xt73ff3kwt4f https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt73ff3kwt4f/data/mets.xml Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station 1901 Title from cover.
Imprint varies. journals English Frankfort, Ky. : Capital Office, E. Polk Johnson, 1890-1948. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Annual report. 1901 text Annual report. 1901 1901 2011 true xt73ff3kwt4f section xt73ff3kwt4f     Fourteenth Annual Report
n ·V-_ _ i , of the
  y Kentucky Agricultura
  * Experiment Station
[ U I ol the
i » State College of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky
For the Year 1901

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-$r;;€S_` I ·_  To receipts from the Treasurer of the United States as per
  appropriation for fiscal year ending June 30, 1901, as per Act of
  Congress, approved March 2, 1887. $15,000.00
    Expenditures : i
  By Salaries .................... $10,742.68
  T Labor ........................ . 1,666.22
      Publications ............. . ...... 667 .20
      Postage and Stationery ........... 137.10
  Q_ Freight and Express ............. 69.46
      · Heat, Light and Water ........... 85.26
    L_ Chemical Supplies .............. 174.66 i
   it Seed, Plants and Sundr Supplies. . 170.45
..,sw.s¤»‘<*¤;s.—¥.   rt- y·
  i    Library ................. . ...... 746.45
    Tools, Implements and Machinery, 92.95
      Scientific Apparatus ...... . ...... 220.25
    Traveling Expenses ............. 131.25 _
    · Contingent Expenses ............ 96.07
 .  - 1-;-$15,000.00
    We, the undersigned, duly appointed Auditors of the Corpora-
  tion, do hereby certify that we have examined the books and
   .i_e accounts of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station for the
  fiscal year ending June 30, 1901 ; that we found the same well kept
  and classified as above, and that the receipts for the year from the
  Treasurer of the United States are shown to have been $15,000.00 _
 ’ and the corresponding disbursements $15,000.000, for all of which
  proper vouchers are on file and have been by us examined and
  found correct.
   Q;.  And we further certifr that the ex enditures have been solely
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$3i`Z}·n+’1r.·.  5}**;. ·¥.. 
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Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station vii
A for the purposes set forth in the Act of Congress, approved March
2, 1887.
[SEAL] Signed: ,
THoMAs Tom),
Attest 2 p Auditors.
30 r
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i   Q I4`_     The work of the Station is carried on under the followingl
{ ‘»e:   .`‘,   . { 7 r `‘ V divisions: . _
      Division of Chemistry.
      L_ V Division of Entomology and Botany.
{ ET].    Division of Agriculture.
  a  fé     Division of Horticulture.
  "E*it;‘_§   _ Division of Animal Husbandry. V
      Division of Fertilizer Control Work.
;f**;{; A“.‘   it V; A '.·`` Division of Food Control Work.
lr.   lp   I-I  
lp   ‘`·'   __; p Detail statements of the work performed by the different divis-
  4   ~ ions may be found in the reports which follow, after which the
-33;  ii jp bulletins published during the year are made a part of this report.
  _   j_ ig We have published during the year the following bulletins:
        Buiisus NO. 91.
      iip 1. Enemies of Cucumbers and Related Plants.
    2. Experiments with Potato Scab.
_·`i       3. The Food of the Toad.
ij}?    Bulletin N0. 92.
    Bulletin No. 93. 4
  1. Diseases of Nursery Stock.
  h 2. Rabbits and Their Injuries to Young Trees.
    Bulletin No. 94.
      1. Test of Varieties. ~
    2. Descriptions of Varieties.
    Bulletin No. 95,
    Commercial Fertilizers.
¤2a=2·&:.z==‘$f; me    
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 ]{wit»m·A·y .Iy1·t¢·i1Zt·iw·aZ Empvrtnwnt Station ix V
Bulletin No. 96. _
1. The Heesian Fly.
2. Dangerous Mosquitoes in l{eu`tucky.
3. Poisonous uml Edible Nliuslwromins.
Bulletin N0. 97.
Yingl Coniianeroinl Fei·ti}ix<>1·s.

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    .   . “
 ii? M. A. SCOVELL D‘f7'(5(}`f`O’I'. ’
  In all, some 1692 samples were analyzed in 1901, including
  jig;   706 commercial fertilizers and fertilizer materials analyzed by
  _—4‘ f   Messrs. Curtis, Seherffius and Roberts, under the fertilizer law;
    487 foods and food materials, by Mr. La Bach, under the food law;
  and 499 samples of agricultural products, soils, waters, rocks, etc.,
  2; :5- . . .
    most of which were analyzed by Mr. L. O. Beatty, under the direc-
    tion of the writer, in connection with the general work of the
  tation. Besides the samples enumerated, a great many specimens
·:·7Y;&;i¢§$ ..5 igg    ‘ . . _ _ _ ,
 p-,=:,-gy of various materials have been qualitatively examined and reported
-=»*a,~;~e·»-"é_.   i- .
  5.     u on without entr u on the laborator records. ‘
    P . Y P . ‘ Y . . .
·     Much attention was given to the examination of soils, at the
      request of farmers for the f l ` t' l t`
  as .,,,. ._, purpose 0 ma {ing prac iea sugges ions
·ifE¤l*&`?2     . i ,
 @;;._. g< for the improvement of the land and the use of commercial fer-
.‘·&E€:¤.¢z.:a: iz-.; gi- . ..,,_
  .·.;=:;  tilizers. In making such su eeestions the chemist has been guided
   ef . °° ’ . . .
    by the amounts of mineral plant food dissolved from the soil by '
. . +:j¤~:g ‘?e  . . . I
 fz  fifth—normal nitric acid, often supplemented by the knowledge of
-5;.   _ .-      ....
   :5 ;;  the amount of reserve plant food in the soil, determined by diges- »
-¤..;_;`- ‘f__ 3 sg ;  . . . . . . .
    l?l0Il H1 l1yCiI`0Clll0I‘1C aC1d of 1.115 specific gravity, according to
    the official method. Our experience with this method seems to
».·—    sgg sgf  . . . . .
    confirm the belief that it is capable of furnishing valuable data
 ’C,·-aa,-_w     . . . . . . .
 ef,  for Judging whether or not a soil is well supplied with mineral
: ,     -1;-    ’ " . . .
  plant food and what kind it most needs. The demand for this l
  kind of work is steadily increasing among our farmers.
 ~.-   .3-* 3  ` . . .
   _j;_, -W Most of the analyses of commercial fertilizers have been pub-
  ‘  Z:-»j  ·  f     >_ . . . l .
  lished in Bulletins 95 and 97, and the analyses of foods will be
  as .   ·.  · · · ·
 i included in a bulletin soon to be issued. All other analyses thought
    worthy of permanent record except those of grasses and forage
  C22 .=·:s» e ’ .°
    plants, which have been reserved for a bulletin, No. 98, are here-
  with submitted for publication in your fourteenth annual report.
      Very reereelfully.
      ’ L 
      Anrmm M. Parnu.
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W; Preornssoa M. A. Seovnm., D’iTC(’t0’l‘.
xv; In the Division of Entomology and Botany forage plants have
ic., been given a large share of attention during the year, the plots
gg- on the new addition to the Experiment Farm affording a better
he opportunity than we have hitherto had of testing the various species
mg _of plants adapted in one way or another to furnish food for stock.
Bd Especial attention has been given to plants of the clover family,
‘ and a portion of our results has been embodied in a bulletin (No.
he 98) recently issued by the Station. Interesting observations have
ms been made on the conditions under which root-nodules appear on
Bp- these plants, and considerable attention has been given to a `study
Bd of the bacteria whose activities in the roots give rise to the nodules.
by ' ‘ In furtherance of these studies pure cultures of the nodule organ-
Of isms were secured from Germany last spring, and were given
BS- practical tests in our forage plots. It was demonstrated that it is _
to possible to obtain very luxuriant growths of the nodules by the
to use of cultures, where otherwise no nodules would appear, and *
lm consequently no improvement in the soil take place.
M] As usual, some farmers’ institute work has been done during
Us _ the year by the Eirtomologist and Botanist.
The number of students coming to the Division from the Col-
lb_ lege this year_nuinbered live, one as a special during the vacation,
be two others taking regular work during the winter and spring terms,
ht while two alumni of the College have studied with me throughout
igc the college year preparing a thesis for a post-graduate degree.
[.C_ Seine microscopic work has been done on the foods and feeds
Tp being studied at the Station under the pure food law.
All Kentucky nurseries were inspected in 190]., as required by
law. Forty of these establishments received certihcates. Several
_ of those previously inspected had quit the business. Seven small _

 V- ig   xu F0m·»tccn.t7t Annual Report 0f the
J ‘ I   ·
iii} ,-1 i. ~ . . . . .
lg V     r nurseries that had not before been examined applied for inspection
  —- g ii.;    in 190].. Most of these were new to the business, but several pro-
ig;    { fessed ignorance of the law requiring inspection. The nurseries
  gfgil-.;· V, are in the main in good condition, but some crown-gall and woolly
  t_·"   ji-Q‘_:f  ·   aphis were discovered. _From complaints received from buyers
    this spring I judge that nurserymen have not in all cases complied
        with their promises to me to refrain from sending out trees affected .
  - Z. with these troubles. _ As a check upon the practice of disregarding
    the recouuuendations of the inspector in the future, I propose to
  V   _ r U publish every nursery detected in selling trees with knotted roots.
    i San Jose scale is still present in private grounds in counties
  in the vicinity of- Cincinnati and Louisville. Several new localities ·
  have been discovered during the year. Our nursery inspection does
 giiiii  110t I'€2lCl1 these CQSGS, and I fear that the pest will gradually spread
    ii·_ ‘   unless a law is enacted making it obligatory upon every one to
    exterminate the scale on his premises. Under the present law the
    most I can do is to urge upon individuals whose trees are infested
  fp, the importance of treating or destroying them.
 lj ‘‘'e   During the past winter a proposition came from the Bureau of
    Plant lndustry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, for co—operative
    work with the Station on forage plants, the understanding being
    that the Department shall pay part of the expenses of the work,
    shall furnish seeds of plants thought promising for forage, while
    the Station furnishes land and tools and takes charge of the plot
    work. Both Station and Department are to make such use of the
    records as they may find convenient. With other plantings made
~~s¢‘ii‘2:v‘£‘   iéfe . . . .
      this spring under this arrangement may be mentioned 56 plots of
*2-:é·=*¥v¥.;   ff g . . .
      clover from seeds obtained by the Department in various parts of the —
>.   ire   . . _ .
    world. An interesting feature of the work as planned, and one ·
    not hitherto considered in the forage plot work, is a series of rota-
  ie}?   I . .
    tion experiments to show the value of grasses and clovers as a con-
  dif . . . . .
    · venient means of,keep1ng up the fertility of soil. Twenty-four new
*;..s;#:·-ict   . ·#' ia
  plots, each of 1-20 acre, have been started recently for the accom-
    modation of these experiments.
 Q T  The extension of this forage plant work makes necessary the
•-YQ?   4:5  E7?  J _
      employment of some one to take charge of the plots, looking after
= —     . . .
  help, keeping records of rates of growth, weight of yield, etc. It
` ‘.j     ` _ ._ 
e -625 4 ..  ij  

 y Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station xiii
T0- is a rule of the Department, I am informed, that all the money it
ies . provides for co-operative Work be expended on this plot work, which
»lly makes it impossible to provide for an assistant who shall remain
ers with us all the year, unless the Station can make use of his services
ied during the winter for other lines of work. For the current season,
ted beginning June I and ending November 1, I wish to recommend
Hg for the place Mr. W. G. Campbell, who will complete his course in
to the College this spring. He is already favorably known to you, so
>ts. that,l need not touch upon his qualifications for the position., The
jeg salary will be, I judge, from the amount the Department is willing
jeg » to spend on the work, about fifty dollars per month. After this
Ogg year the one taking charge of the plots will begin on the first of
md March. Respectfully submitted,
to H. Gium1AN,
fhg Entomologist and Botanist.
of .
lot _
the D
bhe J *

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4f;?'#?‘TE*§· S    `1 · -
  {sis M. A. Scovnm., Dwector.
  as ~¤ . . .
we   ig.; Dear S1r:—I submit the following as the annual report of the
  .> O
    Division of Horticulture for the year now closing.
 tr   l\o material changes in the condition of the de artmenthave
··    O
 M.;  * ,h *  occurred since my last report, except those which are preparatory
  to enlarged opportunities for expansion of the department if the
J" ' “ ' .;. _ I I . . .
 f    Board of Trustees shall so arran re the work of the HOl`tlCllltlll`1St—-
   .2:  ‘·. . . . .
.t<   ..   I have frec uentlr ur ed--that hc may Hive racticall * all ot his
a·»*..,-»    1 ' ‘ n 5
  time to lns duties as such, at least through the fall and spring. I
   ip believe that any re-adjustment that does not provide for a radical
. ._ · ·  .- as  T . ‘ . . . .
  se iaration of the duties of the Horticulturist of the Station from
  those of the Professor of Botany in the College will be unsatis-
    factorv to all concerned.
  en- , ` . . .
    The tract ot land—about ten acres in extent-u Jon the recentl
‘ .‘·&··, ” ‘~ .  I
    acquired addition to the Experiment Farm, which you have set
@1*   »P* r·.  · · · - · l ·
    apart ior the use ot tlns department, will, I believe, prove admira-
    bl * ada ted to its ur ose and it is in desire to concentrate as
  ._.. _ . P > . ¤
QM ‘¢.a¤` *’ . iz   · · ·
 gg; rap1dly_ as possible, all the work of the department upon this area. ,
§%—*'I’i;€é*   s. l · · · · ·
  I would urge that provision be made ior moving, during the
.. *.:2 . e . . .
   I; summer, the Stations forcing houses now upon the College grounds
    .:·»r=‘g ?i . . .
   }fj· to tlns same tract upon the farm. For several years, since the erec-
  Qfiflti tion of the experimental laboratory of the Engineering Department,
t·       ig .. . _
  the work under class has suttered reat detriment from the clouds
—·°'}2."`:·¤··¥i.<· ~ E`: C
  of smoke and soot that settle upon the roof, from their heat and
  '`-'‘ {fl`; power plant. Furthermore, the heating plant of the forcing house
  _-_=.    I has now become absolutely inadequate for heating these structures,
   Ei and a new boiler must be provided in order to make the houses
 Y ii?   available for use next winter.
    Other repairs are also needed, and it would seem unwise and
  ; fr nncconomical to make these changes while in the present location,
    ,_‘‘ with the prospect of moving within a year or two, so that for these
sexi; if-       -
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 Kentucky Agricultural Expeirimcnt Station xv
reasons particularly I have urged that the houses should be moved
during the present year. I
The provisions that have been begun at your instance, for a
separate equipment of team, men and tools for-the horticultural
work will, I am conhdent, permit of a much more effective man-
agement of it than ever before.
l desire to place upon the new horticultural grounds a small
plantation of the various orchard and small fruits, not primarily
for mere variety testing, but largely for cultural experiments, and
for studies ot numerous details of observation and management.
r\ number of varieties of plants have been started this spring ,
looking to the development of lines of study in the way of plant
breeding, forcing. etc., in the present and following seasons, when `
the horticulturist`s time shall be soiarranged as to permit of it.
Respectfully submitted, t
C. W. _lVLyrunws, i
Horticulturist. i V
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3.;*; Z»V·  · ‘» ; gil]   DIVISION OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY  Q2;
  IVI'-    iQ; I A—+ . I  T?
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f§.,5;__;-< i,_i*; M. A. SCOVELL, Dtrectcr. ' ·  Q1
‘-·1`:}“?€ii.i3?€$*     “ - , . . · I  
{f·i;j;gi:¢jj·j;`*° _   The Station possesses one of the best dairy herds in the coun-  2
*2f§`_‘Zcjf}*Q` .' 5:* l tr and its efficienc will be maintained. Studies are now in Q. 
i`·`·r·=:=‘-R.; Z'   Y, y `  
    progress comparing the utility and cost of various feeds for dairy  _a
 l';.§.;i cattle available to the feeders of this State and the influence of the  l
  »_V· tg  sa1n_e upon the amount and quality of the milk and butter yield.    
    An experiment has just been closed in which a comparison has been  
  made of various feeds for fattening pigs. The feeds employed _  
  included corn, corn and soy bean silage, soy beans, distillery waste, . A. 
    skim milk tanka e and cottonseed meal. The Station now has 13 9  `°i e
;»;—.:¢.»—r#<£sr   F { ’ g V  ’
  gg   head of thoroughbred Berkshires and about 50 head of mixed breed- ' V  }·
      ing which will be used from time to time in various experiments.    
    `.l‘   Another line of work in progress is the study of the so—called 2*  j
  gg  corn stalk disease of cattle. This malady, caused by the eating of E; Q.
    corn fodder in certain conditions, is the source of greater losses to   E 
    the cattle industr than an other disease. A series of ex eriments QT  5
or-e2g¢·A*s<·   y y P ·’ V
  are underway in the curing of meats which will cover both the jr  j
  questions ol' preserving and the development of the flavor in hams    
    and bacon. Other lines of work are projected but have not reached `  
  ‘t*·,g;  * · . . . . . V, ·" '
     2.;  a point to justify a report at this tnne. Some of the work planned g  
    will bc completed and reported in bulletins during the present year.   I;
I   Other of the ex eriments from their nature will re uire a lon er    ¥-`
_15`:m_`,\__,   P q g _ .
 § ‘  period for their completion and will be reported from time to time.    g
  The especial needs of this department of the Station work are   Qs 
  efficient housing arran ements for the stock. This will be rovided    
 "   I'o1· in the near future bv a new dairy barn and a piggery.    ·‘
»»   e s   ‘ ‘ ,    .
 *  , _   * 3;.-    Respectfully submitted,    
  D. W. MAY.    A
§  .    .·~  sr  .r
    $2:9 ii;  Q
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Stake College 0f KanLucLER1MENT STAT1oN, ii
    ` LEXINGTON, Ky, a
    i 3
b  Qu _
  lx   J

 Nl V
Bulletin No. 91.
1, Enemies of Cucumbers and Related Plants. t
BY H. GARMAN, Entomologist and Botanist. K
The Striped Cucumber Beetle. ·
(D1'¢zbr0/{ca zu'!/tz/tz.)
The period immediately following the coming up of cucum-
ber, melon and squash plants is one of anxiety to gardeners in
Kentucky because of the liability of such plants to injury and
even destruction by a small beetle 3-16 to M inch long, with
black head, yellow thorax, and several alternating black and
pale yellow stripes along the back. It comes regularly each
Spring, and can be found in most gardens and fields thereafter
during the summer. `If growers of these plants can escape or g
can ward off its visitations while the plants are young, but 5
:11- little further difficulty is experienced, during most seasons and
· in most sections of Kentucky, in carrying them to maturity.
)St` The beetles constitute our most, formidable bar to the success-
ful growing of melons and cucumbers.
While the mischief done by the adult beetle is most dreaded,
it is only a part of that infiicted by the insect. Where adults
are allowed free access to plants they place their eggs close
about them in the soil, and in thelattcr part of ]une the young
which hatch from theieggs begin to gnaw the underground

  .   4 Bulletin N0 91. ' ·
  \ 2
[ parts so as occasionally to complete the destruction of such as ` (
i have escaped the adults. More commonly this injury simply 2
g weakens the plant and it becomes of less and less moment as ·
V   [ the plants increase in size, because of the great extent of roots ·
il V then available to the young; for the worms are not restricted _
.   to the main stem for food, but wander about with considerable l
  activity in the soil. `
  ` Common as the insect is, the complete. life—history has not
    been worked out. Some facts that add to a knowledge of it
  have recently been obtained in the `Vivarium of this Division
  of the Kentucky Station, and are given below, together with
Y   observations made by me in the State from time to time dur-
g   ing the past ten years. e
Q_ i » Adults are to be seen about cultivated ground throughout
  the fall months. September 1, IQOO, an adult 29 days old
f A ‘ from date of hatching, emerged in the Vivarium. December
  6, 1894, a specimen was collected with a miscellaneous lot of
    insects hibernating under boards and stones. In the Fall of
3,21  i 19oo a large number of adults were collected and confined in
      the Vivarium for the winter. A recent examination (january
  i 2, IQOI) shows some of them still alive in soil.
`'..     These facts imply that the cucumber beetle hibernates as an
  * adult hid away in· the soil. The same inference is to be drawn
 EQ?   from the early spring history of the insect. It appears as an
  ` adult as soon as cucumber or melon plants appear above
  | ground. The earliest record I have of individuals that have
  i wintered over is in a letter dated April [2, 1892, from Mr. G.
flj i..t     P. Tippenhauer of Newport. Ky., who wroteenclosing speci-
  5 mens and complaining that they were then troublesome. Such
  2 complaints become frequent in May and continue until after
  j the middle of june, when the adults have placed their eggs
  y about the plants and disappeared. Some of these adults, how- 4
    ever, are to be seen as late as july 7.
      During the first half of july there seems to be some reduc-
      tion in the number of adults abroad, but during the latter half
  i of. the month adults that hatch from the earliestlaid eggs be-

 Enemzks qf C`z¢cz¢mbers and-Re/afed P/anis. 5
gin to emerge, and from this time until Fall the beetle is fre-
35 ` quently seen in gardens, although from having everywhere
HY an abundance of food, is not noticeably mischievous, as it ~
35 would probably prove to be if it were restricted, as in Spring,
0tS to the very young plants.
red It is possible that some of these early-maturing beetles lay
ble eggs for a second brood that matures before Fall, since eggs
have been obtained by us as late as july 26, a date subsequent
to that at which some of the beetles mature. But I am satis- `
fied that the suggestion sometimes made that three or more
not broods develop during a season is without foundation, and has
·f it probably resulted from the fact that the adults are engaged in
iion egg-laying for some time, and that, consequently, eggs, larvae,
zith pupae, and possibly, at times, recently-matured adults, the »
lur- progeny of a single female, may be found about plants at the
e same time. 'When, added to this, the progeny of different
out individuals is considered, the problem as presented by the
old Stages of the insect present about plants at any one time is j
uber still more perplexing, for during a couple of months there
tof exists acomplicated a,ssortment of lappings due to different
l of dates of egg-laying of the same and different individuals, as l
l in well as to the very different rates at which individuals hatched
iary at one time grow to maturity.
The first adult reared in the Vivarium of this Division
s an emerged ]uly 23, twenty·four days from the time it hatched
awn from the egg. Others emerged from August I4 to September
5 an 1, and varied in age from 26 to 33 days. The average age at
>ove which maturity is reached, obtained from ten different lots of
iave reared beetles, is 28% days. The last reared beetle emerged -
‘. G. September 1, rgoo, when 2Q days old. ‘
peci- The beetles feed on a variety of plants, sometimes proving T
Buch injurious to others besides cucumber, melon and squash. They
after may gnaw badly the leaves of cultivated asters. The "silks"
eggs of corn ears when tender are often eaten by them. Ashmead
how- says they feed in the pollen of the cotton flower. Years ago
they were reputed as very injurious to the blossoms of pear
zduc- and cherry trees in Illinois. Beans are sometimes gnawed by
I half them. Somewhat recently they have been charged with con-
gs be-

  i. ·A-; i` 1 l
-   { 6 ° ` Bulletin N0. 91.
    i veying a bacterial disease known as zvz`Zl* from plant to plant,
_     and since this attacks the plants after they begin to trail, it is _
    possible they are responsible for a great deal of loss that has
  { not commonly been attributed to them.
    { It is possible that the young also do mischief other than .
  ¤ that with which we are acquainted. But the injury they were
{ ¤ { at one time accused of doing to corn roots in Maryland proved
  ' { to be the work of a related beetle, sometimes called the spotted
  . V cucumber bug (Dzkzbrolzkzz zzpzuzciala) no