xt73r20rrc8g https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt73r20rrc8g/data/mets.xml Stone, William L. (William Leete), 1792-1844. 1900  books b929733st72v22009 English A. L. Fowle : New York Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Indians of North America --Wars --1775-1783. United States --History --Revolution, 1775-1783. Border wars of the American revolution. text Border wars of the American revolution. 1900 2009 true xt73r20rrc8g section xt73r20rrc8g 
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
   CONTENTS

THE SECOND VOLUME.

CHAPTER I.

Extensive Scheme of Operations against the Indians.   General Sullivan's Preparations.   The March.   A Race for Life.   Descent of the Susquehanna by General Clinton's Flotilla. -His Junction with Sullivan.   Rattle, and overwhelming Defeat of the Indians.   Destruction of their Towns.   Massacre uf Lieutenant Boyd's Party.   Return of the Expedition.........Page 9

CHAPTER II.

Siege and Surrender of Charleston.   Destruction of the Oneida Country by the British and hostile Indians.   Surprise of Captain Harper and his Party.    Their Sufferings in Captivity.     Brant's Device to save their Lives.   Running the Gauntlet.   Indian Murders in Orange and Ulster Counties..........50

CHAPTER III.

Invasion of the Mohawk Valley by Sir John Johnson.   Capture of the Summons Family.    Barbarous Murders und Cruelties committed by the Invaders.   Release of old Mr. Siimmons.   His l  old Kebuke of Sir John.   Interesting Details of his Suns' Captivity and final Escape 71

CHAPTER IV.

Operations of the War in the Southern States.     Battle of Camden.    Capture of Major Andre .   Treason of General Arnold.   Extensive Expedition of the Indians and British against the Mohawk Valley.    Wide-spread Destruction of Farms and Houses.   Investment of Fort Middleburgh.    Heroic Conduct of a young Woman.   Death of Colonel Brown.     Extraordinary Scene with General Arnold.    Flight of Sir Joint Johnson..........100

CHAPTER V.

Gloomy Prospects of the Americans.     Mutiny of the Pennsylvania Troops at Morristown.   Their Example followed by the New-Jersey Line.   Battle of the Cowpens.   Successes of General Greene at the South.    Sufferings of the Inhabitants in the Mohawk Valley.     Destruction of Fort Schuyler by Water und Fire.   Prevalence of Disaffection.    Active Movements of Colonel Willett.     Gallantry of John Shall and his Family..... . 131

CHAPTER VI.

Abduction of active Citizens.   Attempt to seize General Gansevoort.     Another, to carry off General Schuyler.   Strange Conduct uf the Brit 
   VI

CONTENTS.

ish on Lake Champlain.   The New-Hampshire Grants.   History ol the Dispute concerning them.   Another Invasion of the Mohawk Val ley.   Active and successful Movements of Colonel Willett.   Death of Walter N. Butler.     Surrender of Lord CornwalUs.   Revolt in th   New-York Regiment!........Page 158

CHAPTER VII.

Capture of Joseph Bettys.   His Craft and Cruelty as a Partisan.   Hm Execution.   Progress of the War, now drawing to a Close.   Negotiations for, and Treaty of Peace.    Conflicts with the Indians at thr West.   Massacre of the Moravian Indians.   How it waa avenged.    Cessation of Hostilities ... .               . 184

CHAPTER Vni.

Deplorable Condition of the Indians.   Removal of the Mohawks to Canada.   Negotiations of the United States with the Indians.   Red Jacket.   Complanter.   Visit of Brant to England.   Project of a General Indian War.   Anecdotes of Brant iu London.   His Return to Anier ica ............209

CHAPTER IX.

Questions in Dispute subsequent to the Treaty of Peace.   Occupation of the Military Posts by the British.   Hostile Iiidirminns of the Red Man.    Great Council at Huron Village.   Evidence of British Machinations,    Brant's Troubles at Home.   His Efforts for the Improvement of hia People..... . 223

CHAPTER X.

Indian Hostilities continued at the West.   General Harmar's Expcdi tion.   Its equivocal Success.   Colonel Proctor's pacific Mission-   lis Failure.   Colonel Pickering's Council with the Six Nations.   Gener al St. Clair's Expedition.   Its disastrous Issue.   The Indians led by Brant ....... .23*

CHAPTER XI.

Visit of Brant and other Chiefs to Philadelphia.   Incidents of Brant't Journey.   Offers uf the Government to Brant.   Attempts to kill him on his Return.   Efforts of the Government for Peace.   Council at the Au Glaize.   Its Failure........260

CHAPTER XII.

Renewal of Hostilities.   Duplicity of the Canadian Government.   Council of the Six Nations.   Brant's Propositions.   War between Franca and England.   Its Effect on the Relations of England with the United States.    Spanish Emissaries among the Indians.   General Wayne'a Expedition.   Decisive Battle, and total Defeat of the Indians.   Jay's1 Treaty, followed by a Treaty of Peace with the hostile Tribes   . 284

CHAPTER XIII.

Brant's Difficulties with the Canadian Government.     Mission of John Norton to England.   Its Failure.   Brant charged with appropriating Moneys not his own.   Formally deposed from the Chieftainship of the Six Nations.   Intrigues of Red Jacket.   Brant's honourable Acquittal and Restoration........ 308 
   CONTENTS.

Vll

CHAPTER XIV.

Brant's Labours for the Improvement of his People.   His Translations

of the Scriptures.   Games of the Indians.   Their Funeral Ceremonies,   Personal Character of Brant.    His Correspondence with Colonel Burr.   Anecdotes..... .        Page 328

CHAPTER XV.

Domestic Relations of Brant.   Death of his Son Isaac by the Father's Hand.   Brant's Opinion concerning the Beards of the Red Men.   Vindication of his Character from the Charge of Cruelty.   His Death 345

CHAPTER XVI.

Widow of Brant.   Appointment of his Successor.   His Education and Character.   Serves in the War of 1812-15 against the Americans.    Battle of Queenston.     Contest between young Brant and Geueral Scott.   Description of a Visit to Bnmt House    Visit of young Brant to England.   His Death .      . .357 
    
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of the

AMERICAN REVOLUTION.

CHAPTER I.

The policy of waging a more decisive war against the Indians, and the Loyalists associated with them in their barbarous irruptions upon the frontier settlements, has been adverted to more than once already. General Washington had long entertained the opinion that the mere establishment of a chain of military posts along the western and northwestern frontiers would not answer the purpose, and that the only method of affording efficient protection to the inhabitants of those borders would be to carry the war into the heart of the enemy's country. By a resolution of the 25th of February, Congress had directed the commander-in-chief to take the most effectual means for protecting the inhabitants, and chastising the Indians for their continued depredations ; and it was now his determination to put the resolve in execution by carrying the war directly into the most populous country of the Six Nations ; to cut off their settlements, destroy their crops, and inflict upon them every other mischief which time and circumstances would permit.

The plan of this campaign was well devised and matured. It was to be commenced by a combined movement of two divisions: one from Pennsyl-rania, ascending the Valley of the Susquehanna to

Vol. II.   B 
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the intersection of the Tioga River, under General Sullivan, who was invested with the command-in-chief; and the other from the North, under General James Clinton, which was to descend the Susquehanna from its principal source, and, after forming a junction with Sullivan, the whole to proceed, by the course of the Chemung River, into the fertile country of the Senecas and Cayugas. This expedition was intended as the principal campaign of that year, since the relative military strength and situation of the two contending powers rendered it impossible that any other offensive operations could be carried on by the Americans at the same time.

On the 2d of June, General Clinton received his instructions from Sullivan. Preparations for the enterprise, however, were already in a state of great forwardness, since General Washington had been in free communication with Governor Clinton upon the subject, and the latter, with the general, his brother, had been actively engaged in anticipation of the order. Accordingly, batteaux had already been provided at Schenectady, which, after ascending the Mohawk to Canajoharie, were thence to be transported over land to the head of Otsego Lake at Springfield, and a large quantity of provisions had been thrown into Fort Schuyler in case of emergency. After making all his arrangements, and ordering the different corps which were to compose his command to concentrate at Canajoharie, General Clinton arrived at that post on the 16th of June, where he found himself at the head of fifteen hundred troops.

The portage from the Mohawk River at Canajoharie to the head of Otsego Lake is about twenty miles. On the 17th, General Clinton commenced the transportation of his boats and stores across the country, the region being hilly, and the roads excessively bad. Two hundred boats were found to bo necessary, and four horses were required for the 
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11

draught of each boat. The troops were disposed by regiments along the route, both for safety and to assist at difficult points of ascent. But, notwithstanding these obstacles and the magnitude of the enterprise, General Clinton was enabled to announce to his immediate superior by letter, on the 26th, that one hundred and seventy-three of the boats had already reached the head of the lake, that thirty more were on their way, and that the residue, making up the complement of two hundred and twenty, would be forwarded thither immediately on their arrival from Schenectady. The provisions and stores for a three months' campaign had likewise been already transported across the carrying-place ; so that the expedition was nearly in readiness to commence its final movement. In performing this labour, no other interruption took place than what arose from the arrest of two spies, formerly inhabitants of the county, one of whom was named Hare, a lieutenant in the British service, and the other a Tory sergeant, named Newberry, the same wretch whose name has already occurred as a brutal murderer at Cherry Valley. They had left the Seneca country with sixty warriors of that tribe, to be divided into three parties, one of which was to fall upon Cherry Valley again, the other upon Schoharie, and the third to be employed in lurking about Fort Schuyler. They were tried by a court-martial, convicted, and " hanged, pursuant to the sentence of the court, and to the entire satisfaction of all the inhabitants of the county."

It was the desire of General Sullivan that Clinton should employ in his division as large a number of the Oneida warriors as could be induced to engage in the service. The latter officer was opposed to this arrangement; but at the importunities of Still' van, the Rev. Mr. Kirkland, their missionary, who was now a chaplain in the army, had been summoned to Albany for consultation.   Thence Mr. 
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Kirkland was despatched to Pennsylvania to join Sullivan's division, while to Mr. Deane, the interpreter connected with the Indian commission at Fort Schuyler, was confided the charge of negotiating with the Oneida chiefs upon the subject. At first all went smoothly with the Indians. The Oneidas volunteered for the expedition, almost to a man while those of the Onondagas who adhered to the cause of the Americans were equally desirous of proving their fidelity by their deeds. Under these circumstances, Clinton wrote to Sullivan on the 26th, that on the following Saturday, Mr. Deane, with the Indian warriors, would join him at the head of the lake. A sudden revolution, however, was wrought in their determination by an address to the Oneidas from General Haldimand, received at Fort Schuyler on the 22d. This document was trans, milted to them in their own language, and its tenour was so alarming as to induce them suddenly to change their purpose ; judging, very correctly, from the threats of Haldimand, that their presence was necessary at home for the defence of their own castles. Still, Mr. Deane wrote that an arrangement was on foot, by which he hoped yet to obtain the co-operation of a considerable number of the Oneida warriors. The basis of this arrangement was, that in the event of an invasion of their country by the Indians, whom the Canadian commander had threatened to let loose upon them, the garrison at Fort Schuyler should not only assist them, but receive their women and children into the fort for protection.

On the 30th of June, Clinton wrote to Sullivan that his arrangements were complete ; that fill his stores and munitions of every description were at the lake, with two hundred and ten batteaux, and everything in readiness for embarcation the moment his orders to that effect should be received. On the 1st of July he proceeded to the lake himself, 
   AMERICAN REVOLUTION.

13

and the expedition moved from its head to the southern extremity, there to await the orders of his superior. While lying at this place, a letter was received from General Schuyler announcing the return from Canada of a spy, who had been despatched thither for information. He brought word that, on the 18lh of June, four hundred and fifty regular troops, one hundred Tories, and ttiirty Indians, had been sent forward from Montreal to re-enforce the Indians against whom this expedition was preparing, and that they were to be joined by half of Sir John Johnson's regiment, together with a portion of the garrison at Niagara. From this intelligence, it was evident that the Indian country was not to be taken without a struggle.

On the 6th Mr. Deane arrived, at the head of thirty-five Oneida warriors. The object of their visit was in person to apologize for the absence of their brethren from the expedition, and to make those explanations in regard to their own altered situation, already communicated by Mr. Deane by letter, together with the address of General Haldi-niand, which had caused their alarm.

In the course of the interview, the sachems informed General Clinton that a party of about three hundred Indians, with a few Tories, had inarched from Cayuga ten days before, for the purpose of hanging upon his outskirts and harassing his march to Tioga. Still, it was supposed not to be their intention to do any serious righting until the invading forces should have advanced a considerable distance up the Tioga or Chemung River. Indeed, it was evidently the purpose of the enemy to make no stand until the forces of Sullivan and Clinton should arrive in the neighbourhood of the works of defence which the Indians and Tories had been constructing, even before the battle of Wyoming, on the i  nks of the Chemung.

In consequence of the requisition of the warriors, 
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General Clinton issued an order to the commanding officer at Fort Schuyler to detach a command of thirty or forty men to the Oneida fort, to be recalled as circumstances might require. With this understanding, the ten principal warriors specially charged with the explanations took their departure he same evening for their own castle, leaving the remaining twenty-five to accompany the expedition.* General Clinton was impatient of delay, as appears by a letter addressed to his brother on the next day, from which the following is an extract:

General to Governor Clinton.

" Camp on the south end of Otsego Lake, July 6, 1779.

"Dear Brother, "I have the pleasure to inform you that I am now at this place, with two hundred and eight boats, with all the stores, provisions, and baggage of the army; and I am well convinced that such a quantity of each hath never before been transported over so bad a road in so short a time, and with less accidents, so that I am now in the most readiness to move down the Susquehanna whenever I receive General Sullivan's orders for that purpose. I have thrown a dam across the outlet, which I conceive will be of infinite importance, as it has raised the lake at least two feet, by which the boats may be taken down with less danger than otherwise, although, from the intricate winding of the channel, I expect to meet some difficulties on the way. It is uncertain when I shall leave this place.

*    * "The troops are in good health and high spirits, and everything seems to promise a most favourable and successful campaign."

No attempts were made by the enemy to molest General Clinton while thus detained at Otsego Lake. Still, his proceedings were not left entirely without

* Ail but two of these, however, and those of the meaner sort, deserted the expedition before they arrived at Tioga. 
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15

observation, and there were two individual affrays happening in his vicinity, which deserve special mention. The name of David Elerson, one of the bold spirits associated with Murphy in Morgan's rifle corps, has already occurred in a former chapter. The detachment to which he belonged had been ordered from Schoharie to join this expedition. While lying at the head of the lake, Elerson rambled off to an old clearing, at the distance of a mile or more from camp, to gather pulse for dinner. Having filled his knapsack, while adjusting it, in order to return to camp, he was startled at the rustling of the tall and coarse herbage around him, and in the same instant beheld some ten or a dozen Indians, who had crept upon him so cautiously as to be just on the point of springing to grasp him. Their object was clearly rather to make him a prisoner than to kill him, since he might easily have been shot down unperceived. Perhaps they wanted him for an auto-da-fe, perhaps to obtain information. Seizing his rifle, which was standing by his side, Elerson sprang forward to escape. A shower of tomahawks hurtled through the air after him; but, as he had plunged into a thicket of tall weeds and bushes, he was only struck on dne of his hands, his middle finger being nearly severed. A brisk chase was immediately commenced. Scaling an old brushwood fence, Elerson darted into the woods, and the Indians after him. He was as fleet as a stag; and perceiving that they were not likely soon to overtake, the pursuers discharged their rifles after him, but luckily without effect. The chase was thus continued from eleven till three o'clock, Elerson using every device and stratagem to elude or deceive the Indians, but they holding him close. At length, having gained a moment to breathe, an Indian started up in his front. Drawing up his rifle to clear the passage in that direction, the whiz of a bullet fleshing his side, and the crack of a rifle from 
   lb BORDERS  WARS OF THE

another point, taught him that delays were particularly dangerous at that spot. The Indian in front, however, had disappeared on his presenting his rifle, and Elerson again darted forward. His wounded side bled a little, though not enough to weaken him. Having crossed a ridge, he paused a moment in the valley beyond to slake his thirst, his mouth being parched, and himself almost fainting. On rising from the brook, the head of one of his pursuers peeped over the crest of the hill. He raised his rifle, but such was his exhaustion that he could not hold it steady. A minute more, and he would have been in the power of the savage. Raising his rifle again, and steadying it by the side of a tree, he brought the savage tumbling headlong down the hill. In the next moment his trusty rifle was reloaded and primed, and in the next the whole group of his pursuers came rushing over the ridge. He again supposed his minutes were numbered ; but, as he was partly sheltered by the trunk of a huge hemlock, they saw not him, but only the body of their fallen comrade, yet quivering in the agonies of death. Drawing in a circle about the body of their companion, they raised the death wail; and as they paused, Klerson made another effort to fly. Before they resumed the pursuit, he had succeeded in burying himself in a dark thicket of hemlocks, where he found the hollow trunk of a tree, into which he crept. Here he lay ensconced two full days, without food or dressing for his wound. On the third day he backed out of " the loophole of his retreat," but knew not which way to proceed, not discerning the points of the compass. In the course of two or three miles, however, he came to a clearing, and found himself at Cobleskill, having, during his recent chase, run over hill and dale, bog, brook, and fen, upward of twenty-five miles.

At about the same time, and probably by the same party of Indians, the premises of a Mr. Shanklandj 
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17

lying in their track, situated in the outskirts of Cherrj Valley, were assaulted. Residing at the distance of two or three miles from the village, his house had escaped the common destruction the preceding autumn. But he had, nevertheless, removed his family to the Valley of the Mohawk for safety, and had returned to his domtcil accompanied only by his son. They were awakened just before dawn by the assailants, who were endeavouring to cut away the door with their hatchets. Taking down his two guns, Mr. Shankland directed his son to load them, while he successively fired to the best advantage. But not being able to see the enemy, he determined upon a sortie. Having a spear, or espontoon, in the house, he armed himself therewith, and carefully unbarring the door, rushed forth upon the besiegers, who fled back at his sudden apparition. One of the Indians whom he was specially pursuing tumbled over a log, and, as Mr. Shank-land struck at him, his spear entered the wood and parted from the shaft. Wrenching the blade from the log, he darted back into the house, barred the door, and again commenced firing upon the assailants. They had been so much surprised by his rushing out upon them, that they neither fired a shot nor hurled a tomahawk until he had returned to his castle, and barred the sally-port. During that part of the afifray, his son, becoming somewhat frightened, escaped from the house and ran for the woods. He was pursued, overtaken, and made captive. The father, however, continued the fight, the Indians firing through the casements at random, ind he returning the shots as well as he could. At jne time he thought of sallying forth again, and selling his life to the best advantage; but, by thus doing, he very rightly judged that he should at once involve the life of his son. The Indians, growing wearied of fighting at such disadvantage, at last attempted to make sure of their victim by applying 6   2 
   18 BORDER  WARS  OF THE

the torch, and the house was speedily in flames But between the rear of the house and the forest a field of hemp interposed, into which Mr. Shank-land contrived to throw himself from the house, un-perceived by the Indians. Concealed from observation by the hemp, he succeeded in reaching the woods, and making good his retreat to the Mohawk. Meantime, the Indians remained by the house until it was consumed, together, as they supposed, with the garrison. They then raised a shout of victory, and departed, several of their number having been wounded by the courageous proprietor.

Greatly to his vexation, as appears from his letters, General Clinton was detained at Otsego, by the tardy movements of his commander below, during the whole month of July and the first week in August, until, indeed, his troops became impatient to a degree. But the general was not idle in respect to every arrangement that might add to their security or contribute to their success. In the letter to his brother, last quoted, he disclosed one capital stroke of generalship, which not only contributed largely to his successful descent of the river, but was of great service in other respects. The damming of the lake, and the accumulation, by this means, of a vast reservoir of water, by rendering more certain and expeditious the navigation of the river, was an exceedingly happy thought; and when, at length, orders were received for his embarcation on the 9th of August, his flotilla was not only borne triumphantly along upon the pile of waters accumulated for the occasion, but the swelling of the torrent beyond its banks caused wide and unexpected destruction to the growing crops of the Indians on their plantations at Oghkwaga and its vicinity. They were, moreover, greatly affrighted at the sudden and unexpected rise of the waters in the dryest season of the year, especially as there had been no rains, attributing the event to the interposition of the " Great

 
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19

Spirit," who thus showed that he was angry with them. The whole expedition was, indeed, calculated to impress them with terror, as it might have done a more enlightened and less superstitious people. The country was wild and totally uninhabited, excepting by scattered families of the Indians, and here and there by some few of the more adventurous white settlers, in the neighbourhood of Unadilla. The sudden swelling of the river, therefore, bearing upon its surge a flotilla of more than two hundred vessels, through a region of primitive forests, and upon a stream that had never before wafted upon its bosom any craft of greater burden than a bark canoe, was a spectacle which might well appal the untutored inhabitants of the regions thus invaded.

During these energetic proceedings of Clinton, it has been seen that Sullivan was very dilatory in his    novements, and his conduct in the early part of the campaign gave particular dissatisfaction to Congress. His requisitions for supplies were enormous, and several of his specifications of articles, such as eggs, tongues, and other luxuries, were considered so unsoldierlike as to create disgust. However, having completed his arrangements, he left Wyoming on the 31st of July, and ascended the Susquehanna to Tioga, with an expedition far more formidable as to numbers, and not less imposing in other respects, than was the descending division under General Clinton, though he had not the advantage of riding upon so majestic a flood. Sullivan reached Tioga on the 11th of August, and on the following day pushed out a detachment twelve miles towards Chemung, which was attacked by a body of Indians, losing, during the brush, seven men killed and wounded. The detachment returned to T toga on the 13th, after having burned one of the Indian towns.

General Clinton, with his division, having been joined at Oghkwaga by a detachment of Colonel 
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Pauling's levies from Warwasing, arrived at Tioga, and fo-med a junction with Sullivan on the 22d of August. The entire command amounted now to rive thousand, consisting of the brigades of Generals Clinton, Hand, Maxwell, and Poor, together with Proctor's artillery and a corps of riflemen. So long had the expedition been in progress, that it was well understood the Indians and Tories were not unprepared to receive them ; and in moving up the Tioga and the Chemung Rivers, the utmost degree of caution was observed to guard against surprise. A strong advanced guard of light infantry preceded the main body, which was well protected by large flanking parties. In this way they slowly proceeded in the direction of the works of the enemy, upon the Chemung at Newtown. On the 28th an Indian settlement was destroyed, together with fields of corn, and other Indian products yot unharvested.*

The Indians, determined to risk a general action in defence of their country, had selected their ground with judgment, about a mile in advance of Newtown. Their force was estimated by General Sullivan at fifteen hundred, including five companies of British troops and rangers, estimated at two hundred men. The enemy, however, only allowed their force to consist of five hundred and fifty Indians and two hundred and fifty whites, in all, eight hundred. Brant commanded the Indians, and the regular troops and rangers were led by Colonel John Butler, associated with whom were Colonels Sir John and Guy Johnson, Major Walter N. Butler, and Captain M'Donald. The enemy had constructed a breastwork of half a mile in length, so covered by a bend of the river as to expose only the front and one of the flanks to attack ; and even that flank was rendered difficult of approach by resting upon a steep ridge, nearly par-

* The instructions of the eominaiider-tn-chiof were jiereiiiptory, that Suthvun was not even to listen tu propositions of pence until utter hf ihould have " very thoro ighly completed the destruction of their settlements." 
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allel to the general course of the river, terminating somewhat below the breastwork. Farther yet to the left was still another ridge, running in the same direction, and leading to the rear of the American army. The ground was covered with pine, interspersed with low shrub-oaks, many of which, for the purpose of concealing their works, had been cut and brought from a distance, and stuck down in their front, exhibiting the appearance of untransplaiited shrubbery. The road, after crossing a deep brook at the foot of the hill, turned to the right, and ran nearly parallel to the breastwork, so as to expose the whole Hank of the army to their fire should it advance without discovering their position. Detachments of the enemy, communicating with each other, were stationed on both lulls, for the purpose of falling upon Sullivan's right and rear the moment the action should commence.

The enemy's position was discovered by Major Parr, commanding the advanced guard, at about 11 o'clock in the morning of the -29th of August. General Hand immediately formed the light infantry in a wood, at the distance of about four hundred yards from the breastwork, and waited until the main body of the army had arrived on the ground. A skirmishing was, however, kept up on both sides, the Indians sallying out of their works by small parties, firing, and suddenly retreating, making the woods, at the same time, to resound with their war-whoops, piercing the air from point to point as though the tangled forest were alive with their grim-visaged warriors. Correctly judging that the hill upon his right was occupied by the savages, General Sullivan ordered Poor's brigade to wheel off and endeavour to gain their left flank, and, if possible, to surround them, while the artillery and main body of the Americans attacked them in front. The order was promptly executed ; but as Poor climbed the ascent, the battle became animated, and the possession of 
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the hill was bravely contested.   In front the enemy stood a hot cannonade for more than two hours. Both Tories and Indians were entitled to the credit of fighting manfully.   Every rock, and tree, and bush shielded its man, from behind which the winged messengers of death were thickly sent, but with so little effect as to excite astonishment.   The Indians yielded ground only inch by inch; and in their retreat darted from tree to tree with the agility of the panther, often contesting each new position to the point of the bayonet, a thing very unusual even with militiamen, and still more rare among the undisciplined warriors of the woods. Thayendanegea was the animating spirit of the savages. Always in the thickest of the fight, he used every effort to stimulate his warriors, in the hope of leading them to victory.   Until the artillery began to play, the whoops and yells of the savages, mingled with the rattling of musketry, had wellnigh obtained the mastery of sound.   But their whoops were measurably drowned by the thunder of the cannon. This cannonade " was elegant," to adopt the phraseology of Sullivan himself, in writing to a friend, and gave the Indians a great panic.   Still, the battle was contested in front for a length of time with undiminished spirit.   But the severity of fighting was on the flank just described.   As Poor gallantly approached the point which completely uncovered the enemy's rear, Brant, who had been the first to penetrate the design of the American commander, attempted once more to rally his forces, and, with the assistance of a battalion of the rangers, make a stand.   But it was in vain, although he exerted himself to the utmost for that purpose, flying from point to point, seeming to be everywhere present, and using every means in his power to reanimate the flagging spirits and reinvigorate the arms of his followers. Having ascended the