xt741n7xn26r https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt741n7xn26r/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1938 journals kaes_circulars_003_316 English Lexington : The Service, 1913-1958. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 316 text Circular (Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station) n. 316 1938 2014 true xt741n7xn26r section xt741n7xn26r UNI V ERSITY OF KENTUCK Y
ls. x-
Extension Division
THOMAS P. COOPER, Dean and Director .
10-25.00 `
15.00 CIRCULAR N0. 316
$ 2.40
1.50 `
1.50 /
5 5.00   1
50.00 ’
25.00 ° i
150.00 . $
45.00 A
20.00 4 `T“   ·
150.00   . .
? or  
iilciicc _
Iilllgb. ¤` ·
izes ol ’ ( 
L your
Zollegc { Q
Lexington, Ky.
August, 1938
_ Published in connection with the agricultural extension work carried on by coopera-
11011-Of the College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, with the U. S. Department of
Agriculture and distributed in furtherance of the work provided for in the Act of Con-
- QTESS of May 8, 1914. J 4

. 111
. g(
‘ · I`:1
i 11
` ck

Circular N0. 316*
Planning the meals for the day would be simple if all members
of the family were of about the sa1ne age, doing similar work, in
good health, and if the family income were sufficient to purchase
all needed foods. Most families are not so ideal, however. There
may be children of different ages, or aged or frail persons so that
the food requirements may be different for each one. Of the adult y
members some may be at hard labor, others at light labor, or the
family income may make it necessary to do careful economical buy- t I
lllg. ·
The person who plans the meals should have a thoro knowledge
of the food requirements of the body, and of the nutritive values
of the various foods, in order that she may provide the children ol
the family with food elements needed for growth, and both the
yottnger and older members with foods needed for energy. for keep— ‘
ing the body in good condition, and for building np resistance
against disease.
l-lousewives often imagine that it is impossible to serve attrac—
tive and palatable meals which include all the essential elements
for growth and health, at a low cost. This is a false idea. The
woman who knows food values. the food requirenients of the mem-
bers of her family, and who makes a systematic study of the prit es
of products in the market is able to serve her family attractive.
well—planned meals at low cost. 'The farm family which has a well»
]Ji?!IlllC(l garden; uses a budget system for canning and storing gill"
den products for the non·growing season; stores eggs for winter
USG; produces the family supply of milk and other dairy products.
some sugars, such as honey and molasses, most of the supply ol
fresh meat and all the canned and cured meat, can have adequate.
well-planned meals the entire year at a small expenditure of money.
High supersede Circular Nc. 228, of the same title. `

The Iollowing table gives the iinporiant constituents ol [oods l
and the part which each plays in the body processes ol` children uml
adults. V.
7 Clgsitication of the food constituents, 7 W im,   rr rr"' ww V1
and their chief sources *7 W7 i < Wk Geneiiifitionrg W I
Sugar Macaroni Butter Produce energy for work (
Jellies Potatoes Lard and warmth, and for 1
Jams Sweetpotatoes Vegetable oils carrying on the general 1
Syrups Dates Corn oil body processes. 1
Molasses Bananas Cotton seed oil g
Candy Cereals Olive oil (
Breads Dried beans Pork
Rice Bacon
_ Nuts
Lean meat Cheese Build new body tissue i
Beef American of children and conval-
Mutton Cottage escents and keep body
Lamb Eggs tissues of children and [N
Chicken Milk adults in repair.
Pork Beans (dried) H
Fish Mature and dried peas ll
CELLULOSE Aid digestion, Help in
Coarse cereals preventing or overcom- M
Coarse fruits and vegetables ing constipation. I),
Calcium Iron Help to build and re- m
Milk Liver pair bony and muscu- W
Cheese Oysters lar tissues and build (I
Phosphorus Dried beans new red blood corpus
Lean meat Beef (lean) cles. Help to keep body
Egg yolk Heart in good condition. Aid U
Cheese Greens in body processes such il
Whole—grain Molasses as digestion, heart ac-
cereals* Egg yolk tion, secretions, etc. kl
Milk Blackberries *l
Prunes il
Whole-grain cereals LU
‘ String beans
Peas P
_ * Made from whole-grain. ·

Meal Planning, I 5
mds classification of the food constituents,
um] and their chief sources   y
W" vitaminA VitaminB VitaminC VitaminD Help to pm-
W Butter Greens Oranges Egg yolk mote growth
Cream Fresh green peas Grapefruit Cod liver oil and optimum
vork Carrots String beans Tomatoes VitaminG health.
for Eggs Whole milk Cabbage (raw) Liver
reral Liver Whole-wheat Bananas Beef
Milk (whole) yeast breads Apples Milk
Spinach Whole-grain Lettuce Eggs
Cod liver oil cereals Potatoes Greens
Carrots Apples
· Peas
_ Tomatoes
wal- “Mif)W W ir 7
body Note that rurlio/1ya'm/as and fuls do not have building power. `
and but only produce energy for warmth and activity. '\\'hen more
carbohydrates and fats are eaten than are needed [or energy and
V the body processes they are stored in the body as fatty tissue. `
S I’ro/r·1`21.r are the tissue builders and are needed in comparatively
COIN" small amounts. The protein requirement [or young children will
be met il a quart of milk, an egg and a serving of whole cereal are
{ used daily. with an occasional serving ol? meat. A serving of meat
l 1‘€· may be added daily [or older children. A pint ol milk. one egg.
  whole cereal in some form, and a liberal serving of lean meat or
l_puS_ tbecse is sulhcient to meet the adult`s daily protein needs.
b0dl‘ lllinwm/.v are needed only in small amounts. but they are very
Al; important in building bone and muscle, making blood. and aiding
DSL; in all the body processes. Altho many minerals are required to
up kccp the body in good condition, most of them are needed in such
small quantities that they are supplied in a diet that includes the
quota ol milk. liberal servings of a variety of {ruits and vegetables
and whole-grain cereals daily. However, iron, calcium and phos-
l>ll<¤1`llS are so necessary that special attention should be given to y

ti Kentucky Extension Circa./ar No. 316
them in planning the menu. Calcium (lime) is necessary to harden mt
the bones and teeth and to stimulate heart action. Milk contains tm
a larger proportion of calcium that other foods. and is our best lll,
source of this element. A quart of milk should be used daily itt Im
some form by children and at least a pint by adults. \*Vith out
present knowledge of food requirements it is practically impossible
to get sufficient calcium from other foods alone. Iron is essential L
in building red blood corpuscles. It is undoubtedly the most dil`» 9
hcult food constituent to supply, because foods contain it in such A-
small quantities. An insufficient amount of iron in foods leads to
lowered resistance to disease, lowered vitality, fatigue. and eventu-
ally an anemic condition. For this reason. persons who have 3‘
hnicky appetites, especially teen»agecl girls, are apt to become ane- 4.
‘ P/1os]1horn.v is necessary in building bone and muscle. but sintc . 5.
foods rich in calcium and protein also contain phosphorus. the
requirement usually is met when materials containing sufhciettt  
amounts of these substances are included in the diet. Si
Vilztmins stimulate growth and help to build up resistance to
certain diseases and keep the body in a condition of optimum health. 9·
A dehciency of vitamin A in the diet results in stunted growth in 10
children; a decreased resistance to nose, throat and bronchial in- `
fection; impaired vision and lowered vitality at all ages. Vitamin tt_
B is necessary for growth, helps to stimulate the appetite, and aids
digestion. A lack of vitamin B eventually results in nervous in-
stability. Vitamin C promotes normal growth and health, and
helps to keep the teeth and blood vessels in good condition. A lack
ol` vitamin C results in a loss of appetite, lassitude and eventually
a disease known as scurvy. Vitamin D is essential for the prevetr
tion of rickets in children and keeping the bones of adults in good 12
condition. `
lt is true that a housewife may supply all the essential ingretli- 13_
ents in a menu, but have an uninteresting, unpalatable meal he-
cause she has not arranged good combinations in Havor, texture and l4·
color. Again. she may serve attractive meals but cater to the loud
likes or dislikes of her family or be so limited in the supply of food 15
materials that her meals do not adequately supply the food requi1`€· is

Meal Planning, I 7
ilen ments essential lor growth and health. The [ollowing suggestions
tins Im planning menus, if kept in mind, will help to make the meals
resi ;ippt·1ixing, interesting, and attractive, while supplying the essential
‘ in Ioocl ingredients.
{mi i_ Use the day as a unit and make at least one day’s menus or, better, one
. _ week’s, at a time.
(m` g_ Distribute the protein, carbohydrates and fats thruout the day se that
11Cll one type of food does not predominate at any one meal, such as a menu
s to of meat, a cheese dish and custard, or of potatoes, sweetpotatoes, and
mb rice.
, ., 3. Do not serve the same food twice in one meal, as tomato soup and
ml tomato salad, or creamed carrots and carrot salad.
m€‘ 4, Do not serve more than one strongly flavored food at a meal, as onions `
and cabbage.
.ll(`(‘ . 5. Balance the soft, solid and crisp foods. That is, do not serve all soft
lh,. foods at one meal and all solid or dry at another.
icm 6. Do not serve several acid or several sweet foods at one meal.
7. Season foods mildly, but tastily.
8. Avoid serving several foods difficult to digest at the same meal, such as `
; ui pork chops, other fried foods and pie.
lm, 9. Serve left—overs in a new form and always attractively. When possible,
. do not serve them the next meal.
l _m 10. Have foods prepared in a palatable form. Greasy meats and vegetables. i
m' and poorly seasoned foods are not appetizing to most persons.
min 11. Include in the daily menu:
aids a. One quart of milk for each child and at least one pint for each adult.
m_ b. Two liberal servings of vegetables besides potatoes, one raw. (Green
' I leaf vegetables three times a week.)
dm c. Two liberal servings of fruits, one raw.
liuill d. Either a green or a yellow fruit or vegetable daily.
llll} e. Whole cereal in some form.
vena f. One egg and a serving of meat for adults and older children. ll(`e that the following food
classes are included:
a. At least two vegetables, one raw, besides potatoes.
b. At least two fruits, one raw.
c. A green or yellow fruit or vegetable.
31.5 d. Whole—grain cereal in some form. `
e. One serving of meat.
f. One quart of milk for children, a pint for adults (one cup in cooked
foods, the rest as a beverage).
g_ One egg per person, either served as such or in cooked foods.
uit _ _
'l`he essential food properues necessary for energy, growth and
health are found in each day’s menu. ln the lirst day’s menu. vita-
min A is found in the butter, cream and beet tops. Vitamin B is
found in the milk, beet greens and whole cereal. Vitamin C is in
the berries and fresh vegetable salad. Vitamin D is found in the egg
mst s yolk. and vitamin G in the fresh meat, egg, milk and vegetables.
One quart of milk for children and one pint for adults supplies l
the calcium requirement.
Iron is supplied by the egg yolk, beef, beet tops, peaches and
whole cereals.
The protein is contributed by the egg, meat and milk. _
The energy is supplied by the cereal, potatoes, bread, butter.
cream and sugar.
The whole-grain cereals, coarse—fibered vegetables and fruits
have laxative qualities.
Y.  H (Ea 
( (   [.   _, 3
\_ aiqa, ” lg 5;,; a,,(“(,f;~,‘ *¢g,@~ .
.. ¢ » mr t -» % sta: U- *~<* "l "l‘ tiibé
  .  a ’   \{_ =,;§_U l     r,_>¥*j.. -~ `\/   
4» ‘<  ,   an ,   Q v c $  
Types of food which should be included in the daily diet.

 12 Kczmzc/4.y Extension Circa/arr No. 316
4 c. cooked beet tops 1 t. salt I
2 T. butter
Clean carefully young, tender beet tops and wash in several waters.
Cook until tender. adding salt but no water except that which clings to the
leaves when they are washed. Drain, chop, add butter. Reheat and serve HUC
at once. l€1`€
2 c. cooked diced carrots 2 T. butter
2 c. cooked diced turnips
h Combine vegetables, add seasoning, reheat and serve. _
12 medium onions le c. wate1· gm
vi c. thick cream Parsley HO]
1 1:. salt mk
Peel and wash onions. Arrange in a casserole, add water and seasoning E°1`€~
and bake in a moderate oven (375 — 400 degrees F.) until tender. Add cream.
sprinkle with chopped parsley and serve.
3 c. cooked or raw corn Milk? Wh?
llg c. bread crumbs 1 t. salt Wl
3 T. butter 1 T. chopped pepper or pimie1it0 W9
Mix chopped pepper or pimiento and salt with COl’Il. Pour half of com
1nixture into a buttered baking dish, add one tablespoon of butter and l
cup toasted bread crumbs. Add the remainder of corn mixture and one
tablespoon of butter. Pour on sufficient milk to cover. Melt the remaining
tablespoon of butter and add the remaining one—half cup of crumbs to it.
Sprinkle buttered crumbs over the top of the corn and bake in a hot oven
<400 — 425 degrees F.) until crumbs are brown.
7 * c _;, cup, T A tablespoon, L a teaspoon. in ~
r If 21 calmed C0l`l1 with a creamy texture is u5ed_ lt will not be necessary to add 1¤llk· ori

A/Ical Plrmning, I I3
1 c. cooked carrots 13 c. nuts
1 c. cooked potatoes 1 c. milk or vegetable stock
1 c. cooked string beans 4 T. Hour
1 c. peas 1 t. onion juice
4 T. butter 1 egg
Dry bread crumbs % t. salt
0 the Cut vegetables in small pieces. Make a white sauce with butter, Hour
Sewe and liquid. Add seasoning. Mix sauce, vegetables and nuts. Place on but-
tered plate and cool. Form into cutlets. Dip in beaten egg, roll in crumbs
and again in egg. Fry in deep fat or bake in hot oven (400 degrees F.) until
a golden brown. Other vegetable combinations may be used.
3 egg yolks 4 T. flour
3 egg whites 1 c. grated cheese
` 2 T. Butter 1 t. salt I
1 c. milk '
Make a thick white sauce of butter, Hour and milk, using the directions
given for medium white sauce. Add the grated cheese and salt. Remove
from the Hre and add well-beaten egg yolks. Cool mixture slightly. cut and
fold in stiifly beaten whites. Pour into a buttered baking dish. Set the
baking dish in a pan of water and bake in a moderate oven (350 - 375 de- _
{ming €;1`€€S F.) until firm. Serve at once.
6 hard cooked eggs 6 slices toast
1% c. medium white sauce Parsley
Separate the yolks from the whites. Chop the whites and add to the
white sauce. Arrange four slices of toast on a platter and pour the white
Sauce over them. Force the egg yolks thru a strainer and sprinkle over
nieuto the top. Cut the remaining slices of toast in triangles and arrange around
the edge of the platter. Garnish with parsley and serve at once.
f corn
wd 1 swiss STEAK
ld one
ainiiig 2 lbs. round steak cut 1% inch thick 2 c. tomatoes
e to it. té c. Hour 1 green pepper
t oven 2 T. melted suet 1 onion
1 t. salt 4 carrots
Mix salt and Hour and pound into steak. Sear the steak in the hot fat
in a heavy skillet or pan. Add vegetables. Cover and simmer for 2 hours
dd mi“‘· 01‘ until meat is tender. Add more liquid if necessary.

14 Kentucky Extension Cm·u/ur No. 316
2 c. hot milk Ml c. sugar 2;
2 large or 3 small eggs le tl vanilla or other Havering the
lg t. salt am
Beat the eggs slightly, add sugar, salt and hot milk. Pour into indivl- mu
dual molds or into a large enough baking dish so that the custard is not
more than two inches thick. Set molds or baking dish into a pan of water
and bake in a moderate oven (350 - 375 degrees F.) until Hrm, or 25 min-
Dates, cocoanut, or marshmallow may be added for variation, o1· a dif~
ferent flavoring may be used, such as nutmeg, cinnamon, caramel or maple.
Plain custard may be served with sliced peaches, berries or jam.
4 c. sliced apples le c. water sift
. 2 c. bread crumbs te t. cinnamon Chi
Mt c. butter 1 T. lemon juice ‘
E6. c. brown sugar Grated rind of at lemon
Melt the butter and add the crumbs. Place one—half of apples in but
tered baking dish. Sprinkle one-half of sugar, cinnamon, lemon juice and
rind on apples. Cover with one-half of crumbs. Repeat, pouring the water
over the mixture before the last crumbs are added. Bake in a moderate
oven (350 degrees F.) until apples are tender, or about 40 minutes. Serve
with cream or fruit sauce.
6 egg yolks 6 egg whites but
1 c. sugar 1 c. flour cre;
1 T. lemon juice % t. salt for
Grated rind ie lemon adc
Sift the Hour, measure. add the salt and resift. Beat the egg yolks until
thick and lemon-colored. Add the sifted sugar gradually to the egg yolks.
beating constantly. Add the Havoring and fold in the egg whites beaten
stiff but not dry. Cut and fold in the Hour and salt. Do not stir or beat
after the Hour is added or the cake will be tough. Bake in slow oven (300 A
degrees F.) _ab0ut one hour. com
1 c. molasses 1 t. ginger VA
le c. sugar le t. cloves
le c. melted fat B4 t. allspice
1 egg, well beaten Mg t. salt
1 c. boiling water 2% c. Hour (sift before
1% t. soda measuring)

Meal P/amzing, I 15
Mix molasses, sugar, melted fat and well-beaten egg and beat until all
are well combined. Add spices, salt and soda to the flour and sift into
molasses mixture, stirring until flour is just dampened. Add hot water to
ring the mixture and beat until smooth. Pour into muffin tins or a shallow pan
and bake in a moderate oven (350 - 375 degrees F.) about 25 minutes for
idivi- muffin tins or 35 for shallow pan.
s not
mm` 1 c. brown sugar 1 t. soda
_ *5 c. sorghum molasses ei t. ginger
" dm 1 c. fat, melted li c. hot water
w‘p1€‘ 2 eggs, well beaten Flour to make soft dough
1 t. salt (about 4 c.)
Mix the sugar, molasses, melted fat and eggs. Pour hot water into
molasses mixture and stir until well blended. Add dry ingredients well
sifted. Chill, roll, cut and bake in a moderate oven (350 degrees FJ. `
Chopped nuts may be sprinkled over the top before baking.
1 but 1 egg Rind of l lemon
e and 2 T. flour Juice of 1 lemon `
water BQ c. sugar 8 - 10 marshmallows
lerate 1% c. hot water 1 c. chopped fruit (cherries,
Serve 2 T. Butter pineapple, peaches, pears, etc.) _ `
Melt the butter in a double boiler, add sugar and liour, sifted together,
tothe butter and stir until well blended. Add hot water gradually to the
butter mixture and cook in a double boiler until the consistency of thick
cream. Add the well-beaten egg and continue cooking, stirring constantly.
for about 5 minutes. Add the lemon rind and juice. Remove from fire.
add chopped marshmallows and fruit. Let stand until cool.
a until
Jeateil 4 c. buttermilk 1 c. sugar
r beat 2 c. strained apricots
Q (300 Add sugar to buttermilk and stir until sugar is dissolved. Freeze until
consistency of mush, add fruit and stir until thoroly mixed, and continue
A. Other strained or crushed fruits may be substituted for apricots.
B. Melt 12 marshmallows in the top of a double boiler, add buttermilk,
stir until well blended, and freeze according to directions in recipe.
,1-6 Reduce the suga1· one—half when marshmallows are used.
C. Fold in one well-beaten egg white when adding fruit.

Ag r