xt74j09w1431 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt74j09w1431/data/mets.xml  184  books b92-161-29919585 English s.n., : [Kentucky : Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Slavery United States Controversial literature.Dawson, Reuben. Speed, James, 1812-1887. Glover, William E. Boon, William P. Ballard, Bland, 1761-1853. Address to the people of Kentucky on the subject of emancipation text Address to the people of Kentucky on the subject of emancipation 184 2019 true xt74j09w1431 section xt74j09w1431 


s s

                                     TO THE


  FELLOrW-CITIZENS: In August next the duty I
of selecting delegates to the Convention called
to remodel the Constitution of ourbeloved Corn-
monwealth, will devolve on you. You have
already been frequently addressed by those in
favor of certain proposed reforms, who have not
seen fit to urge on your attention the necessity of
reform in relation to the greatest evil under
w hich we labor. We regard slavery as by far
the greatest of all the evils now afflicting the
peopleof this State, and are deeply solieitousX
that some steps shall be taken toward its gradu-
al removal from among us. It is our present
purpose to urge you to cooperate with us in the
great and good work of Emancipation. We beg
you to give us3 your attention while we proceed
to enumerate some of the evils which slavery in-
flcts onus, and to point out some ofthe many
benefits which would result from its removal.

I had control, by his will. In a letter to Genele8
Lafayette he said:
   "The benevolence of YOUr heart, my dcear
 Marquis, isso conspicuouson alloccasion;, that
 I never wonder at fresh proof-s of it; but your
 late purchase of an estate in the colony of Cay-
 enne, with a view of emancipating the slaves,
 is a genewous and noble proof of your humanil) .
 Would to God, a like spirit might diffitse itself
 generally into the minds of the people of this
 country! But I despair of seeing it. Some pe-
 titions were presented to the Assembly at its lasJ
isession, for the abolition of slavery; but the'
could scarcely obtain a hearing."
   In another letter addressed to John F. Mercer,
he said:
   "1 never mean, unless some particlIlar cirt-
cumstances should compel me to it, to possess
another slave by purchase; it being among ma
first wishes to see some plan adopted by mrhich sic-
very in this anvrtry may be abolished Iy low."
  Mr. Jeffeison's abhorianie of slavery was of-

  When we examine American slavery by the teIm V pilms a. Allt LIiV 0r16--lp'-
light of history, we find it condemned by large clarasion of Independence, he expressed the
and respectable meetings of the citizens in the greatest indignation towards the British King
slave States before the Revolution. We find the for capturing and bringing to the colonies I'a di
deliberate opinions of such men as Washingtonant people who had never ofended him." In a
Jefferson, Madison, Henry and Franklin record- letter to Mr. Warville, he gives the following
ed against it. Commencing at the Revolution melancholy and yet trutlhful picture of slavery:
and cominng down to our own day, we find a very  "The whale commerce between master and
large proportion of our own wisest legislators Slave is a peTpetu31 exercise of the most hoister.
and statesmen testifying to its blighting and os passions; the most unremitting despotism
                                       nd s non the one part an'! degrading S       01'
withering influence. In our own State. and in the other. Our children see this and larn tO
the halls Of our own Legislature, it has frequent- imitate it; folrnman is an imitative animal. The
ly been characterized as an institution weighing parent storms, the child looks on, catches the
                         _o11th Poseit O t  tae  lineaments of wrath, puts on the same airs in
down the prosperity of the State.         the circle of smaler slaves, gives loose to his
  We venerate the memories of these men-the worst passions, and thus nursem, educated and
lessons of political and moralwiadom'heytaught daily exercised in tyranny, cannot but be stain-
                                             ed by it with odious peculiarities. The man
us we hope ever to cherish. Their opinions must be a prodigy who can retain his manners
upon the great question of slavery must com- and morals undepraved by such circumstances,
mand high respect from every well constituted And with what execration should the statesman
mind,                                        beloaded, who rermitting one-half the citizens
  Washingtnn, it is well known, provided for1 thus to trample on the rights of the other, trans
  Washington, it iq well known, provided fioT forms those into despots, and these into ene
the emancipation of all slaves over whom he mies, destroys the morals of the one part. av4_



the amor patri  ot the other. For if the slave
can have a country in this world, it must be any
other in preference to that in which he is born
to live and labor for another-in which he must
lock up the faculties of hib nature, contribute as
far as depends on his individual endeavors to the
evanishment of the human race, or entail his
own miserable condition on the endless genera-
tions proceeding from him. With the morals of
the people, their industry is also destroyed. For
in a warm climate no man will labor for him-
self who can make another labor for him. This
is so true, that of the proprietors of slaves, a
very small proportion indeed are ever seen to
labor. And can the liberties of a nation be
thought secure when we have removed their only
firm basis, a conviction in the minds of the peo-
ple that these liberties are of the gift of God-
That they are not to be violated but with his
-ach   Tn1 -1 I t.amhl. far -- -rnn4yw -h.en

If we cannot reduce this wished for reformation
to practice, let-us treat the unhappy victims with
lenity. It is the furthermost advance we can
make towards justice, it is a Debt we owe to the
purity of our religion, to show that it is at vari-
ance with that law which warrants slavery. I
know not where to stop. I could say many things
on the subject; a serious view of which gives a
gloomy perspective to future time."
  Again, in the debates in the Virginia Conven-
tion, he declared:
  "I repeat it again, that it would rejoice my
very soul that every one of my fellow beings
was emancipated. As we ought with gratitude
to admire that decree of Heaven, which has
numbered us among the free, we ought to lament
and deplore the necessity of holding our fellow-
men in bondage."

I reflect that God is just; that his justice cannot  late ex-President Monroe, in a speech in
:sleep forever; that, considering numbers, nature, the Virginia Convention, said:
and natural means only, a revolution of the  "We have found that thia evil has preyed
,,eheel of fortune, an exchange of situatio1l is  "ehv   on   htti   vlhspee
whee ofotnnechneostato                    isupon the very vitals of the Union; and haa been
a mong possible events-that it may become pro- prejudicial to all the States in which it has een-
bahle by supernatural interference! The Al prjdc
mighty has no attribute which can take sides 1t."
with us in such a contest.                      Another distinguished Virginian says:
  "What an incomprehensible machine is man!  "7The existence of tLat scourge of a guilty
Who can endure toil, famine, stripes, imprison- world, Slavery, is the true, the real, the undeni-
ment, and death itself, in vindication of his'own able source, whence springs all the ignorance
liberty, and the next moment be deaf to all those and much of the vice and immorality which now
motives whose power supported him through his unhappily afflict the State.
trial, and inflict on his fellow.men a bondage,  You may sketch out the most admirable plan
one hour of which is fraught with more misery for educating the poor children, ever devised by
than ages of that which he rose in rebellion to the wit of man, but you can never reduce it to
oppose. But we must wait with patience the practice with the least prospect of success, as
working of an overruling Providence, and hope long as we cultivate our lands with slaves, and
that that is preparing the deliverance of these bring them up to trades, (which ought to be con-
our suffering brethren. When the measure of fined exclusively to white citizens) thus compell-
their tears shall be full-when their tears shall ing our people to leave the State, and seek em-
have involved Heaven itself in darkness-doubt- plnyment elsewhere, Or remain here and endure
less a God of justice will awaken to their dig- the alternative, so mortifying and repugnant to
tress, and by diffusing a light and liberality the feelings of freemen, of being compelled to
among their oppressors, or at length by his ei- labor side by side, with the slave, and to have
terminating thunder manifest his attention to their services estimated by those of the slave.-
things of this world, and that they are not left Thousands of our young mechanics, Carpenters,
to the guidance of blind fatality.        Blacksmiths, Bricklayers, c., "the bone and
  "I am very sensible of the honor you propose sinew' of the land, from this cause alone, annu-
to me, of becoming a member of the society for ally leave Virginia and go to some of the free
the abolition of the slave trade. You know that States of the West. Go to any county in the
nobody wishes more ardently to see an abolition, State, particulaTly in Eastern Virginia, and you
not only of the trade but of the condition of sla- will find na arly all the land, worth cultivating,
very; and certainly nobody will be more willing in possession of the "slaveholdingaristocTacy,"
toencountereveysacrificeforthatobject. But and almost every man has his own Carpenter,
the influence and information of the friends to Blacksmith, tc., from among his own negroes.
this proposition in France will be far above the Tne poor boys, if they are brought up to some
need of my association."                      hard working and respectablecalling, mUst leave
                                               the State to find employment; they cannot af-
  Tbat immortal orator and great and good- ford to stay here and work as cheap as theslave,
man, Patrick Henry, in a lefter to Rob't Pleas. who fares in the coarsest manner and is com-
    ants, referring to slavery, says:     pelled to toil in the most arouous and incesant
ants, referring to slavery, says:         manner, under penalty of the lash, to be inflict.
   "Ibelieve a time will come, when an opportuni ed at the discretion of his master. Thousands
ty till be ofered toabolish this lamentablet el.- of poor families leave Virginia every year, prin.
Everything we can do is to improve it, if it hap- cipally from the causes which I have mentioned,
pens in our day; if not, let us transmit to dsr and those who stay behind, are so scattered and
lescendants, together with our slaves, a pity for separated, that it is next to an impossibility, to
their unhappy lot, and ourabhorenceforslavery. reach them by any system of Education, that



can be adopted, however wise and liberal ln its atitution soobnioxiouaasslaver) Shallour ow n
features. We have accounts of great public experience, and the opinions of the wisest and
meetings held to promote the cause of education, I est men of the present and pa generations be
but nothing will be done, because nothing can o
be availably done, until ourpeople see a disposi- entirely disregarded in the settlement of this
tion manifested to get rid of the slaves which question, or shall we fold our arms in quiet in-
have the effect, like a deadly pestilence, of driv- difference and permit the great question of the
ing the people as far off' as they can possibly ae  o  rsiguo    sfrdlbrto        n
get."                                           age, now pressing upon us for deliberation anal
  John H. Pleasants, also a distinguished Vir- decision, togo by default Fellow-citizens,these
ginian, thus writes:                           are important questions which force themselves
  "Nocommunity can greatly flourish and pros- upon our attention attthe present juncture, and
per where its youth are brought up in idleness, which in one way or the other WE MUST ANSAVES1.
and to regard manual labor and the mechanic  Webelieve that slavery is a positive evil view-
trades as dishonorable, because slaves axe em-
ployed todo the manual labor of the community: ed in all its aspects, and we feel it due to those
This is the great and clinging curse of slavery! who differ from us on this question to enumerate
It enervates and effeminates the youth of the the facts upon which this belief is based. We
Republic: It causes them to rely at every turn, desire to win over to our views those who honest-
even to the bringing of a pitcher of water from
the well, or brushing their shoes, upon a negro, ly and sincerely differ from us, and we therefore
instead of upon themselves: The grow up worth. ask a candid examination of the facts and sta-
less in energy, and helpless, and when their tistics we are about to offer.
patrimony is squandered, as it is almost sure to  Increase of population in a State depends
be, from the habits of idleness and extravagance
engendered by the existence of slavery, they be- upon increase in the means of living; and is,
come drones here, or emigrate to the West to therefore, the most certain measure of public
seek the fortune they rarely or never find, and and private prosperity. Whenever the three great
neverdeserve to find."                         branches of productive industry, agriculture,
  Judge Robertson in a speech which he deliver- manufactures and commerce, or any of them,
ed in the last Legislature of Ky., says:   continue to yield increasing products, the popu-
  "Slavery in Kentucky is a social and moral lation will increase at the same rate; because
  Mr. Clay, in his late letter to R. P!ndell, says: then industry produces a surplus beyond the
  "Kentucky enjoys high respect and honorable present wants of the people, and more families
consideration throughout the Union and through- can be supported. This is the general rule-the
out the civilized world; but, in my humble opin- exceptions to it can only be temporary in their
ion, no title which she has to the esteem and ad-
miration of mankind, no deeds of her former occurrence.
glory, would equal, in greatness and grandeur,  In this country, where emigration to new
that of being the pioneer State in removing from  countries is so easy, whenever the means of liv-
her soil every trace of human slavery, and in es- ing fail in their native place, the people are sure
tablishing the descendants of Africa, within her t
jurisdiction, in the native land of their forefath- to relieve themselves by emigration. Without
ers."                                          some pressure of the sort, attachment to their
  These, fellow-citizens, are, for the most part, native land is ordinarily sufficient to prevent
the opinions of our conscript fathers-as such men from emigrating; indeed, it is a maxim with
they commend themselves to our approval. We all political writers that if the wages of labor in
believe them correct. And now, after fifty \ ears any coun-ry be such as to enable the poor
experience of the evils of slavery, when we are classes of people to live with tolerable comfor
about framing a new organic law, under which they Wvil not emigrate.
the interests of all the citizens of the State are  We may therefore lay it down as a general
to be protected, should we be acting wisely, by rule, that the quantity of emigration from a
deliberately using our influence to perpetuate a State is a pretty accurate index of its compara-
known evil We are now acting for future gen- tive prosperity. If few leave it, we may justly
erations-we are to promulgate the oiganic law  infer that its industry is thriving-sufficientlyso
under which ourchildren and our children's chil- to support the natural increase of its population,
dren are to live and act  Should we then be and to make nearly all contented at home. But
faithful to ourselves or to them, or should we be if a large and perpetual stream of emigrants is
acting faithfully toward our beloved Common- pouring out of it in search of better fbrtune else-
wealth., in deliberately engrafting on that organ- where, it is an infallable symptom of one of two
ic law a provision which will perpetuate an in- things; either that the country has no more


natural sources fromn which industry may draw
increasing products-or that the people are defi-
cient in enterprise and skill to improve the re-
sources of their country.
  Apply this rule to Kentucky or Virginia, or
any of the older slave States, and how do they
appear The people in them, no doubt, multiply
naturally as fast as the people of other States-
that is, at the rate of 33 1-3 per cent. in ten
years-so that, if none emigrated, the number
would be inorcased by one-third in that period
of time. Kentucky in 1820 had a population of
564,317, and in 1830 her population was only
587,917; whereas, if she had kept up her natural
nerease it would have been 752,422. In 1840,
per population was only 779,828; but if she had
kept up her natural increase, it would have been
  ,C003,227. Thus Kentucky lost in the twenty
  years, from 1820 to 1840, no fewer than 223,399
    her people-or about three times the whole
 population of Arkansas in 1840.
   Adplying the same test to Virginia, we find
 that in the ten years from 1830 to 1840, she lost
 by emigration no fewer than 375,000 of her
 people.  East Virginia, where slavery chiefil
 abounds, 304,000, and West Virginia, 71,000.
 At this rate Virginia drives off from her borders
 to the WVest, every ten years, a ppopulation equal
 in number to the popullaion of Lte State of
 Mississippi in 1840. No one pretends to assign
 any cause for this result other than t]averT.
   Fellow-citizens, it is a huradiating fact, one
 that should penetrate the ]heart of every Ken-
 tuckian, that from the year 180 to this time,
 Kent icky has sent, or we should ratLer say,
 driven, from her boson, nearly ts ice as many
 of her free white citizens as the present nurnr
 of slaves within her limits. Most of these have
 shunned the regions of slavery, and ietlted in
 the free States. They were generally intt-rprLsing,
 indu-trious, laboring whiie men, who found by
 sad xperience that a country of slaves was not
 the country for them; who would not remain
 where slavery degrades the workingman; who
 saw that, for some reason, neither they nor their
 country were prosperous; and who thought of
 adding to their own prosperity by uniting their
 destinies lo the not far off prospering States.
   We will again recur to this view of the subject,
 but will now proceed at once to a generalsurvey
 of the comparative condition of the free and
 slave States.
   Commencing, then, with Maryland, one of the

oldest slave States, we submit he following state-,

ments and statistics, taken from a pamphlet pub-
lished in Baltimore, in 1846, entiled, "Slavery
i' Maryland, briefly considered."  This pam-
phlet was written by John L. Carey, Esq., a dis-
tinguished member of the Baltimore Bar. Af-
ter a well considered introduction, Mr. Carey
thus speaks of the blighting effect of slavery in
his own State.
  For years past our cotton growing states have
been t xporting their soil; and with that improv-
juence which slavery generates, that love of
present indulgence, careless of what may fol-
low, the South has received in return the means
of enjoyment only-nothing wherewith to ren-
ovate the outraged ground. Such a process long
continued must, in the end, ruin the finest lands
in the world. Its effects are apparent in the At-
lantic States, in the south-west operating irre-
sistibly to draw the planters of Carolina and
Georgia from their wornout fields.
  The same general observations will apply to
our slave-holding sections in Maryland, and to
many parts of eastern Vtrginia too, if it were
necessary to pursue the investigation there.-
Emigration to the west has kept pace with the
impoverishment of our lands. Large tracts have
come into the hands of a few proprietors -too
large to be improved, and too much eshausted
to be productive. But this is not the worst.-
The traveller, as he journeys through these dis-
tricts, smitten with premature barrenness as
with a curse, beholds fields, once enclosed and
subject to tillage, now abandoned and waste,
and covered with straggling pines or scrubby
thickets, which are fast overgrowing the wan-
ing vestiges of former cultivations.  From
swamps and undrained morasses, malaria ex-
hales, and like a pestilence infects the country.
The inhabitants become a sallow race; the cur-
renti of life stagnates; energy fails; the spirits
droop. Over the whole region a melancholy
aspect broods. There are everywhere signs of
dilapidation, from the mansion of the planter
woth its wincows half-glazed, its doors half-
hinged, its lawn trampled by domestic animals
that have ingress and egress through the broken
enclosures, to the ragged roadside house where
thriftless noverty finds its abode. No neat cot-
tages with gardens and flowe rs giving life to tle
lar;dscape; no beautiful villages where cultiva-
ted taste blends with rustic simplicity, enrich-
ingand beautifying; no flourishing towns alive
with the bustle of industry-none of these'are
seen; no, nor any diversified succession of r ell
cultivated farms with their substantial home-
stca's and capacious barns; no well-construct-
ed bridgem, no well-constructed roads.-Neglect,
the harbinger of decay, have stamped her im.
pru.'s everywhere.  Slavery, bringing with it
from its African home its char.cteristic accom-
panimcnts, seems to have breathed over its rest-
ing places here thesame desolating breathwhich
made Sahara a desert.'
   Mr. Carey next gives a detailed statement of
the population of each county in Maryland


commencing in 1790, an bringing it on in regu-
lar decades to 1840, exhibiting in the aggregate
the following remarkable results :

  " In nine counties in Maryland the white pop-
ulation has diminished since 1790. These are
the counties: Montgomery, Prince George, St.
Mary's Calvert, Charles Kent, Caroline, Tal-
bot and Queen Anne's. The aggregate white
population of those counties in 1790 was 73,352;
in 1840 it was 54,408. Here is a falling off of
nearly 20,000; if the account were carried to
the present year the falling off would be more
than 20,000.
  "These nine counties include the chief slave-
holding sections of the State. In five of them
taken together, to-wit: Montgomery, Prince
George, St. Mary's, Calvert, .and Charles, the
number of slaves exceeds that of the white pop-
ulation. These are chiefly the tobacco growing
counties, together with the county of Frederick.
  "The counties of Alleghany, Washington,
Frederick, and Baltimore, and Baltimore City,
are the portions of the State in which slavery
has existed but partially. That is to say, Alle-
ghany, with an aggregate population of 15,704,
has but8it slaves; Washington, in a popula-
tion of 28,862, has 2,505 slaves; Frederick has
6,370 slaves to a population of 36,703; Balti-
more county, 6,533 slaves in aggregate popula-
tion of 80,256; and Baltimore City includes but
3,212 in its population of 102,513.
  "Nov taking these four counties and Balti-
more City out of the account, it will be found
that the aggregate white population of the rest
ofthe State has diminishedsince 1790. In other
words the increase of our population, which is
abeut one hundred and fifty thousand since the
first census, has been mainly in those counties
where slavery has been least prominent. In
those portions of the State where slavery pre-
vails most prominently, the white population,
during the last fifty years, has diminished."
  He then sums up, boy the following comparison
of a portion of the free and slave States, which
exhibits the latter in a painfully humiliating con-
  "The contrast presented by the progress of
the free States, within fifty years, and by that
of the slave-holding States for the same period,
is so familiar that it would be useless to burden
these pages with statistics to illustrate it. It
may be sufficient to state, in respect to the in-
crease of population, that in 1790 the free
States, including Massachusetts and Maine,
New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut,
Vermont, New York, New Jersey and Pennsyl-
vania had a population of 1,971,455; while
the slaveholding States, Delaware, Maryland,
with the Dfistrict, Virginia, North Carolina,
South Carolina, and Georgia, contained 1,852,-
494 inhabitants. Tn 1840 the same free States
numbered a population of 6,761,082, and the
same slave-holding States had entire population
of 3,827,110. The former increased in a ratio
more than double as compared with the latter.

  "In our own State, however, where we donuL
grow cotton, sugar, or rice, and where there arc
no nev lands to present afresh to the plough,
and to invite settlers from a distance, the in-
crease of population in our chief slave-holding
counties has been nothing at all. There has
been a decrease, and a very marked one. How
has this decrease happened but by a process sim-
ilar to that which rendered desolate three hun-
dred thousand acres in the campaigneof Naples,
in the days of slavery among the Romans-
which made Italy itself almost one wildernese,
re-inhabitcd by wild boars and other animals,
before a single barbarian had crossed the Alps!
  "Let us not conceal the truth from ourselves.
Slavery in Maryland is no longer compatible
with progress; it is a dead weight and worse; it
has become a wasting disease, weakening the
vital powers-a leprous distilment into the life-
blood of the commonwealth."

  This, then, fellow-citizens, is the result of the
continued existence of slavery in one of the
older States. We shall presently see that the
deleterious effeets of slavevy are palpable in
Kentucky as well as in Maryland.
  We will now turn to Virginia, " Old Vir-
ginia," the State that we proudly claim as our
mother, and let us see if the picture of slavery
has there a brighter side. And first we give a
comparative view of the progress and develop-
ment of the agricultural, manufacturing, and
commercial interests of New England and Vir-
ginia, as gathered from the best authorities wvith-
in our reach. Both seclions may be considered
as nearly of the same age in point of settlement,
both were settled by Englishmen, and there is a
striking similarity in extent of territory.
  Mr. Howison, in his late history of Virginia,
thus contrasts the natural advantages of Massa-
chusetts and Virginia, and what is here said of
Massachusetts will apply equally to all New
  "Massachusetts was first settled in 1620-
Virginia in 1607-Massachusetts in winter has a
cold, harsh atmosphere-Virginia has at all
times a temperate and pleasant climate-Mas-
sachusetts has a hard, sterile soil, little grateful
for attention-Virginia has a soil generous even
to prodigality, and repaying twenty-fold the la-
bor of the husbandman; Massachusetts is watered
by small streams, and has but oneriver that may
claim the first dignity-Virginia has six of the
finest rivers, whose waters reach the Atlantic.
.         Massachusetts has some iron
and granite, but beyond these, ber minerals are
as nothing-Virginia has iron, lead, copper,
gold, salt, and coal in quantity, which no one
has yet ventured to estimate--Massachusetts has
indeed splendid harbors, and everything essen.
tial to the expansion of shipping-but Virginia
has an inland sea and habomthatmightbenade


las good as any in the world. Massachusetts has
7,800 square milesof surface-Virginia has t66,-
)00 square miles of horizontal area."
  From this statement of familiar facts, as c in-
cer that if Virginia has not equalled New Eng-
:aud in progress, the fault is in her people and
institutions, and not in her physical condiiion.
  The area of the New England States is thus
Eiven by the best authorities, viz:

Newi -am.shire,
Rhode T1land,

Square Miles.
    l ,206


Total,              63,026      40,336,640
  The relative condition of New England and
Virginia, at the present time, is shown by the
following statements. They present a compar-
ative view of the substantial elements of pros-
perity, as well as of moral and intellectual im-
provement, in these two sections of the United
States-the one a population of diversified in-
lustrial employments, and improving all their
advantages-the other a population chiefly agri-
,ultural, its manufacturing, mining, and com-
inercial advantages but partially developed, im-
porting from abroad a large portion of the mn an-
ufactures necessary for the supply of its inhabi-
tants, most of whichecould readily and advan-
tageowsly be made within its own borders.

White population,
Free col'd do

   New England.
1840, 2,212,165
do.     22,633
do.         23

  Total pop. in 1840,  2,234,821
Persons employed In
  Agriculture,          414,138
In Manufactures,         187,258
In Mining,                  811
In Commerce,              17,757
In Navigation,            44,068
In Learned Profes-
  sions,                  11,050
X Whites over 20 years
  of age who cannot
  read and write,         13,041
Students in Colleges,    2,857
  Do in Academies,        43,664
-Scholars in Primary
  Schools,               574,277
Capital employed in
  Manufactures,    86,824,229
In Foreign Commerce, 19,467,793
In Fisheries,         14,691,294
In L-imber Business,  2,096,041
Bankingeapital in '40, 62,134,850








            THE CENSUS OF 1840.

Innual products of
)f Manufactures,
Of Commerce,
Xf Mining,

82,784, t85


             1830 AN D 1840.

White persons in 1830
Colored do     1830
White   do     1840
Colored do     1840
Increase of whites in
  fifty years,
Increase of colored
  persons in fifty yr's,
Increase of total pop-





5,613     192,636



  The percentage of increase on the total pop-
ulation in fifty years, in New England, 121 3-10;
in Virginia, 65 6-10.
  We have given above, the estimates of the
comparative products of New Eiigland and Vir-
ginia, made by Prof. Tucker. We subjoin those
of Dr. Ruffner, whois also a Virginian, because
we believe them more correct. He says:
  "By estimating the value of the yearly plo-
ducts of each State, and dividing the same by
the number ofpersons employed in makingthose
products, we find the average value produced by
each person: and by comparing the results of
the calculation for the several States, we discov-
er the comparative productiveness of Agricultur-
al labor in the States. This is what we want
for our argument.
  Professor Tucker, la'e of the University of
Virginia, in his useful book, on the Progress of
Popuilation, c., has given in detail a calcula-
tion of this sorL  He was certainly not partial
to the North in his estimates. We have care-
fully examined them; and think that his valua-
tions of products are in some particulars errone-
ous. We think, also, that he has omitted tome
elements necassary to an accurate result. We
have therefore In our own calculations arrived
at results somewhat different from his; yet so far
as our argument is concerned, the difference is
immaterial. We can therefore assure you, fel-
low-citizens, that no sort of calculation founded
on any thing like truth or reason, can bring out
a result materially different from ours.
  We have not room here for the particulars that
enter into the calculations: we can only give
the results themselves.