xt73r20rsd46 https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt73r20rsd46/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1921 journals kaes_circulars_001_1_096 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 096 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 096 1921 2014 true xt73r20rsd46 section xt73r20rsd46 f ctrl
    coruzciz or Acnicumuniz
jxtligl THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director
Q.
Extension Division
‘ CIRCULAR NO. 96
ive ui  _`
,%,,1 Fundamentals of Live-Stock Judging
A Study of Types and Breeds
with i
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Lexington, Ky.
February, 1921 V _
Ihtltlishett in t··»nm·t·tit»n with the :1grit·iiltui·zil extension work carried
on hy eou;¤¢·i·;itit»ii of the i,‘·»lli·;.rt~ t»t` ;\§l'iL`l1i[\ll`€'. 1`iiiversity of Keittucky,
with the l'. S. Iieinxirtiiiviit ot` Agriuiilttirm-, mid distriliuted in fiirilterntice
of the work wovitletl for in the Act of Cmigiwss of May S, 1914.

 i
V
L
\

 I·`L`.\`I).l.lll;`.\`T.-1LS OF L]\'E-STOCK ./L`I)GIN(}.
.1 Ntudy of Types and Breeds,
l)l'Q‘[)Hl`l‘(l lllllll'l` t}1<· 11 of IC. S. Gund, Clliiil'-
man. Aninml Il1(]llSYl`}' Gl`0llp. by IllCIllbCI`S uf thc
Allilllill Ilusbzmdry l)(‘[>2ll`I1llOXlt.

 »
CONTICNTS "
Part I. Introdut·tion. Ily l·]. S. (lood and I,. J. Ilorluclivx ‘...... . ..... . 5
Part II. Horses. By W. S. Anderson ..........,...,........,..._______________ _ _,_______ ly
Judging Horses ........................,..............................,.......______._____ _ 1., tml
I I Breeds .......................I..........................................................._________ ll; mm
` IE\x··I
Part III. Beef Cattle. By Wayland Rhoads and L. J. Ilorlacher. 27 L,. N
l Judging Beef Cattle ...............................................,..._,.______________ gi mi,
Market Classes .........................................................................,,. iii: YW!]
\ Breeds .........,,,..........................................,.........._,_...,_______,________.___ jr;   lf
~.·Tt1¤·1
Part I\’. Dairy Cattle. By J. J. Hooper and li. 1\I. Prewitt ,.....__..____ Z)‘·  
Judging Dairy Cattle ....................,..................................._____.___. tw _.
Breeds .......................,..........,,.,..............................................__..,___ li) All
Part \’. Sheep. By L. J. Horlacher ......................................._.............. 5;  
Judging Sheep ..........,. . ............................................,...............I... 56 {prt
Market Classes ..........,....,.........................,.................................. T0 Yi"}!
Breeds ..__.____..,____.___________......._.................................,...................... T·J ”l'·'\"·`
Part VI, Hogs, By (). G. Hankins* ...........,,.........,......_.,.....,......,........... Sl Ymh
l V Judging Hogs .........,.....................................,,.....,.._.........,.......... SY  
Market Classes ................................,........,_..._,..,........,................ $7 will
Breeds ........................................................,................................... W mg
:h·~
Part VII. Livestock Record Associations ...................I....................»...---· 97 their
stu.-l
II p
______ idol
*Iiesigne li. ·l, llt)1{l..\()lll·Zl(.
. v . . . .
'l`ht· am·t·st<»i·s of all tltnnestitr animals were at one time wild
‘· l" ,m.lt»i1ly those survivetl which were litted by nature to endure
—· I'? ,1im;itit·, ftiod and other eomlitioits of the eountry in whieh th<·_v
lived. Man neetletl the labor, the food and the clothing whielt
.. ST l.t· t~t»ald ]»1·o<·t11·e best by taming these wild animals. llis next
__ gt awp then was to breetl these animals and select and develop
In glimi along eertain lines so that they would produee more meat
M   ··t· mt»i·t· milk or nmre wool or would perforin his work more
it in ·.·Z}it#ie11tly. lly seleeting tho>e animals that varied to suit his
M :t···~tls and taste. he has developt our preseiit types and breeds
i` in »~t` tl·»mestit· animals. 'l`I1is ]»1·¤»t·t·ss is known as artiiieial selec-
" 49 tim.
·· M While there is a l(‘ll(ll‘llt'_\' for the tlll.>i>l'lllg to vary l`r<»m
tix parents in sttme leature. yet. in the main, the ottsprittg will
-- $5 l`·*~®‘llllPlU their parents or their near relatives at·<·o1·tli11g to the
  56 laws of lieretlity. lntluetiees otlier than variation and sele<·tion.
_. To *ll*'ll as footl. elimate and rare. have been llllllttldillll l`at·tors in
  To tlt.·vt·l<»pi11g our present types of animals.
l"l¤l° the pttrpose of <·ontinuing the l1]l1ll'l'tl asstieiations have been
  S2 f».·t‘111etl. one or inore for eaeh of the most iinportant breeds.
  _ l1u\\'llllllll)t*l`lllg more than sixty. lt is the speeitie business of
  S' melt assoeiation to keep a register of pedigreed animals be-
  $7 lvttgiug to its partieular breed and to advance the interests of
the lireetl. 'l`hese ot`ti¤·ial registers of pure bred animals and
  97 their am·estors are a store of very valuable lllli<)l`1lltlll0ll.
tlae sltould uutlerstand the Vtllllllltlll terms used in live
st···;l; tiperations. sneh as put·e·l»rt~d. seruh. L‘1'tlS$·l)1'L‘(l a11d grade.
.\ ptuebred animal is an a11i1nal whose sire and dam are reg-
istered or are eligible to registry i11 a recognized breed associa-
tion. A serub is an animal whose sire and dam belong to no
wcogtiizetl breed. A eross—bred is an animal whose parents be—

 l
`
° 6 Cireultw N0. .96
long to two tllll.t‘l'l‘lli. breeds. A grade is an zininial liiivjiigu *l*'ll_l_
1llll'L‘-llI'L‘Ll for o11e parent anil :1 sernh for the otlier. 'l`lll‘ s1·1·i1l,i `.‘l"`
in tl1e eountry far Ulllllllllll)L‘l' all the 1>lll'(‘-l)l'(‘llS, t'l`llSS-llI'k’*l$ if
and gratles t‘l*1lll)llll‘tl. *l"i"l`1
Millions of tlollars eoultl he 211l1le1l to the profits ol` 1·;1l~§w i"~l"l"'
_ live stoel; it` 111011* attention were given to the l)l'l‘\‘tll||;j_ 1‘.·,·.1. li
ing and eure of iloniestie illlilll21lS. lt is s:1i1l that the il\'l‘l`{i!·· 1*******
eow of the llnitetl States proiluees ahout enough lllllli antl lain.-;· Wllll
p to pay for l1e1· keep, wl1ile the pure bretl 01* high grznle eow pin. Ti ·‘‘‘·‘ ·'-
_ iluees enough 111ilk and butter to give 21 gootl profit over the .111; l`l·"‘·‘
` of feed and eare. lt is 11o·t possible, 011 aieeoiint of illlilllvlitl 11;,1 'j·‘l**’-i
other reasons, for all people to raise pure-breil ZlllllllZll$, but till “i·***¤
i shoulil he ahle to raise high Q'l'illll‘S. No 0Il(‘ shoultl ever u~·· t, lt ‘’‘‘ *l
grade or se1·ul> sire. Always 11se pure hretl sires, l1e1·a11~.· 1l,· ·-Y-·l ll
` _ (‘ll2ll'ilt‘il‘l'lSilL'S of grade or ('l`USN·lll'l‘tl sires are llll$iIlltlt’ anil   l·
iinproyeinent of (tll.Sl)l'lll{_‘[` hy their 11se is llIlt't‘l`iZllll. *7`·*Y`l<-
A plll'C-l)l'C(l parent will have more inlluenee i11 (lCit‘l'Illlll- Yi`·’·"Yl
ing 1lesi1·ahle forni, eolor and useful el1a1‘11ete1·isti1·s than will   l'l
21 sernb parent. This property is ealleil "prepote111·y." 'l`l11· ini`-   "
spring of a pure-l1rel1·~11l; i li '“‘’
the ottspring of a half»bloo1l feniale and 21 ]llll'C·lll`t‘(l niale Es  “
ill1'CL‘-(1ll2ll'il‘1`S pure; tl1e next generatioii ol` this systeni ol l»1· 1·»~1 l-  
ing woulil he SC\'t‘ll·(‘l{IllillS pure or 11 high grzule. lligh g1·;1·l~·<   ‘‘‘‘   I
ea11not he ohtuinetl. liowever, hy using a sire ol' one l»1·1····l 1;;  4**
o11e time an1l a sire of another h1·ee1l at another tinie. lly ilie UM?
eontinuetl use of :1 I)lll'C-lJl'(‘(l sire of the sa111e hreeil 0110 11111 “i"m“l
soon huihl up a hertl of high gratles whiel: would he very 11~·‘- T'
· ful and profitable animals. 'ii‘i` _ li"
V Experience has Sll()\\`Il tl1at it reqiiires a (‘(‘I‘i2llll l<· ll1(‘ll lll2l_\' b<· tlt‘llll(‘ll ZlS·llllll. <·r1111l1111ut1nn nf cl1ur-
Q,-;p1·isti¤·s \\'lll¢'ll lllJll({‘S Zlll ZllllllI&Ll l1l{i`lIl_\' llSt‘l'lll l`<»1· u sp¢·¢·ifi<;
MNH! 1»111·p<»sl·,
1-___h_lL \'ttl‘lt¤1|N lFl't't‘(lN r>t` l||IlllllllS hum- l1¢·<·11 <·v<1lv¢·llNllllll(¥ whut is <·ull<·•'<‘l. t_\']¤t‘ ttl. Mltttltk yvt tl1<· i¤l<*u,l £lllllllillS ot' ("}l(‘ll
UWM i1:·····¤l ¤litl`•*l‘ l.l'<>lll tl1<·s<· wti tl1¤· <>tl11·1· i11 <·<»l1»1·. i11 siz<·, i11 f`<11·111
sv 1l»· iiltl i11 ¤1lllt‘l` tlvtuils.
11ltl»_· liivv stovk _llltl{Illlj[ is tho busis of ull lllllllllll llllSll2llltl]`_\'
wv·»1·l<. lllttlll u t'11Il uml ('tll‘l't‘t'l l{llt*lItlS u lllZlll_S Sllt‘t't‘$S i11 ltl`t't*tlllljI. l·t‘t‘tllll{I. uml i11
H Wm iQ·· ]¤l'ilt‘lll‘ill humlliiig nt` ull <·luss1·s <»t` st<1<·l<. 'l`h0 l`1·<·¤l¤·1· who
hi] mt gs ¤·11t tn buy u llllllt'll nt` Sl<'t’l'S. lllIllltS ·»1· pigs lllllNl bv uble
mmd: :~1·1····»g11iz<· {lll illlllllill <»t` gmul t'1»1·111 uml t‘<>ll~lllllllt>ll, 'l`l|t‘
mk ig 1.1:1 who is l>ll_\`lllQ` u mw to supply milk l·t¤l' his own mwils lllllil
m_w_ll_ };1.·11‘tl1¤· t*SSt‘llll2ll< nl` (l&lll`_\' (‘tllll`t1l']llilll¤>ll \\'lllt'l1 imli1·ut<1 guml
mwlvg nfl;p1··»1lm·1i·»11. Must llll]NIl`l2llll nf ull, tht· l>l'<‘t‘w thc spm·itit· tlotuils nf ft1l'lll uml typo
gv [hc fihis ]\ilI`llL‘lllill` l>1‘0<·ll uml IllllSl huvo <‘lt‘£ll'l}` i11 Illllltl lll(‘ il` Zlllllllills Sllttllltl hc thu u111biti1111 of
` +`»‘~1‘y f&ll`1l1 buy or girl. A good livc stovk jmlgo l1v¢·<>111¤·s so
ml Hf ~~i.i)‘:1ftc1‘ 111llL’ll putioiit stmly uml ('Ollilillll pruutis. A sys-
(IHW A 5·‘!1t<lm· stmly of stock jllllgllllg will do 1ll(>l'C towuul (lC\’L‘l<>]llllg`
1 Cmp »~:1··z1l1111ll ll1lOlllg’&‘lll tl1i11llllL‘1‘ l)1`il1l(‘ll
Hmm] 111'.21:1‘i<·11lt111·11l work, Tho l{ll()\\'lt‘tl{IC g1z1i11ml by such slmly
S l_Hm_ *1`till>1· u St>lll`t‘{‘ of Sil[lSl`2l<‘ll()ll uml llllillwlill profit Ill1'll0lll lifc.
MY}. lll*·‘ l>11yi11g uml selling, I)l‘(\]l(‘l‘ solcl-ti<111 of stock for l,11‘001li11;:
mmm, llltl l`l‘L"(lllllL‘_ :1, l{]]O\\'lt‘(l{_{'C of tl10 Qx0<·ll011¢*O of l1iS 21llil11i1lS uml
timmf _ ll·t'll`·\'2tltl(‘, ll(‘(lll&lllllilll(‘(‘ with thc lI]Ell`l{(‘l` clussos. uml El ]l10l'C
YC me ¥lt0lll§Cllt lIllCl'I)l`(‘l2ll1(lll of 111u1·k0t q110tut1011S, w1ll md the
mw-- t@1`H101· 111 plut·i11g his b11si11css 011 u tl1·11101· uml 11101*0 p1‘0fitul1l@
1

 l
i 8 Cir1·uIu1· N0. 96
t 1 busis. L`11111bi11i11g· tlolinito l(lltl\\'l(‘tl{2,`l‘ witl1 l1is l>llSlllt‘ss 111··;11s
thut l1o will Il1ill(t‘ llltll`t‘ lllUllt‘}' illilll \\'Ulll{l t>llI<‘l'\\’lSt‘ bo pmt,
blo.
'l`l1o l`:ll`llll‘l' who hus bo1·<»111o il ;;·1>1>1l jmlgo nl` st1»1·l1 tl11·t1
(‘ill`t‘l.lll, systoinutio stmly will huvo il tlogxroo <>l' 1·1·1·1»g11iti1t11 ;111·l
V lllllllt‘llt'C in his Ctilllllllllllly thutt muy (>ll.t‘l' llllllly (>l>})tll'llllllll··<
A for l1i111 to `llll‘<‘l uml 1lllll;.{`ll‘ \\`llll tho host llll.t1l‘llll‘l't‘t‘tlt‘l'S uml <>t`ti<·iuls <»l` sl1···.1·;
uml (llllk`I' ilg'l'lL‘lllllll`ill Ul'{J,`itlllZilllt>llS. llo muy thus <·<·111·* i11
i tonoh with tho bostt. lll<‘llI<)tlS ot' l\l't‘t‘tllll{§ uml humlling stm;
A uml with 1111*11 nl illl.2lll'S, uml by his lllt'l't‘2tSt‘tl kllll\\·l(.ll:I(` lll'¤¤£ltl*·ll
l1is lllllllL‘llt‘t‘ uml 11sol`11lm~ss tn his 1·11n11111111ity uml tho w··1·l»l.;
" lurgo.
111 stmlying this t‘ll’l‘lll2ll` tho first, thing to tltt is t·> l··111·:1
\ tho IIZIIIICS uml ltioutitms uml tho rolutivo llll1)t)l'l2lllt't‘ ·»t`  
tlill`o1‘o11t I>ill'lS of tho illllllllll i11 ou<·h [>ill'llt‘lll&ll' typtn by 1i_··
uso ttf tho St‘t>I't‘ ourtl. A\l`to1· u lurgxo lllll1llN‘l' <»l` illlllllill< ltaw
boo11 s1·1»1·o1l uml tl1o stmlont ll2lS lt‘ill'll<’tl tho lllt‘lllt¤tl ·1t` ··x-
illlllllilllttll so thut ho oun soo tl1o tlllllllill by purts l‘tlIll•‘l‘ tlurl
_ moroly us u whhlo, tho St't1l'l‘ 1·u1·1l m·o1l m> lt>ll{It‘l' ht- 11s1·1l. 'l`E.»·
noxt stop is to (‘(1]lll>2ll`C two 1»1· 1m11·o &lllllllillS. Slllll lll} uml hl}
um·o tho ${l`t'>l1{.Z` points uml tl1o woula points of Cilvll. uml pl11··»:
tho illlllllillS in tho l'l{lll§.
such us sizo, color uml floooo. lt is u long tuslc, thc work ul at
lifotimo, tn l)(‘l‘OlllC* uoqttuintotl witl1 tho tlitl'o1·o11t. l11·o1·1ls1111·_l
· should not bo uttoniptotl vory lurgoly 1111til tho stmlont hus 11111tlc
u vory olnso stmly of smno 0110 brood uml ll2l$ l)t‘t‘t1lllt‘ u gmtl
jmlgxo of thut b1·o<·1l.
Tho ft)ll()\\’lll{I pugos uro tlovntotl to tho (llSt'llSSlt>ll. ti1·~‘.
of tho prinoiplos of stool: jmlging; soooml, of tho 1lit`t’o1·011t
typos of unimuls; uml third, of tho more (2011111101] hrcotls.

 fj
 
l1l•‘11I1<
Inmi.
1 111111
»11 211141
1111121-:s
* s1·»··k V
s]1<·11s
·111n ill
‘ s1~~·k
I'4>2i•{··H
1l`l1l 21Y
’ ¥°"?`" Part II.
wi Im
lw I1;}
Q lm 4, A HORSES
<11` •·x- BY
1* 111111
L   \V. S. Ax1>1—;11s·1»x
Ill 11.1;-
1 ]•1a1»~}
illlilllixl
lllilllnl.
sh··11]11
il u·111·
h1ilL‘1ll§
1 11l`1‘011
01·is1112s
11111 1110
<>l`1(1llQ.
‘k of :1
ls 111111
s 111;1110
gl @11111
1. H1·~T.
it`1'c1·0111
Lls.
E

 1
1
, 10 C1i1·1·ular N0. 96
Jl11)(11N(1 l1011S1CS
Tl11· N1·111·1· ('111·1I is 1l1S(‘1`11‘l1 :1s il g111111- 1-1>l` 1111- 111·gi11111·1- 111
1l(1I'Sl* _111l1g.11lg'. l1111·s1-s 2l1'1‘ 11111 _11111;fl‘11 111 1'1>l11]1l‘1111(>11 ill 1111111;
S111)\\`S 11_1· 1111- s1·111·1- 1-:11*11, 11111 11 is :111 0x1·1·111-111 1111-:111s 111. 11‘il1'1l1lI!
1110 s11:110 111. 11111111s. \\v11l‘Il 1111- s1·1111- 111. ]1111111N is 111111‘111_1· 111111;.11-,
* 011 1111*11* is 111111- 1·l1I'11lk‘1' 11St* 1111* 1111- s1·111‘0 1-:11*11. 1
111 1111- s1·:111- (11. 11111111s \\'1111 100 :1s 1111- 111:1x111111111 11 \\'111 11·
a 111111-11 111111 1111‘1'1‘ :11-1- six g1-111-1-:11 (11\'1N1()11N :1x 1.1111<1\\'S§
1\, (11-111-1-:11 z1[1111-:11-:1111·1- 111 Il(11111S
_ 11. 111-:111 :11111 l11‘1'1{ S ]1111111»
(`. 1·`111·1-11:11111 18 l1(11111S
I), 111111), 12 [1111111S
1 li. 1111111 1|11211'11‘1`S 212 11111111N
1·`. 1\l‘11(1l1 1»111111111s
'1`1111 11111-11 _111l1{.l'1llg` 1s 1111111- 11_\' 1111$1‘1`\`l11yl` 1111- Q~1`111l1'111 :111·
111-z11·11111 1- 111 1111* 111>1`N(‘ :11111 111111111IQ 111111-1-. '1`111111 1111N 1~ 1<11f11‘*1"'
1 111:1- (1111lx1' (11\·1$1(111$ \\'1111‘1l 1111§1l1 111 111- (‘l11'l*111111_\' 1·1111~E111·2·1·~1.
1’1·1111011-1101 111 _111<1g`111g` l‘i111 110 i1112l1lll‘11 111 11S11ly[` 1111- s1·111·1- 11111*11
1111111 l‘\`(’1'}' 1.L‘i11l11'L‘ 111. 1111- ;1111111:11 1·1111 111- {.l`1\'1‘11 11111- 1·1111~E·1»·:·.1-  
11011. 11
—1
111 using; 1111- s1·111‘1- (‘il1'I1 11 1s \\`l‘11 111 1`11111111 1-:11·11 111\'1`111111l1  
(>1'11l‘1' :1s 11 11 1s 1.11111111 1111 1111- l11°1111(`(1 1'111.11. N1‘\'l‘1' 0111- 1`:;l[  
N('1)1'1' 1:1111 1*:11111- 11111(`FS 1111- 11:11·111·111:11· 1·1°111111.(` 1·:11111111 111· 1111-  
1 111'11\‘C11. H
12
l1 is \\'1‘11 111 _11ll1{.[`1l1{I 1I111'F(‘S 111 11l1l11'1)Z11'11 1111 1111- 11-11 >E11·- 13
111 1110 111ll'$O 1111- :111 1*S111ll2l1l} 111 1110 g1-111-1-:11 :111111-;11·;1111·1-. 14,101111
1111s 1:1011* I)(}111t 1110 C1ll'1‘121QC 111 1110 110:111, 11(‘l‘1{, :11111 1:111 1-:111 111-
_ ]101C(1 as 1v0ll as 1110 001·1·001110ss of 1110 pose, A

 Fundamentals 0f Live-Stock Judging 11
wr iii F  ‘ `  ` .'
l1<¤1‘>c   ’ A
mm ` °° · . .__,_ 
Hshllu   \ 9 h   [L l V4-,.·  ';·_, V.
J • _ W ~ ».   gl - . "(
  IM] Y Z an 
tv M
30
I1 Z4 35
Z9 37 __
38
gg 39,·~ .
in
il
Z2 Q .4 A
23 . ·
il zip- _
;[[]l»]'»*
lt·!‘t·~l. U
_ (uml Fig. 2. The Points of the Draft Horse.
-I___ 1. (`hin. 14. Sliouldvr. 27. Loin.
l"1‘l` 2. Nostril. 15. Slionlder point. 28. Coupling.
3. Nose. 16. Arm. 29. Belly.
4. Poll. 17. 1·Zll>ow. im. Hindilunlc.
inn in 5. Foce. 18. Forettrin. 31. Hip.
‘ 6. Forehead. 19. Knee. 32. Croup.
¤· lull T. Eye. 20. (`zinnon. 33. '1`uil.
I . S. Eur. 21. Fetloek joint. 34. Bnttot·ll—l*—’ 13. Withers. 26. But-k. 39. Hook.
l·`r lll
K} SCORE CARD FOR HORSES
`m N Stzxndurtl of Excellence. Perfert Score
A. General Appearance—16 Points.
1. Height. according to nge und breed ............................ 2
2. Weight, :1t·<·ording to nge and breed .......................... 2
3. Form, close, deep, syniinetricul .... . .................................. 4
4. Quality, bone clean. dense, tine. strong. tendons. de-
fined; hide und hair line; general retinoinent and
iinish ............ . ........................................................................... 4
5. Temperament, active, intelligent; disposition good. 4

 1
‘ 12 Cl·)'(`1(1(I}' N0. .96
St11111lz1.1*11 111 1‘]X('(‘110l1CO. l’1·1*1`1·1·1 $11111 F
1 B. Head and Neck-8 Points.
. 6. Head, S11'111§111 1`1ll‘1‘ 11110. 010:111 1*111 1`(‘El111l`0S. 11*1110
i111§‘§`11‘ 111 11`»\\`1‘l` j;111* .... . ....,......,............,.,..,.....................   1
7. Forehead, ~1)1`Uil11, 11111 .......,...... . .... . .... . ....,,.......,...... . ..... . 1
. S. Eyes. 1l1l'1.{(‘, 1`11l1, 111'O1l11l1L‘11[ ,..............,, .. ,..... . ...... . .,...... 1
9. Muzzle, 11110. 11l)S1l`11S 1111`KU, lips 111111, (}\’l‘11 ....   ..... . 1
111. Ears, lI11‘(111l1l1 size, ]1()1ll1(‘(1, s1·1 1·l11s0, (‘1ll`1`1L‘(1 111(¥I`1 1
11. Neck. 11111g, w1·1l 1·1*0s101l. [1l1'()1.11(} \\’U11 0111 11111, 1l\‘ill1
` well set 1111 .,,,..............................................,............... . ...,_.__ 3 I
C. F0r*ehand—18 Points. K
1 12. Shoulders, 1*01*)* 11111g, slupiiig 1*01 l1111S('111ill' ....   _.___ . Q °
13. Arms, $11111*1, 1l111$l'1111lI`. ('21I`l`11’11 11*011 f111*11*z11*11 .......... . 1 1
' 14. Forearms, 11111g. 111*0:111, 1l11lS(‘111L11` ....................... . ....,.,_, . 1
15. Knees. s11*;1ig11t, \\'1l1l‘. 110011 ...._........, . ....__.._,   .......,.   1 (
16. Cannons, s11111*1. 111*0:111, 11111 ..............................,1........_,,,__ . 3 1
* 17. Fetlocks, \\`1(1l’, 11‘l1(1()11S \\'(‘11 ·11;11·k, s11*11ig11t, w01l s1111-
1101*1011 .............................................1. . ................ . ....., . ..... .. 1
18. Pasterns, 1()111.‘{, ()1)11(1l1L‘ (45 (1C1.‘§1`Ol`*S1 S1I`Oll§.§... .........l 1
19. Feet, l111*g0, 1*0111111, 1111i1`111*111; sole ('()11(`1l\'(’§ 11111*s
1 st1·011g; frog 1L11‘;!,1‘§ 11001s 11*1110; 1101*11 11011s0, s11111111l1  
20. Legs. 11I'U11Cl`1§' 111110011. A 11<‘1']11‘1l111(‘ll1il1' 11110 111·11111101l
f1`O111 1110 11111111 111 1110 S11K)ll111(?l' s111111l1l 1111*1110 1110 leg
111111 111111 01111111ly; 11*11ile 21 11110 11*11111 1110 1)()I1}' 1)l`l)l11·
11101100 111 1110 s111111l1101* 11111110 $111111111 pass 1111*11 1119
0011101* 01 [1lE 01111111* j11i111 il11(1 1110 0011101* 01 1110 111111.. 4
D. Body—12 Points.
21. Withers, high. 111l1S¢‘ll11l1`, \\'€11 t1111s1101l 111 11111, 0x10111l-
ing 11*011 11110 1110 11a0l{ ............,................. . ............ . .......... 3
22. Chest, 111e11i11111 \\'1(1[11. 110011 ................................................ 2
23. Ribs, well sp1*1111g, 111111;, 010se .....................,... . ................. 2
24. Back, s1101*t, s11*;1ig11t, S11’Ol1g. 111*111111 ........ . ...... .. ............ 2
25. Loin, $111111. 111*0:111, I1111S(‘1l11l1`, S1l`()l1g`1}' 0011111011 ............ 2
26. Flanks, 110011. full, 10111.;, 1011* 11l1(1(3l`1111C ............................ 1
E. Hindquarte1*s—32 Points.
_ 27. Hips, 1)1`(1Zl(1, 1*0111111. $11100111 ................................................ 2
` 28. Croup, 10ll_£§. 101*01, I`0l111(1, s1111111t11 .................................... 2
29. Tail, set 11ig11, 11*011 001*1*1011 .......................... .. ................. 2
30. Thighs, 1`11ll, 11111s011l111* .............. . ........................................ 2
31. Stifles. 1)1`O21(1, 11111 11111s1e11l111* .............................................. Z'
32. Gaskins, 1)I`OZ`1(1. 1lll1S(J1l1i11‘ .................................................. 9
33. Hooks, st1*11igl1t. 11*1110, 1111111ts 111*11111i11e11t, 110011, 1*101111
0111, s11111o111, 11*011 s1111p111*te1l ......................... . ......... . .... 6
34. Cannons, S1lO1'1, 111*01111, 11111; 1CI1(1()I1S S11111`])1}' (11*1111011 2
* 35. Fetloeks, wide, r;t1*:1ig11t, well Sll})D()1`1€(1 ........................ 2
36. Pasterns, 101112*;, ()1)11(]1lC (511 110;.:1*00sl s1111111tl1, st1*1111g U
37. Feet, 1101 (11l;[€ as large as 11*11111, 111*1101*11*is0 IIS 1110
f1*011t .......................................................................................... 4
38. Legs, DI`()])Cl`1y 111110011. A 111111 f1`O1l1 1110 11111111 111 1110
1)11110(‘k $111111111 11ivi1le 1110 legs 111111 1001 €(]ll2111Y, 11*11110
21 11110 (1l`OD1)€11 fI`Ol1l 11110 11111 j11i11t S110ll1(1 strike 111111-
wuy between 1110 fl`0ll1. 21l1(1 1110 1*0111* of the 111111 ........ 4

 its
Fimtlanienltils 0f L{i·c-Stool.: Judging 13
Standard of Excellence. Perfect Score
SWT F, Actl0n—14 Points.
39_ walk, ranitl. tlat·t’ootetl. elastic, in line ..`......._,,,,,,,,,,,__ 7
4o_ Trot, free, snringy. square, going well oit hock, fair
Q fold of knee ..........»,.........................................._______,,,___,______ 7
1 Total .......4........4..........................,.....4.,,..l........,,,__,,_,,,___,, 100
1
1 Note the top antl the underline, the eloseness of the coupling,
3 the set of the tail, the length of leg with the depth of the body,
antl the fullness of tpiarters. Tlte faults to he found from the
Q side view are; the drooping, or "ewe" neek; flat, heavy withers;
i long eoupling; low neek: steep eroup; weak quarters; long legs;
{ t·ut up tlanks; antl a hotly of too little depth. The depth of
2 hotly should only lat·l< an iut·h o1· two of being as great as is
1 tht- length of tlte front legs.
1 The 11ext position is to pass to the front of the horse. From
5 this point ohserve the front line of the head, which should
he approximately straight from poll to muzzle. Prominenee
of the foi·t·lteatl antl the tlished eondition are hoth ohjectionahle.
There should he width hetween the eyes. Tlte eyes themselves
4 should he prominent antl alert. Tl1t· "sleepy" animal is to he
market] low. Note the ehest tleyelopment antl the set of legs and
feet.
3 Pass from t.he front to the right side of the horse to re-
ii view the impression of his general appearanee as seen front the
2 left side. The next position is in the rear to ohserye the set of
i legs antl feet. The legs should appear to set on the four eor-
neis of the hotly. They should he straight. and the feet held
at the right angle. The toes should not turn either in or out.
if The nature of the tpiarters, hoeks antl gaskins eau he studied
Q from the rear.
3 The tptarters should he full antl heavily museled. The
Q gaskins ought to he hroatl antl strong. The hoeks should he
6 wide. elean. and held at the proper angle.
g A eloser examination is neeessary to determine the eleair
3 ness of the hone antl the nature of the feet.. The front eannon
M bones are to he examined on the insitle for splints. The pasterns
4 for side hones and ring bones. and the joints for wind-puffs.
The hand may have to he used to make these examinations.
4 To examine the feet they must he lifted. The retpiire-

 14 Circular N0. 96
t
ments for a good foot are: wide heels, the frog large amd elastit; th
, , the hairs well detined and strong to prevent eontrau·tion of the sit
heel. and the sole eoneave and strong to proteet. the interior at ol`
the foot. The foot. is of mmsnal importance heeamse il` it girls ri·
way for any reason the horse is worthless. nl
T .~lefi`ou. Certain requirements in aetion an·e neeessan·_v· l,,,· le
t all breeds of horses, as well as for nmles. 'l`l1e gaits expeeted ot` `l
' all breeds are the walk and the trot. (tf these the wall; is oi`
greater importanee for the reason that work is done at that l"
gait. The requirements for this gait are that it shall he tr1;··
° a11d elastie. ln judging the gait have the animal moved so 1t.· Y1
' eau be viewed from the front as he approaches amd from the
rear as he moves otf. as well as from the side as he goes l»_i-_ el
· The feet shonld he lifted clear of t.he ground with a onielc.
snappy movement amd he earried forward in a straight line for >l
a long stride. Seore otl` heavily for the faults of earrying tlie
l 1`eet outward or inward from the straight line. 'l`he side vieiv l’
will tell the nature of the impaet, whether it he elastie or lieav_v,
The elastie movement is due to long. sloping pastei·ns that are l`
well tlexed with the knees and hoeks.
The trot is the two-heat movement in whieh the diagonal Zi
feet strike the ground in unison. To he properly exeeuted tlie
knee must fold and the hoek flex in aeeord with the pastern~ "
S0 that the bottom of the foot can he seen elearly from the rear
amd the foot itself be lifted some little distanee oll` the ground. l
In light horses the extreme speed is often made hy the front l
foot being lifted almost to the body. As in the walk, the faults l
of trotting are to be found in the outward swing of the foot
as it is carried forward, whieh is known as paddling. i\nother I
i , criticism must often be made of the laek of aetion. 'l`here nitty l
be too little fold of knee or llexion of hov·k_ I
The saddle types have a faney gait known ais the eaut<‘1‘
which is nothing more tham the gallop done slowly amd grate- `
fully, giving the rider at most, pleasamt sensation of agreeahle `
. motion. The running walk, or stepping pace, is known in show ,
rings as the slow gait. lt is a most important gait amd shoald
be done with free, elastic movement. The raek is the one, two. (
three, four beat and is a highly artificial gait, but. the niost
spectacular in the show ring of the live gaits save, perhaps.

  
Fundamentals of Dive-Stack Judging 15
stit·, thc trot. 'l`hc rack, to bc of grczitt valuc, should bc done at con-
th•~ sitlwzililc spvvtl und with vxccllcnt action ull around. Luck
r of oi. UX]l(‘l`lL’lll‘(‘ ut. this gait nitty hc discovered hy observing thc
iris ritlcr as hc plziws wcight iirst on one rein of the bridlc and then
tm the othur. '1`his is very oh_ic<·tio1nnl>lc and would pluoc ii
M. ]\til·so for down. Nvxt in llll[1Ul'l2ll1(5(5 to this defect is luck of
tl of sptwtl znnl of uvtion.
, ,,I· I·'uu//s uf .·l<·!i0u. ln judging thc action of horses the fol-
mm lowing: tl<·t`¢·<·ts nniy hc ohs<·rvcd;
mh. l·`or;;ing—sStriking; tho undvr S\l1'i.Zl(‘Q of thc shoc on thc
» ho front foot with the toc of thc hind foot.
th·· lllit‘]'i-l‘l'lll{.{`·--liI`\lSllillg thc fvtloul; of ono log with thc foot
hx; of thr other us it pzissvs.
i.·l:. l’zuldling4'l`hrowing out 21 front foot us it nnikcs thc
for striI)(‘1`
mu] ihrxioii und vlustirity.
mk, Rollin;:»—I`inlu<· motion of shouYd0rs_ found in liorsos with
»l-in i‘X<*n‘#si\‘c width in i`ront_
WI. li/tnizislus. Nothing: is inorv iiiipwtiziiit in _iud;:ing horses
gmt than to (ll$t‘U\'t‘l` l1h·inish<·s und tiiisoiiiidnvss. A l)ll’]Ill*H¤'il}' thv 1‘<*>uli of an·<·id<·nt. but voinos l1l‘l‘illlS(‘ tho stmin
my \\`l1ll‘ll illv illlllllill hus liccn uinlcr wais ton groait for his consti-
` union. .\ few nil tho most iinportunt nnsoundnossos urcz
lm, ll0uv0s»])itlit·ult. rvspirution.
ML Lzun0n0ss—L`nwillingncss to nniho :1 foot or log do its full
No sliarc,
M, Honring——A 1in·yngc;il ;1{`f`0ction which causes difficulty in
HM breathing.
im BOS SP¤Vi¤—A soft, puiTy swelling of thc inside and front
AN of the hock.
PS, BOM Spawn--A bony enlargement of inside and front of
the hock.
E

 a
16 Circular N0. 96
I
Cnrb—A bony cnlargoniont looatcd on tho baok of the hook.
y '1`horopin—A swelling of the thin uppor part of the ho¤·l;_
involving the large tendon only.
Sl)l1l1t—A bony 1)1`0`]CCi10Il on tho msitlc ot tho trout ouintou liu
y bono.
Qnartor—oraol;—A splitting of thc wall of tho foot,
i Side-bone—A bony growth on tho roar part of the foot jolt
above the hair line. I I
, lz't‘
Ringbono—i\. bony growth o11 tho pastorn bonos ai tho 1owt·t·
liinit of the hair.
{ T0 Toll thc Ago 0f Horsos. By the time tho horse is nine
months of ago he has six pairs of temporary nippor tooth
At tho age from two and ono-half to throo yours tho two
" niidtllo pairs of temporary nippors are lost and porinanottt  
onos appear. " `
At tho age from throo and ono-halt` to four yours, two more
i pairs of porinanont nippors tako thoir plaoos.
At tho ago from four antl ono-half to tivo yours tho otlior
two pairs of pornianont tooth grow in. i "
At tho ago of six tho onps ol` tho two oontral tooth aro worn
p smooth.
At, tho ago of sovon tho ou is of tho soooinl iair uro worn
e l l
smooth.  _
At the ago of eight tho inoisors aro all worn >niooth_  
Tin; Bnicians or Iloicsiss  
Type Breed IEE;
fI’orohoron _.
Shire  
. Drum 4 Clyitosrlale  
, . Belgian _.xZ
L Stittolk  
.,;—: 
Thorobrod  _· 
Light; Staiidurtlbred "
Horses American Saddle
German Coach
` C . {French Coach
arrmge ICleveland Bay b _
at
Hackney ·
Welch heig-
i Ponies Shetland
Hackney

 F
l¢’u¢1damcntals of Live-Stack Judging 17
wk DRAFT Honsns
»el<. There are five main breeds of draft horses, namely:
l)UI`t'llCl'UIl, Belgian, Clydesdale, Shire and Suffolk.
inn
l’1s1¢o111a1zoN A
ust The Perelieron horse originated in La Perehe, France. They
are now bred and used extensively in America.
ver
ine  ` ’ `
Wo · L .—~_;$· s·   ‘ , ‘ S
. ·;     ;   ·   .  
M .3i / l  ‘  pd; “      
irc y, ' E   ° A  
• j »•'°‘» "   ( 3
l0l‘ "°` °   >
·1·n
ini
. l __..;d{ . I
l i V, ri
Fig. 3. Percheron Stallion. A Grand C