xt741n7xn21t https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt741n7xn21t/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1955 journals 034 English Lexington : Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Kentucky Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Progress report (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n.34 text Progress report (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n.34 1955 2014 true xt741n7xn21t section xt741n7xn21t " Progress Report 34 November 1955
PROGRESS REPORT ON PEACH VARIETIES FOR KENTUCKY
By W. D. Armstrong
t Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station
A Variety tests of peaches have been under way for several years at the
Western Kentucky Experiment Substation and to a lesser extent at the Experiment
Station at Lexington and at the Robinson Substation at Quicksand, Variety testing
is a continuous project and this report deals with results obtained to date.
Much of the success of a peach planting depends on the selection of adapt-
ed varieties, and much of the progress in peach growing is due to the continuous
» development of new varieties with superior qualities.
I Many growers are interested in trying out new varieties; consequently, I
n the experience obtained from these tests should serve as a valuable guide.
’ Selection of Varieties. Many varieties are mentioned because they have
been tested, as well as a few verypromising ones that have not as yet been fruited.
1 Since the lists in catalogs are large, it is felt that it will be helpful to the grower to
mention those that are standard, "new, and those that should be discarded, However,
it has not been possible to include in the tests all the varieties available.
Variety Purpose. Certain plantings require fruit that will ripen over a
_ long period, andlseveral varieties are required. Other plantings, designed to ship
toca specific market, require fewer varieties or even just one, During the last 2.0
years the trend in Kentucky has been toward smaller peach plantings, scattered
over the peach sections of the state, with more sales directly to the consumer or to
trucks at the orchard or at the roadside market. A number of orchardists now
actually invite consumers to "pick their own" peaches from the trees. Thus. there
has been a reduction in the quantity of fruit packed and shipped commercially to
I large markets.
Variety Comment. While Elberta is still the most widely used variety, it
is losing popularity, Its chief strong points have been its wide adaptability, strong
tree, and large, firm fruit. Its disadvantages are that it frequently has a slightly bitter
taste, blooms early, and is tender to cold, both in bud and bloom. Many attempts
are under way to create better peaches than Elberta, and some progress is being
made Of the Elberta season, the Redskin is currently one fof the likeliest prospects
as a general-—purpose peach.
With the great number of varieties now available or becoming availableg we
have a number of varieties for specific purposes. For instance, Golden Jubilee is
a so—called self—thinning variety that does not set fruit nearly so heavily as do Red
haven and Halehaven. Consequently, the last two need heavy and early thinning
KENTUCKY AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
BM _1 lr *55 Universitypf Kentucky
Lexington

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while Golden Jubilee generally thins itself. Golden Jubilee also has tender fruit
that drops quickly from the tree upon becoming mature. However, the variety is of _'
fine quality and is a full free—stone, excellent for local. sales, canning, freezing and
eating fresh. Hence, for a small planting for local market or home use, the Golden
Jubilee is a splendid sort. .
\
There are now a number of very high quality productive, satisfactory .
kinds such as Golden Jubilee, Sunhigh, Goldeneast, Nectar, Georgia Belle, Laterose,
and others that are somewhat soft for best use as shipping varieties but are excellent
for home use or local sales.,
Tree-Ripe Picking and Increased Consumption. As riper, higher quality
peaches have become available, the rate of peach consumption has increased and the
demand strengthened. Hence, for more repeat sales and satisfied consumers, vari-
eties should be grown that can be handled when mature ripe, and every effort should
be made to see that customers do not get green peaches. Several soft—fleshed vari-
eties of very high quality are also excellent for home fruit planting, ·
Varieties for Commercial Shipping. Peaches, to enter profitably on the
national shipping market, must be of good—to—large size, be free of insect and dis-
ease injury, be firm enough to resist serious bruising, be reasonaly well colored
and be of acceptable quality when they reach the consumer.
Generally, in all but the earliest season shipments, yellow freestone
peaches a·re favored. Some markets, however, will take white peaches. ln their or-
der of ripening, some varieties that have been found firm enough for commercial ship-
ing are: Dixired (yellow clingstone), Redhaven, Triogem, Halehavei(losing popularity), »
July Elberta, Early Elberta (Gleason Elberta), Redskin (with Elberta in season), and
‘§hipper‘s Late Red. l
Door Yard Peach Varieties. The earlier peaches ripen, the less trouble
they generaffyhaire from insects and diseases; also, the less they have to be sprayed
before harvest. Since spraying is often badly neglected in small plantings, early
ripening varieties such as Golden Jubilee usually mature more of their fruit than do
later maturing varie_ties such as Halehaven, Elberta, and others. (See ripening
chart.)
However, we now have readily available more effective materials for con-
trolling insects and diseases, and equipment for applying those materials is also be-
ing improved. Hence those who will take the time and make the effort to spray their
trees according to directions can expect crops reasonably free of insects and diseases,
even crops of late—ripening varieties.
Varieties for Home Freezing. The so-called non-browning varieties
whose cut flesh does noifurn dark upo—ri_exposure to air are generally considered more
desirable for home quick—freezing. Some non -browing varieties in their order of rip-
ening are: Dixigem, Redhaven, Triogem, Richhaven, and Redskin. Others not clas—
sed strictly as non —browning, which freeze better than average are: Golden Jubilee,
Sunhigh. July Elberta, and Belle of Georgia. l\4ost other firm-fleshed varieties should
make a reasonable frozen product if well matured and processed quickly and carefully.

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Varieties for Home Canning. While all varieties can be canned and will
be usable, some are considered as making a more superior canned product than others. ·
These are: Redhaven, Dixiegem, Golden Jubilee (sometimes soft), Triogem, Vedette.
Fairhaven, July Heath (cl), Ambergem (cl), Belle of Georgia, Early Elberta, J`. H.
Hale, Shipper‘s Late Red, and Rio Oso Gem.
Opportunity in Late Ripening Varieties. DDT and Parathion are available
now for the control of the Oriental Fruit Moth late in the season. Hence, where ade-
quate care is given, we can now produce peaches that ripen later than Elberta. There
is frequently a good demand for peaches ripening l to Z weeks after Elberta, such as
Rio Oso Gem, Afterglow, White Hale, Laterose, Frank (cl), Late Elberta, and Lizzie. _
Variety Successions. The fruit of one variety usually matures and is pick-
ed over a period of 7 to 10 to 14 days, and harvest can be extended farther by varying
A fertilizer or pruning practices among trees of the same variety. (Trees that are vigor-
ous from he a vy pruning or from heavy nitrogen fertilization do not ripen their fruit
so early as non—pruned or non fertilized, non-vigorous trees.) Hence. for a steady
succession of fruit, varieties should be selected that follow each other by about l0 days ·
or l—l/2. weeks. This succession of ripening is very important where a continuous sup-
ply of fruit is needed for a roadside market, continuing orchard or market sales, or
for extended fresh use at home.
Winter Hardy Varieties. Following several cold winters. Halehaven and
Belle of Georgia have had partial crops when Elberta trees in the same planting had
all of their fruit buds killed, hence no crop. Some other varieties that have proved to
be quite hardy under Kentucky conditions have been Alton, Raritan Rose, Cumberland, _
Vedette, Viceroy South Haven, and Ambergem. Also, varieties that are late in
blooming such as Marigold, Raritan Rose, Cumberland Veteran and Ambergem fre-
quently blossom after late damaging frosts and escape injury when early blooming
V varieties such as Elberta and Halehaven are badly damaged. The hardier varieties
are especially advantageous in the colder parts of the state and on locations and sites
that are inclined to be cold and frosty.

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