xt74f47gtm3g https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt74f47gtm3g/data/mets.xml Kentucky Federation of Women's Clubs Kentucky Kentucky Federation of Women's Clubs 1912 bulletins  English Louisville, Ky. : Kentucky Federation of Women's Clubs  Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection.  Kentucky Federation of Women's Clubs -- Periodicals Women -- Kentucky -- Societies and clubs -- Periodicals Kentucky Federation of Women’s Clubs Bulletin, September 1912 text volumes, 20 cm. Call Number HQ1901 .K48 Kentucky Federation of Women’s Clubs Bulletin, September 1912 1912 1912 2021 true xt74f47gtm3g section xt74f47gtm3g ”BULLETIN”;

September, 191 2


Department of Household







Department of Household Economics

Mrs. CLARENCE 'L. MARTIN, Chairman.


Mrs. M. A. Scovell, Lexington.

Miss Aubyn Chinn, Lexington.

Miss Katharine Christian, Lexing-

'Miss Clara Sachs, Louisville.

Mrs. John L. Woodbury, Louis:
Miss Mae White, Louisville.




MRS. T. J. SMITH, Richmond

Mrs. “7. O. Eaton, Ashland.

Mrs. Robt. Goggin, Paris.

Mrs. C. L. Chamberlain, Irving-

Mrs. Augustus Thomas, Mayfield.

Miss Iva Scott, Bowling Green.

Miss Mary E. Chickering, Somer-






Home Economics ........................ 5
Efficiency ................................ 6
Farm Homes ............................ 7
Setting Table and Serving Meals .......... I]
Clearing the Table and Washing Dishes. . .. H
Making Beds and Cleaning ................ 12
The Kitchen. .' ............................ 14
Tables" of Weights, Etc .................... 16
Food Values ............................ ]7
Bread Making .......................... .. 18
Recipes .................................. 20

Self-RisingRecipes........................ 33
Laundry Work 35

Removing Stains .......................... 36
Systematic Housekeeping .................. 37
Health .................................. 38
Care of the Sick .......................... 39

Sewing 44
Care of Babies ........................... 52







; So many requests have come to this Department for literature on
l Household Economics Without stating What phases of the subject were
desired, that it was thought best to send out this little bulletin as a
general answer, though specific information Will be very cheerfully
given at any time.

it Much matter in this bulletin is also in the bulletin on Home Econ-
', omics Work issued by the Kentucky Department of Education and
accredited by the Superintendent of Public Instruction to another
source; but it is the Work of this Department and is therefore legiti-
mately used here.

All articles not specifically signed are the Work of the Chairman.







/ ,_ . HIRTY—ONE years
i ', H . 3 ago, the two Ballard

Brothers—in re-
sponse to' the law of sup—
ply and demand—~built a.
mill at Louisville that was
destined to gain pre—emi-


nence among the twelve
thousand flour mills of
the United States.

Chas. T. and S. Thruston
Ballard are the names of
these two brothers—an honored name in the historic
annals of Kentucky—who in 1880 founded the institu-
tion that has come to be known in the commercial world
as the Ballard & Ballard Co. The first year’s output
was 36,000 bbls. of flour. During the past few years the
average output has been 700,000 'bbls. each year.

In 1880 the wonderful shaft or obelisk, “Cleopatra’s
Needle,” was received in the port of New York as the
gift of Egypt to the United States. Quick to grasp an
opportunity, the work OBELISK was then seized upon
as the trade-mark of Ballard Mills. OBELISK is today
throughout the Southland identified with. pure patent
flour—the highest grade, the best flour for all purposes.

The “Ballard boys”—as they are affectionately
known~—have been the pioneers of the great milling
industry in modern welfare work, in sharing profits with
their employees, and last, though not least, in pure food






The changing conditions of society have made great changes in
home conditions.

Thoughtful men and women have for some years been studying
these changes from a scientific point of view and have evolved a new
science which they have named Home Economics.

To many this means only science of cooking and sewing. These,
however, are only two divisions of this many sided subject.

Home Economics is the science of right living.

It was formerly thought that women needed a knowledge of house-
keeping with but little or no culture; then came the time when culture
was deemed necessary while a knowledge of housekeping was scornd.

Today the most thoughtful people see that both are necessary for
the health and happiness of the human race and that no Woman is
really cultured without a training in this science.

Home Economics is a study of foods, their value in the body, their
proper selection and preparation in order to give the greatest efficien-
cy; a study of cleanliness to avoid disease germs and to give the body
the greatest strength and efficiency: it is a study of how to spend the
income to buy the necessary food, shelter and clothing and preserve a
balance for higher things; it is a study of home management to give
the best sanitary conditions, the saving of time, strength and money;
it is a study of the principles of art, not for making pictures but that
the home may be decorated with a View of restfulness, peace and
beauty so conducive to health and happiness; it is a study of the laws
of life and how these laws may be applied to produce a better human
race. '

Vhen these subjects are thoroughly understood by women there
will be fewer blind, crippled, defective and delinquent children born
into the World and the healthy, normal children will be correspond-
ingly increased.

This bulletin is written with the hope that the few hints given in
it may cause some careful thought on this subject.






Competition in manufacturing and trade has forced the business
men to carefully study methods of reducing expenses and increasing
, profits. This has brought out, a new science called Efficiency.
Inventive geniuses have industriously Worked along all lines, and pro-
duced marvelous motive power to take the place of many human be-
ings. All sorts of labor-saving devices have been put upon the market
and business men have eagerly tested these and, where found avail-
able, have made use of them, lessening thereby the expense of produc-
tion or the handling of goods.

It has become necessary to have competent employees to intelli-
gently use these devices for economic consideration.

It is Wonderful to see the speed and accuracy with which articles
are manufactured, stores are opened in the morning and the prompt-
ness with which counters and shelves are covered, the clerks file out
and the cleaners file in and scatter over the prmeises, cleaning almost
like magic.

Labor-saving devices that would revolutionize the home are today
on the market waiting for trained minds to use them with the same
intelligence displayed by the business man.

Home Economics will give the training necessary for this much to
be desired condition.

Housekeepers try some of these devices by placing them in the
hands of ignorant servants which results in a failure.

It is quite common to say you must always begin at the bottom to
build anything. Here is a case where it must begin at the top, if we
consider the housekeepr the top.

She can no more succeed in raising the standard of living, while
ignorant of the principles underlying house-keeping and home-making,
than could her husband secure a living in his business by leaving the
workings of it to incompetent employees.

The home is a business enterprise as well as a mental and ethical
school where the housekeeper is business manager, nurse, counselor,
physical director, mental, moral and religious trainer.

“4. a“ s

 FARM HOMES" -, _ ; .>

By Mrs. C. L. Chamberlain, lrvington.

Farmers generally have been aroused to an interest in scientific
farming, but as yet have shown little interest in improving the home

The up-to-date farmer studies the needs of the crops to be raised
and provides the proper kind of soil. He rotates crops to prevent im-
poverishing the soil and secures the best seeds to plant.

He studies the needs of his live stock and provides the right food
in the proper proportions. He sees that the stock is not overworked
and that the housing is sanitary. He knows he must be careful about
this or suffer material loss in value of crops, stock and farm.

'But what about the housing, feeding, clothing and educating his
children, the care of his wife and mother of these children?

It is said that not more than 25% of the inhabitants of any com—
munity can do a full day’s work of a healthy person. ,

Would not any sensible farmer get rid of any of his live stock that
fell below the average of usefulness? Would he not try to improve
the breeding of such stock? He can not rid himself of his children;
they are what he and his ancestors have made them.

With no thought given to the future generation, marriages have
been made between men and women without consideration of physical,
mental or moral defects, until today perfectly healthy families are
the exception and not the rule.

It is high time to remedy all this by beginning with our own
families in giving to each member the best possible for his physical.

- mental and moral uplift.

The children certainly need as careful consideration as the stock.

The largest per cent. of women in the hospitals for the insane come
from the farms. The cause of which is said to be due to the dull, un-
attractive, inconvenient homes and the monotonous routine of work.

A certain amount of work is necessary in any profession, but it
should not be the dominant feature; it should be only a means to an

The scientific farmer does not complain of the dull routine of his
life; he is too much interested in what is happening, in the results
ahead. Science has transformed “the man with the hoe” into the man
with modern machinery, driven by some motive power which relieves
him of many highpriced and inefficient human helpers and high-priced
beasts of burden.

Should not as much be done for the farmer’s Wife?

Instead of the Woman with the broom and smoking cook stove,



there should be the woman with the vacuum cleaner, the gasoline or
alcohol gas stove. Gasoline is cheaper, but moredangerous by far than
alcohol. Alcohol is free from danger to the worker. The cost at sixty
cents per gallon ought not to be more than five cents for cooking any
ordinary meal and could be used to cost less. For ironing the cost is
three cents an hour.

_ ‘A forty-five candle power alcohol gas lamp can be used for two and
a half hours every night at a cost of one dollar per month.

I Whatever motive power the farmer uses for doing his work should
be used also for driving the washing machine, the churn, the ice cream
freezer, the vacuum cleaner, for his wife.

Soon electricity will be available for all this Work at less cost than
the farmer now pays for the inefficient methods. When the farm home
is planned consideration must first be given to the number of occu‘
pants and the ideals of life.

If the ideals are for right living, giving the best physical, mental
and moral results, the site should be one giving a pleasing View in a
sanitary position where pure fresh water is most easily obtained.

Each farmer must decide these questions for himself as the needs
of one family might not suit those of a different one.

Whatever one’s ideals may be, in the planning health, convenience
and beauty must be considered, the latter two being essential in pro-
moting health and happiness.

There should be a good supply of sunlight, air and water. Be
very sure the supply of water is pure.

It is said there is more danger of typhoid fever in many country
homes than in New York City.

After selecting the site the planning of the house must be care«
fully considered. Never engage an architect to plan a house just to
cost so much money; but after frequent consultations with the wife
tell the architect the needs of the family and how the members intend
to live in the house. -

Be sure of the proper disposal of all waste Water; have the kitchen
the lightest room in the house, that all dirt may be seen and removed;
for cleanliness is the keynote of the health of the family.

If possible, have a tank holding a good supply of water with all
necessary plumbing for use in kitchen, laundry and bath. At least have
a kitchen sink with a waste pipe running through the wall into a
trough in the yard. Any farmer could do this much to help his wife.

Have no closets in kitchen, which should be small. Let this kitchen
be the first room designed. Place it where the odors from cooking
will be carried away from the house—not driven into it.

If this necessitates making the kitchen front the public road, plan
the house accordingly, concealing the fact of a front kitchen; this has
been done many times.

. _. ‘Ak’



 . _. -Am’

Have a light pantry opening into kitchen with a refrigerator, into
which ice may be put from the outside, saving much dirt from enter-
ing the house. Plan window box and storing cellar (as directed else-
where). Arrange windows with View of giving light to everypart.
Have sink high enough to allow erect position in washing articles.

Having designed the kitchen, place dining room in most conven-
ient place for saving steps. _ .4

Proceed with plans for the rest of the house, giving especial tat;-
tention to sunlight and air for living room and bed rooms, arranging
every detail with a View to convenience and comfort.

The beauty and comfort of a home do not depend upon the amount
of money invested; but do depend on the good sense and good taste
of the family.

TWO very beautiful and inexpensive homes that call forth praise
from all visitors are simple log houses, built as the pioneers put them
up; but designed with an eye' to artistic effect, convenience and com—

The furnishing of the house should correspond to the building.

In a log house or a simple frame, very artistic furniture could be
made by any country carpenter, if properly designed for any particular

Miss Louise Brigham of New York, lives in a home furnished
throughout with very artistic furniture made of dry goods boxes by
boys of the Home Thrift Mission in their free work shop. The furniture
complete for these rooms cost from $3 to $5 each.

Miss Brigham-taught these boys to use their hands. This work is
considered so important that the municipality of New York has given
Miss Brigham an old mansion in which to carry it on, and other cities
are taking up this work.

Every boy in Kentucky could be taught to use the lumber about
him to build and furnish a more artistic house than is now obtained by
much outlay of money to buy factory-made furniture, inartistic and

There is no reason why the farm home may not be as well fur-
nished as any city home. The house containing the most expensive
furnishings is not always the best furnished. We often see a house
simply furnished that ShOWS a degree of good taste and refinement
that is beautiful. A room is well furnished when it has in it just what
is necessary for the Work in that room.

Whatever the house furnishings may be they must be orderly in
arrangement to be beautiful.

The keynote for successful house furnishing is—lst, usefulness;
2nd, simplicity; 3rd, a pleasing division of space; 4th, harmonious

Having built and furnished the house the crowning touch which



must make or mar the home is the woman who must preside over it
as wife, mother and good angel or evil genius, owing to her ability to
undertsand her responsibility in every one of the various departments
under her control.

She need not be an evil woman to be the evil genius of her home.

In so far as she fails to meet the many requirements of her posi-
tlon just that far is she the evil genius.

If she provides health, comfort and happiness for husband and chil- ]
dren by giving them balanced rations well cooked, by thoughtful man-
agement of the home, by judicious training of the children, by Wise .
counsels with her husband, her family will call her blessed and will .‘
be 10th to leave such a home.








Lay table cloth with crease exactly down middle of table. Ar-
range plates, right side up, at equal distances around the table, one inch
from edge of table. Place knives at right of plates sharp edge toward
plates with handle ends one inch from edge of table. Put forks at
left of plates, tines up, and one inch from table edge.

Place spoons at right of knives.

Place napkin neatly folded at left of forks.

Place tumblers at tip of knives, butter plates at tip of forks,

Arrange neatly inside of these the steadies, as salt and pepper,
vinegar and oil or mustard, sugar and cream, milk and Water.

Place coffee pot or urn and tea pot at right of hostess with cups and
saucers before her.

Be sure that all these are on the table before beginning to serve

If posible have some little decoration for the center of the table,
either a bunch of flowers in season or a little green plant.

All hot food should be served in hot dishes. All dishes should be
offered at the left of the guest if the guest is to help himself. Dishes
left for the guest must be placed from the right side.

Remove dishes from the right of the guest. Never reach across
the guest to place or remove any dish.

'13? a dessert is served, remove everything from the previous course
before serving the dessert.

Have the meal a time of rest and pleasant intercourse—mever a
time for criticism.

Cleanliness, good taste, Well cooked food and pleasant manners
will greatly aid digestion.


After the meal is finished, set the chairs back from table, scrape
with knife or Wipe with a piece of bread each plate, then stack them,
placing one with scraps on top and remove to the washing place.

If any water or coffee is left in tumblers or cups pour it into some
vessel, then stack cups and saucers on a tray on Which also put
tumblers that as many pieces as possible may be taken out at one

Remove all serving dishes with plates and cups and saucers.

Place sugar and salt and pepper and all other constants in cup-
board, crumb off, then carefully fold the cloth and put away in a closed

' place out of the Way of any dust.

Sweep floor and dust room, by which time there should be plenty
of boiling water.





Have ready a supply of clean tea towels, two dish pans with a good
supply of very hot water, one being well soaped. Into the soap suds
put first the tumblers which should be washed by wrapping the dish
cloth about the tines of a fork and using it as a mop, if there is no
mop at hand. As soon as each tumbler is washed, set it up in the
clean hot water pan to rinse. When the tumblers are washed and
rinsed, take them one by one and wipe on a clean tOWel until they
shine, then set away out of any chance dust. .

Next 'wash the cups and saucers in the same way, then the spoons,
after which Wash the plates and serving dishes.

Last wash forks and knives, then brighten the blades of knives and
tines of forks with brick dust or a little ashes, then again wash them
in the suds, rinse and wipe quite dry.

The handles of knives and forks should not be laid in hot water,
but should be washed clean with the dish cloth.

By using a small mop or dish cloth on fork, very hot water can be
used for washing all dishes and cooking vessels without injuring the
hands as they are not put into the water.

As soon as the dishes are washed, the towels and dish cloth should
be washed in fresh hot suds, rinsed and hung up to be ready for the
next meal.

After washing and putting away the dishes, tea tOWels, dish cloth
and pans, sweep the floor very hard, if it must be done with a regular
broom as the dust can be wiped off the furniture and all the wood work,
whereas, if it remains in the carpet, it will rise as the floor is walked
over and enter the lungs, or it will rest 011 some exposed food during
the day and thus give chance for causing disease.

If the floor is not carpeted do not use a broom unless it is covered
with a soft cloth which will hold the dust.

It is never necessary to go down on knees to scrub or wipe the bare
floor as a long handle can be attached to a brush for scrubbing and
to a cloth for wiping the floor, thus saving the back of the worker.

After sweeping, dusting and setting in order this room, proceed to
do the same work in all other parts of the house except in bed rooms
where the beds must first be made.


Every member of the family should, as soon as dressed, take off all
the bed clothes, one at a time, and spread over a chair, then open Win-
dows to let in fresh air; the room should be left thus until time for
cleaning room.

In making a bed shake up the mattress and pillows, laying the pil-
lows aside till the clothes are replaced.

Put on the bottom sheet right side up and draw it smooth over mat-




 tress and tuck under same, then put on top sheet right side down so
that when folded over the blanket or other cover the right side of hem
will be on top.

The top sheet should always be long enough to fold back at least
three inches over the other covering. After putting sheets on, lay the
blankets and any other needed covering, smooth over sheets and tuck
in folding under the foot corners, then fold top sheet back to protect
the occupant from any possible germs in covering and to prevent any
possible dust or waste of body from reaching the covering.

Over all this put the spread or quilt used for decoration, then lay
in place the bolster and pillows.

After this is done proceed to sweep and dust, then close the Win-

At least once a Week every piece of wood work about the home
should be wiped off with a soft cloth wrung out from tepid or cold
water to remove every particle of dust.

Cleanliness is the most important part of housekeeping so far as
the health of the family is concerned. This must include ventilation,
as the air as well as the rooms must be cleaned. The air is cleaned by
opening windows to let in fresh clean air which drives out the impure
air breathed by the family.

In homes where the open fire places are used the opening of win-
dows through the night is not so necessary, as the chimneys bring in
fresh air and discharge the bad air; but with the use of stoves or fur-
naces the windows should be open through the night.

Once a week the entire walls and ceilings should be brushed off to
remove all dust and cobwebs.

Every particle of waste garbage should be given to chickens and
pigs if there are such occupants on the premises. If there are no ani-
mals to eat the garbage it should be burned.

Garbage should be kept in closed metal buckets until it is either
eaten or burned. These buckets should be scalded each day and once
a week they should be rinsed with carbolic acid solution or some other

The greatest danger to the health of the family comes from dust,
flies and mosquitoes.

Perfect cleanliness will reduce this danger to the lowest degree.

Not only is cleanliness of the house necessary for preserving health,
but each individual must observe all the laws of cleanliness by fre-
quent bathing of the whole body at least once a week, by wearing clean
clothes, and immediately washing any part of the body when soiled,
such as washing the hands every time they become the least soiled
and washing out the lungs by breathing deeply the pure out door
air and washing the stomach and intestines by drinking quantities—
siX or eight tumblers of pure cold water daily.








Of all rooms in the home the kitchen should be the cleanest and

Dark closets should not be allowed; every cooking vessel should be
kept clean either hanging under shelves or turned upon them.

Every convenience possible should be obtained for kitchen use.

If the only water supply for cleaning is a rain barrel, this should
be set on a high platform, have a hole bored next to the bottom, and
into this hole a pipe inserted which should extend through a hole in the
kitchen wall into the kitchen and a faucet put on the end that the cook
may have water without going outside. Any farmer could arrange this
simple device for saving time, strength and worry of his wife.

Another simple device is a box about 2T/2 feet by 2 feet with 11/3
feet depth. Set this on end. Make the front into a double door open-
ing in the middle and hinged at edge of box; bore hole through middle
of top through which run a stout rope and knot inside box; let this rope
be long enough to run over pulley attached to ceiling and down again
to floor. Put one or two shelves in this box. Dig a hole six or eight
feet deep and large enough to let the box d0WIl.‘ Around this hole
board up to the height of an ordinary kitchen table, and place over it a.
double trap door opening in the middle. You then have an excellent
refrigerator and storing cellar combined. By nearly balancing the
weight of box and contents With Weights at other end of rope, this
refrigerator can be raised or lowered easily with one hand, saving
much labor and time. Eggs, milk, butter, vegetables and meat can be
kept in this if properly covered.

A window box with a hinged lid fastened on the outside of a kitchen
Window is another useful storage place.

Arrange every utensil and piece of kitchen furniture in the most
convenient position for saving steps when these things are wanted,

A table on rollers is another great saver of steps.

Before beginning the cooking be sure that the wood, if wood is
used, is cut short enough to allow the closing of the stove door, as
otherwise the oven Will not properly heat, causing poorly cooked food,
a. menace to health.

Keep everything in order at all times.

Have every ingredient ready at hand before commencing to cook
any food, then clean up as you cook, putting to soak immediately any
vessel not easily cleaned.

One device discovered by a Norwegian peasant woman over a hun-
dred years ago, adopted and patented in this country Within the last
few years is the fireless cooker of our time or the hay box of the

Any one can make a hay box. In the bottom of any ordinary box



Never a
meet succes
In makin-
thus removin-
Having a
through middle
When food :
in the grease
smoking hot, t
brown. This i:
No grease s
own grease.
Breakfast b
or broiler and
placed underne
All beefste:
skillet or broil
steak should b
to ten minute:







. .1, then
- _umbs on

'i’d parsley.

and pare turnips
: 1 thin slices.
4 T. of the butter,
; about 2 minutes.
irsley, salt and pep-
.m if preferred.

till soft, and drain.

d simmer with 1 slice

Melt 2 t. butter, add 2 t. flour, making a smooth paste, add dash pep-
per and salt. Add to this the milk and potato mixture, cook 1: min.,
add chopped parsley if desired, and servo.

Tomato Soup (Bisque.)——For one personrr'

if a. strained tomato pulp, pg t. salt.

1/. e. milk, If; t. soda,
t. iloni', dash pepper.
t. butter,


Melt butter, rub in ilour, add tomato pulp slowly and simmer 5 min.
Add the soda, salt and pepper, then the milk, stirring all the time. Let
(101110 to a boil and serve.

Soft Cooked——
l’ut eggs into a saucepan, cover with boiling water and let stand
where the water will keep just below the boiling point for 5 min. For
medium cooked let stay in 10 min.

Hard Cooked—-
Cook 30 min. in water that is just barely bubbling. This method

renders the yolk mealy.

Scrambled— '

3 eggs, % 0. milk, 1/2 t. salt, dash pepper.

Beat the eggs slightly, add the milk and seasoning. Cook in a hot
buttered frying pan, stirring:r constantly until thick. Serve hot.

Plain Omelet—

l egg, t T. Water,
[/1 t. salt, 1/3; t. pepper.
I t. butter,

Beat egg just enough to blend white and yolk. Add water, salt and
pepper, and beat until frothy on top. Melt the butter in a frying pan,
and into it pour the egg mixture. Do not cook over a very hot fire, or
it will be tough. When creamy throughout and a light brownnext the
pan, begin at the side next the handle and with the broad knife roll
the omelet. Turn on to a hot platter.

NOTE.#Jelly or chopped boiled ham may be served with it or

rolled inside.

Cream Salad Dressing (Boiled Dressing.)—
I/H; '1‘. salt, yolks of 2 eggs,
it" ’1‘. sugar, 1y, 'l‘. melted butter


dash pepper, 3/1 0. milk,
1/; T. ilour, I/1 c. Vinegar.
1 t. mustard (may be omitted),





Mix dry ingredients, add yolks of eggs slightly beaten, butter, milk
and vinegar Very slowly. Cook over boiling water until mixture

To be used cold with uncooked vegetables, as cabbage, tomatoes.
cucumbers, lettuce, with cold cooked vegetable,s with cold meats 01'
with hard cooked eggs.

Cabbage Salad——

Shave 1/; a cabbage into thin strips, chop line and mix with salad
dressing. Do not mix dressing with more cabbage than you wish to
use, as it will turn dark.

Potato Salad—

Cut cold boiled potatoes into cubes or slices. Sprinkle 4 cupfuls
with I/2 T. salt and pf, t. pepper. Boil M c. dilluted Vinegar (yfi water)
with 4 T. butter. Pour while hot over potatoes. Add a few drops
onion juice or {/3 T. chopped onion. Mix well with 2 T. salad dressing.
Trim with slices of hard-cooked eggs, cold boiled beets or parsley.


Place thin slices of bacon (from which the rind has been removed)
in a frying pan and cook until crisp and brown, turning often, and fre-
quently pouring off fat from pans.

NOTE:- Save [at for frying eggs, potatoes, etc.


4 c. boiling water, I c. cornmeal.
2%, t. salt,

Add salt to boiling water. Add meal slowly, stirring all the while,
and cook over direct heat 10 min. Cook over boiling water I/2 to 1':
hours longer. Long cooking improves the flavor. Serve with cream

and sugar.

Fried Mush—

Put left over mush into a dish and smooth it over the top. When
cold, out into slices % in. thick. Dip each slice into flour. Melt I/2 T.
lard or drippiI g fat in a frying pan and let it get smoking hot. Brown
the floured slices on each side. Serve with syrup.

Corn Bread—
71%. c. cornmeal, l t. salt,
2 c. sour milk, 2 eggs,
1 t. soda, 2 T butter.





Mix soda, salt and cornmeal. Gradually add eggs, Well beaten and
milk. ’l‘urn into a Well greased, hot pan. Place 011 middle grate of
hot oven and bake 20 min.

NOTIC.*Tests for OveniPlace a piece of unglazcd paper in oven.
For hot oven, paper should brown in 3 111i11.; for moderate oven, in 5
n1i11.; for slow oven, in 10 min. ’

2% c. flour, 2 c. sour milk, 1/3 to l t. salt, 1% t. soda, 1 egg.

j/_, c. flour, 11/; t. soda, I
c. sour milk, 1 egg.
f. to l t. salt,

Mix and silt the flour, salt and soda; add sour milk and egg Well
beaten. Drop by spoonfuls 011 a greased, hot griddle (l t. fat to a large
griddle). Cook on one side, When puffed full of bubbles and cooked
on edges. turn and cook other side. Serve with butter and syrup.



N(,)'l‘lC.—~~lise % to 3/3 cornmeal, it' cornmeal griddle cakes are de—

NOTE: ln making Soda Biscuit, allow not more than I/_. t. soda to 1
0. thick, sour milk. If the milk is not very sour, V; t. soda will be

Baking Powder Biscuit—

2 c. flour, 1 'l‘. lard,
4 t. baking powder, .110. milk and water in equal
l t. salt, - parts.

1 'l‘. butter,

Mix dry ingredients and silt twice. Cut in butter and lard with
knife: add liquid a little at a time, mixing with knife to a soft dough.
lioll lightly 011 iloured board to IA in. thickness. Cut out, place his-
(uits on buttered pan, and bake in a hot oven ‘12 to l?» min.


Plain Cake—

4 T. butter, 2 t. baking powder,

1 c. sugar, Lu; (1. hour, V

2 eggs, 1 t. spice or L4 t. flavoring.

IA 0. milk,

Cream the butter, add sugar, then the well beaten egg yolks. Sift
flour and baking powder together three times, and add alternately
with milk to first mixture. Add flavoring and egg whites, well beaten.
Bake 210 to 40 min. in a moderate oven, till cake shrinks from sides of
pan. Pan should be thoroughly grea