xt73tx352d1t https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt73tx352d1t/data/mets.xml The Frontier Nursing Service, Inc. 1938 bulletins  English The Frontier Nursing Service, Inc. Copyright 1925-2010. FNS, Inc. Use and reproduction of this work are permitted for the purposes of research and scholarship if non-commercial. All other rights are reserved to the copyright owner. Federal copyright law prohibits the reproduction, distribution, or public display of copyrighted materials without the express and written permission of the copyright owner, unless fair use or another exemption under copyright law applies. Frontier Nursing Service Quarterly Bulletins The Quarterly Bulletin of The Frontier Nursing Service, Inc., Vol. XIV, No. 1, Summer 1938 text The Quarterly Bulletin of The Frontier Nursing Service, Inc., Vol. XIV, No. 1, Summer 1938 1938 2014 true xt73tx352d1t section xt73tx352d1t •
The Quarterly Bullet1n of
The F1·0nt1e1· Nu1·s1ng Se1·v1ce, Inc.
{2 VOL. XIV SUMMER, 1938 NO. 1
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Mrs. Will Gay and Mrs. Etna Bowling starting off by boat from the Frontier ` j
Nursing Service Hospital at Hyden, Leslie County, Kentucky, to their home at  .
Bowlingtown, Perry County, twenty-five miles by river. They were both oper» 3
ated on for appendicitis and had to be taken home in the most comfortable 1
way possible. Hence the boat»ambulance. I 2
` !
l .
Published Quarterly by the Frontier Nursing Service, Lexington, Ky. ,
"Entered as second class matter June 30, 1926, at the Post Office at Lexington, Ky., .
under the Act of March 3, 1879."
Copyright 1938 Frontier Nursing Service, Inc.  l

  L crry BANK BLDG.
 B To the Officers and Trustees, .
` Frontier Nursing Service, Incorporated,
. Lexington, Kentucky.
 _ Ladies and Gentlemen :—
 3 We have made a detailed examination of your records
  and accounts for the fiscal year ended April 30th, 1938, with
the result as disclosed on the annexed Exhibits and support-
_i ing Schedules.
Endowment and Memorial Funds, both principal and in-
. come, were certified to us by the various Trustees therefor.
 L ’ Contributions and gifts, in cash, have been checked
g against the Treasurer’s receipts and reports and traced into
 A the bank.
 5 All disbursements have been verified by means of can-
·   celed checks and supporting vouchers, and the bank accounts
__  have been reconciled and found correct.
Q In our opinion all monies have been duly and properly
 _ accounted for.
l During the year you have lived within your current in-
` come; made a substantial reduction in your outstanding obli-
J  gations; and increased your endowment by the sum of $25,-
p ” 900. 4
_  — Respectfully submitted,
  Certified Public Accountants.
 _l Lexington, Kentucky,
May Twenty-fourth,
it Nineteen Thirty—eight. _ _ .

 ' ;i
of the 1<
May 1, 1937 to April 30, 1938  
For the seventh consecutive year we condense our annual  
report to reduce the cost of printing. Here follows a summary ~
of the fiscal year which closed April 30, 1938, both as to funds ¤
and as to the work. I
We received this year from all sources, including dona-
tions and subscriptions, nursing, medical and hospital fees, in- 1
vestment income, the Alpha Omicron Pi Social Service fund,
sales of books, revenue from the Wendover Post OHice, the l
Director’s lecture fees, benefits, and refunds, but exclusive of .
$25,900.00 in new endowment, a total for running expenses
and retirement of debt of $91,068.01. .
Our total receipts this year were considerably less than
last year, both in new endowment and in contributions for
running expenses, but even so we have added to our endow- j
ment, balanced the budget, and as our auditors say, "lived  
within our income." E
We want to remind our subscribers that from the first r
year of our existence, namely 1925-26, when our budget was
only $11,000, we have had a complete system of accounting
for each donation, and an annual audit by certified accoun- pl
tants. Our fiscal affairs have, therefore, been upon as Adj °
good a basis from the beginning as they are now. Our au- ,
ditors early put into operation the system of the duplicate- I
numbered-receipt with which our members are familiar. For V
every receipt sent you a carbon copy with exactly the same y
number is retained by the treasurer. These are checked
against the bank statement by the auditors, and each one ac-  
counted for. In addition, there is a complete set of books °

 l kept on all receipts, as well as on all expenditures, and ex-
  penditures are checked by vouchers and cancelled checks.
( The total number of subscribers to the Frontier Nursing
` Service during the past fiscal year was 2,300, the largest
, number we have ever had. This figure includes *1,900 old
· donors, and 400 new donors. Our grateful thanks
`— are due the chairmen of a number of Frontier Nurs-
_ ing Service city committees, for benefits and special
  appeals, by means of which they raised funds dur-
ii ing the past year. The total sum received from benefits and
i` lectures was $5,237.46; This does not include $1,500.10 re-
: ceived from the Washington Committee benefit in April, as
lp these receipts came to us after April 30th,—the close of the
', fiscal year. Nor does this include the results of the special
· appeal sent out by Mrs. Charles S. Shoemaker, our Pittsburgh
_ chairman, and Vice-Chairman of the Executive Committee,
who, in lieu of a benefit, sent out her personal appeal in De-
. cember, and got returns of $5,424.50. The results of this
personal appeal are listed under donations. They brought the
I Pittsburgh donations for the year to the splendid sum of $9,-
488.00-—the largest single sum from any city this year except
‘ New York, which, with contributions of $13,282.10, and a
benefit netting $3,713.01, brought in a total of $16,995.11.
ri Our Louisville contributions fell from $15,903.09 the pre-
  ceding year to $7,002.30 this fiscal year. This was the direct
j result of the big fiood and the tremendous expense to which
f Louisville residents were put in rehabilitating their businesses
and the homes of their employees; and in making special con-
tributions to the Red Cross and other agencies handling relief
Q in this great emergency.
V The Frontier Nursing Service received $10,000.00 of new
p endowment through the will of the late Mrs. Marion E. Taylor
of Louisville, Kentucky, and also received from a friend, who
  prefers to remain anonymous, 150 shares of 6 per cent. pre-
 ' ferred capital stock of the Aluminum Company of America,

 .  3
valued at $15,900.00. These gifts bring the total endowment  ·
up to $229,424.53, as follows:   —
Joan Glancy Memorial .,........................................................ $ 5,000.00 ‘
· Mary Ballard Morton Memorial ........................................ 53,024.53 ,
` Belle Barrett Hughitt Memorial ...............................,........ 15,000.00  
Jesse Preston Draper Memorial Fund No. 1 ................ 15,000.00 _
Jesse Preston Draper Memorial Fund No. 2 ................ 50,000.00  
Isabelle George Jeifcott Memorial .................................... 2,500.00 4
Gen’l Endowment (Anonymous--from "A Friend") .... 63,000.00 .
General Endowment (Marion E. Taylor Memorial) .... 10,000.00 . .·*
General Endowment (Anonymous) .................................. 15,900.00  *
Total ............................................................................................ $229,424.53  
Our endowments represent gifts from friends in Detroit, K; 
Louisville, Chicago, New England, Washington, New York and A
Pittsburgh. They are represented by trust funds held with
the Security Trust Company of Lexington, Kentucky, the  1
United States Trust Company, of Louisville, Kentucky, the Q
Guaranty Trust Company of New York, and a group of trus—  ,
tees selected by the anonymous donor of $63,000 in New York.  l
The income from these investments is now a vital asset towards F
our budget. We urge our friends wherever possible to set  .
up an endowment in their lifetime sufficient to represent at ._ 
least a part of their annual gift to the Frontier Nursing Service.  ·
In addition to this endowment, the Frontier Nursing Serv-  ¢
ice owns realty, equipment, and livestock conservatively esti-  
mated by our auditors at $212,386.74, all without lien. No  
mortgage has ever been placed against any of the Frontier  —§
Nursing Service land or buildings, even during our leanest  lip
years. The Frontier Nursing Service is still indebted to its  
trustees for loans of several years ago, and to its stan", after  i
p allowing for a one-third cut in salary, for the sum of $18,557.-  _
42. Both of these indebtednesses have been reduced in size, Q
and each year’s budget allows for a further reduction. The A I
Budget set for this year is again $92,000.00.  
The field nurses carried during the year a total of 8,402 E, 
people in 1,651 families. Of these, 5,056 were children, in- =

 ’ cluding 2,276 babies and toddlers. Bedside nursing care was
‘ given to 236 very sick people, of whom 15 died. The district
1 nurses paid 18,951 visits and received 24,991 visits at nurs-
i ing centers. The Frontier Nursing Service Hospital at Hyden
I was occupied 3,395 days by 361 patients. There were sent to
Q hospitals and other institutions outside the mountains 35 pa-
l tients who, with their attendants, were transported on passes
given us by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company. .
I Under the direction of the State Board of Health, the
‘ Service gave 7,011 inoculations and vaccines against typhoid,
, diphtheria, smallpox, etc., and sent 1,097 specimens out for
Q analysis.
We held during the year 205 field clinics with an attend-
s ance of 6,903 people.
A The nurse-midwives delivered 393 women in childbirth
_ of 392 live babies, 4 stillbirths and 3 miscarriages; and gave
j' them full prenatal and postpartum care. There was one ma-
4 ternal death following a caesarian section. There were six
_ sets of twins. There were 446 new cases admitted and 376
_ closed after postpartum care.
  In addition to our regular cases, the nurse—midwives were
.; called to eight emergency deliveries where the mother had not
  been registered or given prenatal care; eleven miscarriages
  (unregistered cases) ; and they gave postpartum care to five
i unregistered mothers. ~
. There were fourteen outside area cases, of which six
  were delivered in the Hyden Hospital.
  Dr. R-. L. Collins and Dr. J. E. Hagen, of Hazard, Ken-
@1 tucky, performed numerous operations during the year, those
  on indigent people as a courtesy to the Service. None of the
 { doctors in the various cities, to whom we sent patients, made
 L any charges for their services. Our regular medical work was _

· l
carried by our own medical director, Dr. John H. Kooser. We  l
are particularly grateful to Dr. F. W. Urton of Louisville and  Y
' Dr. Scott Breckinridge of Lexington, for again giving us their ’
· services for tonsillectomy and gynecological clinics at our ,
hospital in Hyden. N
We are also deeply grateful to Dr. Josephine Hunt and  I
her associate members on the Medical Advisory Committee in  ji
Lexington, Kentucky, for the attention they have given, gratu-  y
itously and so graciously, to both patients and members of the  
staff, sent down to them on various occasions. We extend our  _f
special thanks to Dr. Fred Adair of the University of Chicago,  ‘‘
a member of our National Medical Council, for getting us Dr.-  
Fred K. Vaughan of New Orleans to relieve for Dr. Kooser’s j
winter vacation. A
We want to extend our special thanks to Miss Florence A
Johnson and her associates of the Nursing Service of the  
American Red Cross Chapter in New York, for their invari-  pi
able kindness in meeting, at the dock, new nurses coming to  rl
us from overseas, and taking care of them until they are put  
on their trains for Kentucky. Over a period of years Miss  
Johnson and her associates have performed this service for  l
us in the most gracious way.  
. During the past year we completed our third thousand
midwifery cases, and sent the records to Dr. Dublin in New "
York. We are profoundly grateful to him and to his assist- Qi
ants of the Statistical Bureau staff, in especial Miss Elizabeth _
Steele, for their weeks of work in tabulating these records. We 1
will print their report in the autumn issue of the Quarterly i

I Fnonrinn Nunsme snavrca 7
 , (Alpha Omicron Pi Fund)
, Service and aid have been given in connection with the follow-
1 ing numbers and types of cases:
  Dependent and neglected children: 11 cases
 ji Handicapped children: 12 cases
_, Medical-social cases: 34 cases: of these- ‘
 j 23 were sent to hospitals elsewhere
; 11 were given service of other kinds
; Assistance to families, usually to
F  meet need on an acute level: 24 cases
  Miscellaneous services: 9 cases
I Investigations made at the request ·
 _ of other agencies: 2 cases
  Service has also been given in connection with the fol-
 . lowing group or community activities:
 I Knitting and sewing classes
 = Circulating libraries _
i Christmas celebrations
M Tuberculosis and Crippled Children’s clinics
 ; Tuberculosis Seal Sale Campaign
  County Red Cross Chapter—Leslie County, Ky.
rl Girls Sewing Project——National Youth Administration—C1ay County, Ky.
 I The social service director has, in the course of the year,
 ” engaged also in the following activities:
 i She spoke at the National Convention of the Alpha Omicron Pi and wrote
I two magazine articles concerning the work of her department. She
has also served as Treasurer of the Kentucky Conference of Social
‘ In concluding this report of our thirteenth fiscal year, we
 j` want to extend our grateful thanks to the staff—doctor, dis-
  . trict nurse-midwives, hospital and administrative group,
»] social service and courier service—to our city and mountain
A committees, to the Kentucky State Board of Health and its
officers, to our thousands of supporters and to our thousands

of patients, for their cooperation and loyalty during all of the  
past twelve months. »
_ Never did a young organization meet with more kind- l
ness or more understanding than ours. We are continually a
amazed at the imagination, the sympathy, and the insight of { .
the American people.  
The Frontier Nursing Service is now widely recognized  
as a leading national philanthropy. Once more we re-state  
its purposes. Our first objective was to set up, in a labora-  
tory of remotely rural human beings, a system of medical,  ,3
nursing, and social work that would meet such needs in that {
kind of environment. We planned from the beginning to  
keep so careful an accounting, both of our work and of our I
funds, that this system could be studied, for re—application, in } 
any part of the world with problems analagous to our own. " 
An article from the London Times, by Dr. Harley Wil-  
liams, reprinted elsewhere in this issue of the Bulletin, shows  Q
that this distinguished visitor from abroad, has grasped the Q
fundamental ideas lying behind this careful preparation.  
Our initial demonstration led up to our second objective,  
which was to open our field for observation and study to prop-  g
erly qualified people, interested in using our methods in re- gl
motely rural sections anywhere in the world. As Dr. Wil- l
liams pointed out in his article, we owe our initial conception V
to the splendid work of the late Sir Leslie MacKenzie in the i
l Highlands and Islands Medical and Nursing Scheme in Scot- sl
land. We, in our turn, are now passing our methods on to _
others. Sometime ago a physician from Afghanistan came in
i to study our work for re-application in Afghanistan, and just f
lately we have had a visit from Mrs. M. E. Rothmann, from  ]
the Afrikaanse Christelike Vroue-Vereniging, Swellendam,
South Africa, to learn at first hand how we did our work, in s, ‘
order to adapt our methods to citizens of the Veldt. ·
Their problem will be lightened from the beginning, be-
cause the Union of South Africa, like New Zealand and Aus-
tralia, and unlike the United States and Canada, has taken `  
over the British Central Midwives Board system. South Af-  

gi rica, therefore, already has an abundance of graduate nurses
» who are graduate midwives as well.
42 Our third objective must await a larger endowment. We _
Q plan ultimately to arrange a system of training for graduate
. » nurses in midwifery, and in our cabin-and-saddle-bag-tech-
  nique, which will enable us to meet the demands of agencies
g interested in starting little units of the Frontier Nursing Serv-
fi . . . .
3 ice in other remotely rural parts of Amer1ca’s vast territory
{ and in her dependencies. Work like ours is needed in Porto
"  Rico, Alaska, along the Mexican border, on the Indian reser-
  vations, in other parts of the Appalachians and in the Ozarks.
  To the trustees and members of the Frontier Nursing Serv-
’ ice this need is a challenge, and we have no doubt that before
 1 long the challenge will be met.
 i   S. JOUETT, Chairman.
  S C. N. MANNING, Treasurer.
 i We are particularly grateful to Mrs. Arthur Terry of
  Short Hills, New Jersey, for shipments of "old sight glasses".
We are only one of many organizations remembered by Mrs.
· Terry in this most beneiicent charity. When old men can’t
 [ see to hammer a nail and old women to thread a needle, then
 i a pair of glasses, with simple magnifying lens, literally give
them new sight in their old age. It seems unnecessary to
A _ add that these glasses are not corrective and are never given
‘ any but very old people. Mrs. Terry always gives her glasses
away and she gets the funds to do this wonderful work from
p donations of optical scrap. Those of you who read this, and
. have old frames you are not using, can help the work along
J by sending these frames to Mrs. Arthur Terry, Short Hills,
Q New Jersey.

"Every dog his day"
_——" 4
Pepper, son of Buzz, a Pitt bulldog, given us by Dr.
Hunt, came in 1925 and was a part of our earliest beginnings.
He knew the old house at Hyden, long ago pulled down,  .
where we began our work. He was at Wendover in the cabin  
before the big house was built. The forest aisles rang to his 1
joyous bark and he scampered to meet every rider and lick  ,
her hand. = 
When Mrs. Bolton gave us the Possum Bend Center at  4
Confluence, we sent him down to belong to the nurses there.  1
While the center was building, he lived in the one—room cabin,  
and moved with the nurses into the'new building with its S
new grounds.  
From then on through all the years, Pepper was part  
and parcel of the nursing center at Confluence. He remem—  
bered each one of us as we came and went and greeted us  1
rapturously. Although he never welcomed other dogs, and ° 
had terrific fights with canine intruders, he was sociably in-  
clined to people and utterly devoted to children. It was a Y
common sight to see him on the dispensary floor with two or  5
three toddlers pulling his ears and mercilessly poking at his  
eyes. His only answer was to lick their barbarous little hands.  
Loyal, courageous, gentle, tender—such was Pepper, son of  
Buzz. 1
This prayer at least the gods fulfill  
,_ That when I pass the flood and see
_ Old Charon by the Stygian coast  I
Take toll of all who land
Your little, faithful barking ghost
May leap to lick my phantom hand.
—S`t. John Lucas to his dog. ·
"I still talk about Kentucky as glowingly as the first
year I went down to the mountains. It is a love that certainly  1
lasts".—"Dickie" Chase, New England courier, in a letter. 1

» By NORA KELLY, R. N., s. G. M.
1 (Senior Nurse at the Caroline Butler Atwood Memorial Nursing Center)
 p` It was one of those usual days—I had done my rounds,
 l had just gotten the last of our class of twenty-seven knitters
l away, and was enjoying a cup of tea and my mail when the
j  call came—just another midwifery call.
 j By the time we got to the house the moon and stars were
{ out. I asked the husband what time the moon set. "Not till
 .` morning," was the reply. Mentally I ran through the chances
 l of a quick case and a ride home by moonlight.
  She was a primipara (first baby case), was up and around
 j very bright and cheerful and not in very active labor; after
g  supper and the usual treatment for the patient, we all went
 I to sleep for awhile; towards morning my patient began to
>  get into pretty active labor.
 { The day wore on with no sign of the end of labor-one
 Y of those long slow cases that everyone dreads—nothing really
 ; wrong—pr0bably a large baby. About three P. M. along came
3 the second nurse, Miss Mowbray, sent up from the Clara
{ Ford Center on Red Bird River by the midwifery supervisor
  to relieve me or help as one thought fit. We consulted to- .
; gether and decided that it was just a matter of time, every-
` thing still normal and the patient in good condition.
  Supper time again——over twenty-four hours. I began to
~ feel a little anxious. At 7 P. M. I returned to the nursing
I center to telephone Dr. Kooser explaining the case. ·He ac-
cordingly gave his advice, and said to report in one hour. At
. 8 P. M. one of us reported again. He said he would come. He
had about eighteen miles to travel. I explained where he
‘ would find men to lead him the nearest way, and guide him
across the fords and to the home where we were.
 l Shortly before midnight we heard the horse’s hoofs in the
I distance. I am sure no one but a midwife has any idea just

what it means to hear those feet striking the rocks after four ~ 
hours waiting. ° 
After removing his raincoat and sou.’wester, Dr. Kooser
. made an examination,——a case for forceps. Everyone helped.
The fire in the room was extinguished as well as all lamps; ' 
the instruments were boiled in a huge kettle kept for canning I
purposes; Miss Mowbray gave the anesthetic; I waited on
the doctor; the husband and a sister helped hold the patient.  I
Dr. Kooser delivered a nine pound girl with forceps shortly
before 2:00 A. M. All the light used was an ordinary two- i
cell iiashlight—mine had previously given out. When all was _
finished, patient and baby fixed up, we invited the Doctor  I
home for a rest and breakfast, which he declined as it was ,.
clinic day in Hyden and if he returned at once he would be
there by 8 A. M. ready for patients. Such is a doctor’s life! l
I returned home for some delayed sleep while Miss Mowbray
stayed with the patient for awhile.  I
This was my second forceps case in seven years. I know .
doctors and midwives will think this almost incredible. I do ‘
myself when I am in the cities and around hospitals. Of I
course, in the mountains I only average around thirty de-  `A
liveries in a year, but even so I think two forceps deliveries
an unusual record for more than two hundred cases.  .
Last Thursday Dr. Kooser and Meg were here for a very i
* successful clinic. We had 67 here with Dr. Kooser examin—  ,
ing 39 of that number. It really was almost too many for I ;°
am afraid they were both very tired before reaching home  
that night. It is such a help to me to have him come and  i
check over sick or doubtful cases. We had 11 pre—natals  
here, two being from Confluence district. He also discovered  
two "tuberculosis of the bone" cases, one in a girl of four  ·
and one in a boy of eight. i
EVA GILBERT, R. N., S. C. M. `

. VOL. V"
Bywoner, trekking, veldt, outspan, morgen, diggings——
  these and other words with an odd sound for American ears
V so besprinkle the pages of this report that the cursory reader
" might easily fail to get beneath the striking and curious con-
- trasts which they suggest as between South Africa and these
United States. Once one has gotten beneath this crust of
 . dissimilarity, one is all the more sharply impressed by the
‘ fact that these students of the social maladies to be found in
4 South Africa are traveling paths not unlike our own. The
` asocial residue inherited from the pioneer mode of life; prob-
y lems arising out of the competition of two races; unsound
*=  social developments associated with the commercial exploita-
A tion of natural resources and by the depletion of natural
; resources; the difficulties of financing the essential minimum
  in health and social services among scattered rural popula-
V, tions: these are not the words of the Rev. Albertyn and Mrs.
 f Rothmann, but these are, in abbreviated phrases, the sub-
 i jects of their study. Except for the curious words and
  phrases, together with a few startling, perhaps sometimes
l superficial differences, one might almost forget that the locale
 i is South Africa rather than these United States!
4 It would seem to be almost inevitable that those of us _
, who focus our attention upon the social problems arising
§ among population groups which are affected by some pecu-
, liar factor, ethnic, cultural, geographic, tend to exaggerate
  the peculiar at the expense of the typical. For the American
 ‘ student, the report of this Carnegie Commission might well
C serve as a wholesome reminder that "the play is the thing,"
` and that local variations represent only a comparatively minor

feature of this tremendous drama of the inter-play of human I
beings and environment. Y
The section of the book which arouses the heartiest re-  
sponse from one who is soaked in the philosophy of the Fron-
‘ ‘ tier Nursing Service is, quite naturally, the part dealing with
maternal and child welfare. It is not merely that Mrs. Roth-
mann draws back the grim curtain for a glimpse of the hard-
ship and risk which accompany motherhood among the South
African rural poor; we have our own grim curtain, and be-  
hind it a similar waste and neglect of the lives of mothers and
children. But the signal service which Mrs. Rothmann ren-
ders is to sum up the significance, in long—range terms, of a _
‘system’ which exacts so much of the women who bear and i
rear the new generation. Some one has said: "What we do for I
children is the measure of our knowledge of the processes of —
civilization." Mrs. Rothmann would go even farther. Her
suggestion is that the mother is the central figure in the pro- _
cess of socializing the new generation; and that isolation,  
hardship, ‘dangerous’ motherhood place drastic limitations _
upon her service in this role. Perhaps we need to coin still  
another phrase: If we would serve children, and through A
them, serve civilization, we must perforce serve motherhood. l
-—Reviewed by Bland Morrow. ;
"After graduation I worked for four years in a steel  
works where they used Kentucky mules exclusively for draft A
animals, the largest mules I have ever seen as some of them -*
a were I7 hands high. The manager of the mill used to buy
them personally, going down to what he called the ‘mule  {
atmosphere of Kentucky’ to get them, as he said that was the  ‘
only place where they knew how to raise the kind he wanted. i
I saw many examples of their pulling power and we had one ‘
short, chunky mule that could move anything the others  
could not. When the big ones stuck in the mud they sent for {