xt74f47gqx04 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt74f47gqx04/data/mets.xml Peter, Robert, 1805-1894. 1857  books b96-11-34699084 English A.G. Hodges, public printer, : [Frankfurt, Ky. : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Geology, Economic Analysis. Second chemical report of the ores, rocks, soils, coals, mineral waters, &c., of Kentucky  / by Robert Peter. text Second chemical report of the ores, rocks, soils, coals, mineral waters, &c., of Kentucky  / by Robert Peter. 1857 2002 true xt74f47gqx04 section xt74f47gqx04 


       OF THE



           OF KENTUCKY,


       ROBERT PETER, M. D.,


 This page in the original text is blank.


                INTRODUCTORY LETTER.

                         Lexinglon, lAy., December 8Ah, 18-56.  S
D. D. OWEN, M. D.:
     Dear Sir-In accordance with your instructions I transmit to
you my second report of the Chemical Analyses of Kentucky Ores,
Soils, Mineral Waters, &c., &c., made at this Laboratory, for the Geo-
logical Survey, since the preparation of the first report.
  Within about two hundred and twenty-two days, with the occasion-
al aidl of an assistant in the minor processes under my immediate su-
pervision, we have succeeded in determining the composition of two
hundred and six diflkrent objects, and thus, although, as you will dis-
cover, the several analyses have been made more minute and accurate;
we have increased the amount done, in proportion to the time employ-
ed, more than one-sixth over that exhibited in the first report.
  The subjects of the analyses reported in the following pages may be
summed up as follows:
48 iron ores of the limonite variety.
22 iron ores of the carbonate variety.
43 soils, sub-soils, and marls.
31 limestones.
30 coals.
16 mineral waters and salts.
  4 copper and zinc ores and bitumens.
  4 iron furnace slags.
  4 sandstones.
  2 pig iron.
  2 shales and slates.



   The greater portion of the large and very interesting collection of soils
and sub-soils, made by you during the past summer, amounting to
nearly one hundred specimens, sent to this Laboratory for examina-
tion, have not yet been analyzed, but the labor will be resumed as
sonon as possible after the completion of this report.
   In regard to soil analysis, a considerable difference of opinion exists
iu the minds of the agricultural public. When the fact began to be
appreciated, that certain organic and mineral substances resident in
the soil were essential to its fertility, because they were necessary ele-
ments of vegetable and animal tissues, it was natural that the enlight-
ened agriculturist should look to the chemical analysis of the soil,
which would give the proportions of these ingredients, as the [st in-
dex of its value and its adaptedness to his various crops; and full ex-
perience, under the proper conditions, will demonstrate that this ex-
pectation will not be disappointed. But, when at the demand of the
farmer, who perhaps knew little or nothing of the true theory of agri-
culture and nothing of chemical philosophy, cheap and superficial an-
alyse8 were made, exhibiting only the proportions of the grosser ma-
terials of the soil-as of the sand and silica, alumina, oxide of iron,
carbonates of lime, and magnesia, and even, perhaps, of the organic
matters, without showing the amount present of the more valuable and
essential ingredients, as the phosphoric and sulphuric acids, the potash
and soda-this information, purchased by the practical farmer from the
scientific man, at however low a price, was found to be dearly bought,
and of little real value.
   All soils, without exception-the most fertile as well as the most
sterile-contain large proportions of sand and silica, alumina and oxide
of iron, and they may contain these as well as notable proportions of
lime, magnesia, and organic matters, and yet be sterile to the highest
degree; for, although these, with the exception of alumina and sand,
enter into vegetable and animal composition, and are essential to their
structures, they are of no value in the support of plants, without the
aid of the alkalies and the phosphorus and sulphur contained in the
phosphoric and sulphuric acids of the soil. These latter ingredients,
almost universally found in very small relative proportions in soils,
and much more difficult to estimate in a chemical analysis than the
preceding, are the elements of the soil, the proportions of which it is
most necessary to ascertain, in order to get a proper idea of its value



and relationships to the operations of the agriculturist. But these, in
consequence of the difficulty of the processes, and the time and care
necessary to their estimation, have been generally neglected in ordinary
soil analyses. No wonder, therefore, that the practical man, and even
some chemists, have begun to doubt whether the so called teachings
of science, in this relation, are of any real service.
  A full analysis of a soil, giving the correct proportions of all its in-
gredients, and their various states of combination, is a labor of consid-
erable magnitude, requiring, if the time be devoted to only one soil at
once, from ten to fifteen days of work, and demanding in the operator
as much special training as to learn to play well on a difficult musical
instrument; the farmer, therefore, can never be expected to be able to
perform this nice and troublesome operation for himself, any more than
he could be expected to make or repair his own watch or time-piece;
but he can, by acquiring the necessary elementary knowledge to ap-
preciate the results of chemical analyses, derive great practical advan-
tages from them, and save a great deal of time, labor, and money.
He could, it is true, with the aid of his experience, and by the trial of
experiments in cropping, ascertain the value of a soil almost Is well as
it could be set fourth by a good chemical analysis; but, in commencing
on an unknown specimen, the chemist could, in one week's labor, ar-
rive at results, which could be attained by the practical farmer only at
the expense of years of costly agricultural experiments.
  The system in which you have collected the specimens of soils, for
analysis will aid greatly in giving a practical demonstration of the
value of soil analyses.  Usually, instead of collecting a single speci-
men from each locality, you have procured, for corn patr/ive analysis,
specimens of-1. The V irgin soil; 2. The saine soil from an old field
long in cultivation; 3. The sub-soil; and 4. The deepyer sub-soil, or un-
derlying rock stratum.
  By the correct examination of these the following important facts
can be ascertained:  1. The change which the soil has undergone un-
der the influence of cropping; and hence the knowledge of what
would be necessary to restore it to its original condition, and keep it
fertile. 2. What benefit or injury may result from deep sub-soil
ploughing or trenching the ground. 3. What influence may be exert-
od on it by the underlying rock or other sub-strata.
             I 6





  By the critical examination of the comparative analyses of soils,
&c., &e., already given in this and in the preceding report, it will bo
observed th Lt chemical analysis is competent, in these respects, to as-
certain and report faithfully on changing conditions of the soil in rela-
tion to agricultural operations. It will be noticed, in particular, that
in every instaince where the comparison is made of the proportion of
the phosphoric and sulphuric acids, potash, and soda, between the vir-
gin soil, and similar soil which has been long in cultivation, a marked
diminution of these most essential ingredients is to be noticed in the
old soil. And thus, it is proved, that by careful chemical analysis we
can note and estimate the gradual but certain approach to sterility, of
soils once very fertile, under the influence of unscientific and thriftless
  The knowledge of a defect must naturally precede all efforts for its
removal. The full appreciation of the fact, that in yielding its pro-
ducts the soil always gives up a certain amount of its most valuable
elements, which are carried oil in the crops removed, and which must
in some way be restored to it, if it is to be maintained in a fertile con-
dition, is sure to lead, in the end, to an improved system of agricul-
ture, it the education of the people of our state is made to keep pace
iiLth the general march of improvement.
   The completion of' the analyses of the soils of Kentucky, or even
of' Llio.e already collected, ought to exert a beneficial influence on the
prosperity of the State.  The real agricultural value of the land in its
various districts will be to a certain extent demonstrated, and it will be
shown more fully, as it is already to some extent exhibited in the anal-
yses given in this and the preceding report, that a great body of lands
in the central, eastern, and southern part of the state of Kentucky,
held now at prices below, or not much above that of government land
in the far west. may be made as valuable as those, to the farmer; whilst,
in some localities, they offer superior advantages in the greater proximi-
ty of fuel in the form of coal or wood.
   These results may, perhaps, help to stimulate our people to endeav-
or to supply a great necessity of the state, which now operates as an
immense incubus on its growth and developement, viz: a chain of great
public improvements through the interior, to afford means of com-
munication and channels of commerce, which may bring to the doors
of the farmer or manufacturor, who may engage in the business of de-




veloping its great mineral and agricultural resources, the markets of
the world.  The want of these improvements confines the growth of
Kentucky, in commerce and the manufactures, mainly to her river
banks, and restricts her agriculture to its iiehest regions, to the neg-
lect of mineral wealth greater than that which has been the basis of
the power of England, and a large body of land very susceptible of
cultivation.  On the other hand, the policy of supplying these public
improvements, in the net-work of railroads intersecting the western
country, constructed mainly under the patronirge of the general gov-
ernment, and with the proceeds of large grants of the public lands, has
aided greatly in inviting to its cultivation the hardy yeomanry of the
older states, who are tempted to leave their native homes by the in-
ducements of rich soil, at a moderate price, accessible markets for their
products, and a prospect of the rapid growth and improvement of the
   That the reader of this report may be enabled to compare the
soil of the fat lands of the western prairies with some of those of
Kentucky, usually considered much less valuable to the agriculturist,
an analysis of Illinois prairie soil is introduced at the latter end.  It
will be seen that this prairie soil, now so rich in organic matters, may
be considered as the reverse of the heavy red sub-sod of some of the
southern portions of Kentucky;' in this respect, in particular, in that,
from its large proportion of fine 8sandl and silica, and small relative
amount of alumina and oride of Iron, it holds, with a weak affinity,
those organic matters derived from  the remains of the herbage of'
thousands of years; anrd hence gives abundance of rich food to the
crops which it supports; until, in the course of' time, this deposit is dIi-
minished or exhausted.  On the other hand, the large proportion of
oxide of iron and alumina, of the heavy red sub-soil-which both have
a powerful allinity for organic matters-holds them with great tenacity,
and thus, under the action of water containing carbonic acid, which is
the natural solvent of the mineral and organic matters in the soil em-
ployed in vegetable growth, this red subsoil gives up but a small quan-
tity of solid nutritious matter, especially it there is but a trace of limne
or magnesia present. The prairie soil could be rendered more durable,
but perhaps less immnediately fertile, by admixture with clay, containing
alumina and oxide of iron, whilst, other things being equal, the heavy
-Eee S1fnF'CL cczxe




red soil would be made more fertile by the addition of fine sand and
  The addition of lime to this heavy red soil, which contains a large pro-
portion of alumina and peroxide of iron, may be beneficial in more than
one way: it would not only assist in the solution of the other nutritive
elements locked up in the soil, and tend to render it lighter, but from
its constant action on the oxygen and nitrogen of the atmosphere, in
causing them to combine in the form of nitric acid, soluble nitrates are
always present in soil containing much lime or earbonate of lime,
which aid in its disintegration, and increase the solubility of its valua-
ble mineral ingredients, besides furnishing a supply of dissolved nitro-
gen to vegetable roots.
   On this principle Leibig has explained the fact, that in the island of
Cuba a soil containing a very large proportion of carbonate of lime,
can annually produce, without the application of nitrogenous manures,
large crops of tobacco-a plant peculiarly rich in nitrogen,-and for
the same reason the nitrate of lime, (easily convertible into salt-petre,)
is continually formed and effloresces on the porous limestones of the
so-called salt-petre caves of Kentucky.
   The seventy iron ores which have been analyzed at this Laboratory,
since the preparation of the last report, have, with very few exceptions,
proved to be rich and valuable, as well those of the Limonite variety,
composed of hydrated oxide of iron in various states of purity, as
the carbonates of iron; and afford still further illustration of the great
wealth of Kentucky, in ores of this most useful and valuable of metals,
and of the fact that a large amount of capital and labor might find
room for employment in our state, in the developement of her rich
mines, and in the supply of the increasing demand for iron in all its
various forms. The analyses of these ores, and of the limestones, &c.,
which accompany them, will greatly assist the manufacturer in the ap-
portion of his fluxes for the most economical production of the metal.
   Amongst these ores are some which doubtless would be found well
adapted to the manufacture of steel, and in some localities the associa-
tion of an easily smelted ore with beds of suitable coal, may induce capi-
talists to endeavor to supply the very large demand for cheap iron for
railroads and other purposes.
   The thirty kinds of coal which have been examined have been an-
 alyzed with more than usual minuteness and labor. Not only have




all, not previously analyzed, been submitted to proximate analysis, to
ascertain their proportions of moisture, volatile matter, ashes, and coke,
but by separate operations their proportion of sulphur and the chemi-
cal composition of their ashes, have been ascertained; they have also
been all submitted to ultimate or organic analysis, to determine their
relative proportions of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitroyen, &c., in
which analysis, as one of the ingredients-oxygen-is always esti-
mated by the loss, or negatively, and therefore, the control of the
equality of the weight of the sum of the elements found, with the
weight of the original compound which was submitted to analysis, be-
ing wanting, it was necessary to secure accuracy by a repetition or re-
petitions of the process; so that the ultimate analysis of these thirty
coals required no less than seventy-nine operations of organic analysis.
The whole number of analyses of these thirty coals amounted to one
hundred and sixty-one. In these various processes several of the most
promising of these coals were submitted to destructive distillation, at
a heat gradually raised to redness, to ascertain their relative products
of bituminous oils, paraffin, gas, &c. In these trials the Breckinridge
cannel coal maintained its superiority for this manufacture; but the
approach of the Haddock's cannel coal, of the Kentucky river, to it
in this respect, encourages the belief that in the course of your inves-
tigations amongst the Kentucky coals, especially amongst the cannel
coals and bituminous schists, other specimens may be found which
may be equally valuable for these products with the Breckinridge coal.
  The peculiarity in composition, of the coals which yield the great-
est amount of oily and waxey matters on distillation, appears to be
the presence, in them, of a larger proportion of hydrogen to the carbon
than exists in the coking coals or soft bituminous coals, which are preferred
by the blacksmith and for the manufacture of coke and gas; and of a
smaller amount of oxygen than is contained in the dry coals or splint
  It will be seen that the coal fields of Kentucky furnish all these va-
rieties. For the purpose of comparison with the coking varieties of
Kentucky coal, an analysis of the Youghiogheny coal of Pennsyl-
vania is given at the end of the report; and to enable the enlightened
reader to compare the Breckinridge coal with the celebrated Scotch
Bog Head coal, also much used for the production of oils, &c., its or-




ganic analysis is stated in connection with that coal, under the head
of Hancock county.
  The process of organic anay-sis employed may be briefly described.
The powdered coal, previously dried at 212 F., was introduced in-
to the hard glass combustion tube, in a small tray of platinum, and
submitted to the action of a stream of pure oxygen gas from a gas-
holder, dried by passing it through chloride of calcium and dry hy-
drate of potash; the combustion tube was heated over charcoal, in a
common Liebig's furnace; to secure complete combustion of the car-
bon, the front portion of the tube was filled either with oxide of cop-
per, mixed with copper turnings, or with a tight rolled cylinder of
copper gauze which had been previously oxidated at a red-heat in a
stream of oxygen. The products of combustion were collected in the
usual chloride of calcium tube and potash bulbs; a small tube being
interposed to absorb any sulphurous acid] and a dry potash tube at-
tached to the bulbs to absorb all the carbonic acid, and prevent the
escipe of moisture in the stream of dried gas. Thus the proportions
of carbon and hydrogen were obtained.
  An attempt was made, by collecting the residual gases-mixed
nitrogen and oxygen-which passed through this train, and by the re-
moval of the excess of oxygen, by explosion with hydrogen in the
Endiometer, to estimate, by the same operation, the proportion of ni-
trogen; but it was soon found that with whatever care the oxygen was
procured, the proportion of nitrogen left after the explosion as not
constant, and on reflection on the known properties of gases, and the
force with which they penetrate each other and porous substances gen-
erally, the reason of the failure of this promising process became ob-
vious. The waiter introduced into the gas-holder to expel the oxygen,
contained nitrogen, which gas diffused itself through the atmosphere
of oxygen in the gas-holder, and thus, in proportion to the quantity
of water forced into it, did the oxygen in it contain more and more
nitrogen, as was verified by experiments with the Endiometer. Nor was
it found possible, even with the use of a smaller oxygen gas-holder, and
of distilled water covered with oil, boiled to expell the gas, wholly to
prevent this cause of irregularity, so that the proportion of the nitro-
gen in the coals was necessarily obtained by a separate process of com-
bustion, by the method of Will and Varrcutrapp.

12 6



  Amongst the limestones and sandstones examined are some quite
valuable for building purposes; and others which will be found useful
as hydraulic cement, and for agriculture. The magnesian limestone,
from Grimes' quarry, and from other neighboring quarries, on the Ken-
tucky river, may be considered one of the best and most durable build-
ing stones of the whole country at large, and some others from the Up-
per Silurian Formation resemble it somewhat closely in composition.
The Birds-eye limestone, characterized by its great brittleness, con-
tains but little carbonate of magnesia, and would burn into quite a
pure lime; whilst the very fossiliferous limestones of the Blue Lime-
stone Formation, (Lower Silurian,) easily disintegrating and containing,
in addition to line and magnesia, all the other mineral elements neces-
sary to vegetable nutrition, although they make but poor building
stones, are invaluable to the agriculture of the country where they ex-
ist, by the enriching influence, on the superincumbent soil, which they
exert under the slow solvent action of the natural surface waters, which
always contain carbonic acid, and which convey into the soil their val-
uable ingredients. The waters of such regions are hard from this
cause, but under their influence the soil is, to a certain extent, con-
stantly renovated.
   The sixteen mineral waters, &c, examined, are, mainly, only from
one of the Kentucky watering places. The mineral springs of the
state are numerous and valuable, and will doubtless repay, in the fu-
ture, the labor of their exploration.
                  All of which is respectfully submitted,
                                                  ROB. PETER.


 This page in the original text is blank.



                              OF THE

               CHEMICAL ANALYSES



                         OF KENTUCKY,


                       .,.................................... _
                       ................ .....................

                          ADAIR COUNTY.
No. 233-SOIL. Labeled "Soil from Shaly Geodiferous Limestone, at
  Clayton Miller's farm, four miles south of Colurmbia, Adair county,
  Kentucky."   (Sub-carboniferous Sandslone, or Knob Formation.)
  Growth hickory, sugar-tree, white oak, dog-wood, white walnut, and
  Color of the dried soil very dark grey. Sifted through a seive,
of one hundred and sixty-nine apertures to the inch, it left about one.
fifth of its weight of irregular pebbles of ferruginous sandstone. Care-
fully washed with water it left about fifty-seven per cent. of sand, of
which 42.3 per cent. is fine enough to pass through fine bolting cloth,
of about five thousand apertures to the inch; and 14.7 per cent. is coars-
er sand, consisting principally of rounded particles of quartz, hyaline,
and of various shades of yellow, red, and brown, with some few crys-
talline particles.



  One thousand grains of this soil, (air-dried,) digested for one month,
in a closely stopped bottle, at a temperature not exceeding 1200 F.,
in waeter saturated under pressure with carbonic acid gas, gave up to
the acidulated water ncearly two and a half grains of solid MOatter,
which was found to have the following composition, dried at 212' F.,

Organic and volatile matters,     -
Alumina, oxides of iron and manganese, and
Brown oxide of manganese,
Sulphuric acid,-
Soda,     -   -    -    -    -    -    -
Carbonic acid, chlorine, and loss,

trace of phosphates,     .317
  -   -    .    -       .447

  -   -    -    -       .019
        - - -           .068
        -    -            .098
  -   -    -    -       .024
       -   -     -       .140
       -   -     -       .102


  The air-dried soil lst 2.50 per cent. of moisture when dried at 4000
  Dried at this temperature its composition was found to be as follows,

Organic and volatile matters, -
Alumina and oxides of iron and manganese,
Carbonate of lime,
Phosphoric acid,
Sulphuric acid,
Sand and insoluble silicates,

As explained in the preceding report, U

               -     4.440
               - - -   . 196
                - -  - .065
            -  --     .232
           -  --     .075
     - - -    -     90.446

he process of digesting the

soil for a length of time, in water containing carbonic acid, at a tem-
perature not exceeding that to which it naturally attains under the in-
fluence of the sun's heat, is used to ascertain and estimate the propor-
tion contained in it of soluble nutritious matter, immediateig available
for the support of vegetation. In this manner, endeavoring to imi-
tate the usual mode by which these necessary ingredient. of organic



structures are dissolved out of the soil, and conveyed into the tissues
of growing plants in the great operations of nature.
   Pure water exerts but little solvent action on the carbonates or
phosphates of lime or magnesia, but when it is combined with carbon-
ic acid it takes them up in considerable proportions, and especially
when aided by the humic acids, so called, which result iom. the de-
composition of vegetable or animal bodies on the soil, and by the small
amount of -acids of nitrogen which the atmosphere yields under favor-
able circumstances, it not only brings these and the oxides of iron and
manganese and silica to a soluble condition. but also acts gradually on
the insWolble sdiicats, to release their linme, magneesia, potash, &c., &c.,
for viget Mble nourishment. These, then, arc the solvents which, by
their coutinual action on the soil, and with the aid of frost, slowly' dis-
integrate its hard particles, and gradually dissolve out its available mo-
teri.tls. All rain water, and surfLtce water in general, contain more or
Icss c rbonic acid, with occasiondil trac2s of the acids of nitrogen; and
the water acquires in the soil the organic acids which are produced
there by the decomposition of vegetable and animal matters
   Although this soil contains a larger proportion than the average of
sand and insoluble silicates-more than ninety per cent-and less than
the usual quantity of phosphoric acid and potash contained in very fertile
soils- 075 and .06.5-it yet contains a pretty large proportion of veg-
etabl!e nourishment in a soluble condition, so that it gave up more than
the average quantity of nutritious matter to the carbonated wvater in
which it was digested. Without judicious management-by a course
of constant cropping, without returning to ic the essential ingredients
o[ vegetable nutrition-this soil will more speedily become deterior-
ated in productiveness., than others which have kets sand audless sol-
title matters.

                          ANDERSON COUN'r.
No. 489--LuImETONso. Labeled "Rlock under While Oakl Ridge, 7UI.
  Ifsils farm, Anderson counfyg, K."  (Lwower S&luriail Formnation.)
  A grey, granular rock, made up of a confused mazss of crystalline
grains of calcarious spar. No foesisi apparent in the specimeU sent for





Composition, dried at 212' F.-
    Carbonate of lime,    -   - 96.65 - 54.23 Lime.
    Carmonate of magnesia. nOt eslirnaed.
    Alumina and oxides of iron and
      manganese,     -    -      1.26
    Phosphoric acid, -    -    -   .92
    Sulphuric acid,  -    -    -    .26
    Potasb,     -    -    -    -   .67
    Soda,                        .39
    Silex and silicates, insoluble in
      hydrochloric acid,  -    -   .85
  The air-dried rock lost .30 per cenL of moisture at 2120, F.

No. 4935-LrMESTONE      Labeled "Leptwna Limestone," roadfrom Mr.
  Alexander JJu/ian's to Laivren-eburg, Anderson counly, Kentucky.
  (Lower Silurian Formation.)
  A very fossiliferous limestone, of a grey and buff-grey color in the
interior; weatbered surfaces of a dirty buff colored.   Powder light
yellowish grey.
Composition, dried at 212 F.-
    Carbonate of lime, -  -    - 83 95 -47.11 Lime.
    Carbonate of magnesia,         .91
    Alumina, and oxides of iron and
      manganese,       -          2.23
    Phosphoric acid,   -           .25
    Sulphuric acid,                .34
    Pota-h.          -             .38
    Soda, ----                      .47
    Silex and insoluble silicates,  if 28
    Lass,                          .19
   The air-dried rock, lost .30 per cent moisture at 2120 F.

No. 486-LimBsioNrn     Labeled "Road from   A. JuT an's to Lawrence.
   bul9, Anderson county, Kentiaciy."  (Lower Silurian Formation.)
   A bluisb-grey limestone, very full of fossils-Pleurotomari i, Beller-
ophon, Orthocera portions of Encrivnal stems, U.  Weathered surfaces
of a dirty buff color.  Powder light grey.



    Specific gravity,  -  
Composition, dried at 212 F.-
    Carbonate of lime, -
    Carbonate of magnesia, -
    Alumina, and oiidesof iron and
      maganese, -
    Pbospboric acid,  -
    Sulphuric acid, a trace.
    Silez and insoluble silicates,


86.46 - 48.62 Lime.



The air-dried rock lost .10 per cent. of

moisture at 212 F.

                           BALLARD COuNTY.
No. 21 8-SuB-SoIL. Labeled "Sub-sol in heavily timbered land, south-
  ern part of Baflard county." (Quaternary Formation )
  The dried soil is of a light yellowish grey-brown color. Carefully
washed with water, one tbousand grains of it left about five hundred
and ninety-two grains of sand of a brownish-grey color, of which only
about two grains was too coarse to pass through bolting cloth
of five thousand apertures to the inch. The coarser particles were
generally rounded, some few angular, consisting of hyaline and milky
quartz, with some particles of iron tre.
  One thousand grains of this soil, dried at the ordinary temperature,
and digested in water containing carbonic acid, for one month, yielded
less than one grain of soluble matter. This dissolved solid extract was
found, on analysis, to have the following composition, when dried at
2120 F., viz:

Organic and volatile matters,
Alumina, oxide of iron, and race of
Magnesia,     -
Brown oxide of manganese.
Potsb,   '
Sulphuric acid, carbonic acid, and Ia

pbosphats, -      -    -

55, .  






   The air-dried soil lost 1.80 per cent. of nmoiture when dried at
 3800 F.
   Diried at this temperature, its composition was found to be as fol-
 lows, viz:
 Organic and volatile matters,  --2.11
 Oxide of iron,     --2.24
 Alumina, --.58
 Brown oxide of manganese,  -.09
 Carbonate of lime, -.15
 Magnesia,-                                                        .86
 Phosphoric acid,                                                  .41
 Sulphuric acid, not estimated.
 Potash,                            .12
 Soda,                                                             .02
 Sanil and insoluble silicates,                                  91-72

   The aualynis of this sub-soil may be compare(] with that of corres-
ponding suirface-soil given on rages 2-39 and 379 of the preceding
report, (No. 1.)  It will be seen, that wbilst it has pretty nearly the
Eame proportions of sand and insoluble silicates, of alumina and oxide
of iron, it contains more potash, phosphoric acid, lime, and magnesia,
and less of org tnic and volatile matters, than the surface-soil. It also
contains less soluble matter immediately available for the