but the sirup does
not help the fruit to keep. Less sugar is needed to sweeten fruit if
added when canning than if added when ready to serve. Make thc
sirup by mixing water or fruit juice and sugar together, stirring until
all the sugar is dissolved, and bringing it slowly to boiling.
Use the following amounts of sugar and liquids in making sirup:
Thin Simp ____________________,._,,...,...,.................... . .............. 1 cup sugar to 3 cups water
(For sweet fruits, such as sweet cherries, sweet apples, and pineapplcs}
hlcdiufll Sifllp _______,_____ . .,,..._............................ . .............. I CUI) Sugar IO 2 CUPS IVZIICI
(For apricots, berries, grapes, peaches, pears, plums, tart apples)
Thick sirup ____,_,___,____,....,............................................... 1 cup sugar to 1 cup water
(For sour cherries, gooseberries, and rhubarb)
Fruit juices from soft fruits (blackberries, raspberries, logan-
berries, huckleberries, cherries, or grapes).- Wash fruit—crush—
add 2 cups water to 1 gallon crushed fruit—simmer until juices flow
freely—strain through several thicknesses of cheese eloth—add l cup  
sugar to l gallon juice—reheat to simmering point—pour in hot jars- ii`;-`
process at simmering point (l75° to l85° F) 30 minutes in water bath,  
I Canned strawberries.- l»Vash—cap—crush a few berries for juic€—  { 
add   cup sugar and 2 tablespoons juice per quart of berries-bring Qgi. 
slowly to boil—remove from f1re—cover—let stand several hours to  
plump the berries—pack berries in hot jars—reheat sirup—hll jars-  
process 20 minutes in water bath.  
Soup mixture.- A good combination is a mixture of l quart  
tomato pulp, l pint tender corn, tiny lima beans or peas, % cup i} 
chopped sweet pepper, l pint okra and 1% teaspoon salt. Bring t0
boil—pack l1ot-seal (see page 3)—process 180 minutes in water bath, ~
or quarts 70 minutes and pints 60 minutes in a pressure cooker at l0 @
pounds. `  
Tomato juice.- Select Erm, ripe tomat.oes—wash—removc tort __
and cut in quarters—heat to simmering in covered kettle until juitt
{lows freely-strain quickly—add l teaspoon salt per quart-rehettt I0 jan";
boiling point—pour into hot sterilized jars—seal completely—pr0<.CSS 0,,,
5 minutes i11 water bath. “’i*l‘
Canned tomatoes, quick method.- \‘Vash—-core and cut in quar-
ters without pceling—pack in jars tightly so that tomatoes are covercti
with their own juice—acld l teaspoon salt per quart-seal (see page 3)-
process in a pressure cooker 15 minutes at 5 pounds pressure, or liv
minutes in a hot-water bath—con1plete the seal.
This method preserves more vitamin C than any other way ul T
canning tomatoes. juice can be extracted when the jar is opened, cr `
by removing the skins with a fork the tomatoes can be used for soups
or stews. A
Lexington, Kentucky June, 1947
C00pe1'D.tiVe Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economies; College of AETi€u1wr€
and Home Economics, University ci Kentucky, and the United states Department ¤Y Mfg,  ,
' culture, cooperating. Thomas P, Cooper, Director, Issued in furtherance of the Mis ,
May a and June ao, 1914. 50M’“`*‘