and towns and cities. We of the South are
mistaken in the character of these people, when
we think of them only as pedlars in horn flints
and bark nutinegs. Their energy and enter-
prise are directed to all objects great and small
within their reach. Their numerous railroads
and other modes of expeditious intercommuni-
cation knit the whole country into a closely
compacted mass, through which the productions
of commerce and of the press, the comforts of
life and the means of knowledge are universally
diffused, while the close intercourse of business
and of travel makes all neighbors, and promotes
a common interest and common sympathy
  "How different the condition of these things
in the South! Here the face of the country
wears the aspect of premature old age and de-
cay. No improvement is seen going on, noth-
ing is done for posterity. No man thinks of
anything bsyond the present moment "
  This picture, drawn by the hand of a master,
is unhappily too true! Its fidelity cannot be
questioned, and it is in vain for interested poli-
ticiaus to attribute it to any other cause than
that of slavery. And how can it be otherwise,
in a land where one half the population is re-
duced almost to the condition of beasts of bur-
den-intentionally and systematically shut out
from every means of improvement, and when a
large portion of the other half is nurtured from
infancy in habits of idleness and extravigance
  It is in vain to tell us that railroads and can-
als will secure our prosperity, for they cannot
change the character of our population nor the
habits of our people. Neither railroads nor can-
als nor any other works of internal improve-
ments can ever exist, to any great extent, where
there is that sparseness of population, aversion
to labor and want of enterprise, which has
characterized every slave country, from the be-
ginning of the world. It is useless for South-
ern men to be holding conventions to devise the
best means of promoting Internal Improvements.
We never can have improvements while slavery
is among us and capital and labor are shut out
by a general contempt for labor. If we have
but few internal improvements-if we wanten-
terprise-if we have no system for the education
of the masses-if our laboring citizens are not
prospering, but are annually driven off by thou-
sands in search of better homes-if, in short,
we are not progressing as the world around us-
there is but one cause for it all-slavery-sla-
very, which, in the language of a distinguished
Virginian, is "a mildew that has blighted in its
course every region it has touched from the cre-
ation of the world."
  We have seen how Virginia stands in com-
parison with New York, or New England, but
we have only to compare the products of South
Carolina-slave-loving South Carolina-with
those of any free State in the Union, and we
have the comparative productiveness of freeand
slave labor, so strikingly presented that he
must be blind who does not see its significancy.
  The census returns of 1840, give not only the
population of the States, but a 3omplete view
of the agriculture in each. Many errors un-
doubtedly exist in those returns, partly from



9



wrong estimates of farmers, partly from the
negligence of the Deputy Marshals who took
the census-but it is just as likely that those
errors were committed in our State as in anoth-
er-it is just as likely that the products of New
York were estimated too low as those of South
Carolina-upon the whole, these returns are
incomparably the best evidence that exists upon
the subject, and their substantial correctness is
confirmed by all sorts of evidence, so far as any
exists.
  The census returns show that in 1840, South
Carolina had 198,363 persons employed in ag-
riculture. And according to our estimates based
on those returns, the value of the whole of her
agricultural products does not exceed 11,000,-
000. These estimates werecarefully made, and
no sort of calculation founded on any thing like
truth or reason, can bring about a result mate-
rially different.
  In New York the produce of the dairy alone
was worth 10,496,021, and the single item of
hay-estimating it at 6 per ton-was worth
18,762,282.
  By dividing the value of the products by the
number of persons in making those products,
we find the average value produced by each.-
In South Carolina then, agricultural industry
yields an annual value averaging something
less than 55 to the hand.
  Now, if we take the estimate by Dr. Ruffner
of the productive industry of New England
and New York, we find that each man in New
England produces three timnes as much, and
each man in New York five times as much as
each man, in the same pursuit, in South Car-
olina.
  We have not space for the tables showing in
detail the comparative productive industry of
all the free and slave States. The following
statement presents at once the most concise and
comprehensive statement we have seen.
GENERAL 'VIEW OF THE PRODUCrIVE INDUSTRY OF
    THE FREE AND SLAVE STATES, ON THE
        BASIS OF THE Cs-qsus OF 1840.



    Slave States.
    107,934,996


Balance against us,



Free States.
.397,965,552
107,934,996

8290,030,556



  If to this we add the excess of the agricul-
tural products of the free over those of the
slave States, viz: 52,707,913, we have the en-
tire balance against the latter of 342,738,469.
  We now turn to our own home, to our own
State, to Kentucky, and we ask the serious at-
tention of our fellow citizens to some argu-
ments and statistics, collected by a distinguish-
ed gentleman of this State, and first published
in 1845. Their general correctness will not be
questioned:
  The number of slaves in Kentucky, at vari-
ous periods, may be stated thus:



In 1790
" 1800
" 1810
" 4820
I 1830
1 810



                       Slaves.
,. -   .   .   .   .    11,830
                    so. .   .    403 t3
                       s0.661
                       126.732
                       165,213
                     use  . -       182.238



I