xt74qr4nkk03 https://exploreuk.uky.edu/dips/xt74qr4nkk03/data/mets.xml Filson, John 1784  books b02-000000002 English Printed by James Adams : Wilmington Del. Contact the Special Collections Research Center for information regarding rights and use of this collection. Noland, Stephen, 1818- The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke text The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke 1784 2002 true xt74qr4nkk03 section xt74qr4nkk03 
         T H E
       And prefent State of
  K E Nr r U C K E:
         A N D
An E S S A Y towards the TOPOGRAPHY,
 and NATURAL HISTORY of that im-a
 portant Country:
       To which -is added,
   An A P P E N D I X,
      C O N T A I N I N G,
I. The ADVENTURES of Col. Daniel Boon, one
 of the firfL Settlers, comprehending every im-
 portant Occurrence in the political Hiftory of
 that Province.
II The M I N U T E s of the Pianka/haw coun-
cil, held at Pof St. Vincents, A4pril 15, 1784.
III. An A c c o u N T of the Indian Nations in-
 habiting within the Limits of the Thirteen U-
 nited States, their Manners and Cuftoms, and
 Refle&-ions on their Origin.
IV. The STAGES and DISTANCES between
 Pbiladelphia and the Falls of the Ohio; from
 Pitoburg to Penfacola and feveral other Places.
 -The Whole illufcrated by a new and accu-
 rate M A P of Kentucke and the Country ad-
 joining, drawn from aftual Surveys.

Wi/lnington, Printed by JAMES ADAMS, 1784.



 This page in the original text is blank.

W   E the Subfcribers, inhabitants. of
    Kentucke, and well acquainted
with the country from its Iirft fettlement,
at the requefi of the author of this book,
and map, have carefully revifed them,
and recommend them to the public, as
exceeding good performances, contain.
ing as accurate a defcription of our coun-
try as we think can poffibly be given;
much preferable to any in our know-_
ledge extant; and think it will be of
great utility to the publick. Witnefs
our hands this I 2th day of May, Anno
Domni I1784,
        DANIEL BOON,
        LEVI TODD,




( 5 )


T  5 HE generality of thofe geographers, who
    have attempted a map, or deJcription of A-
merica, fiem either to have bad no knowledge of
Kentucke, or to k-ave negleted it, although a place
of infinite importance: And the re/7 have proceeded
fo erroneoujy, that they have left the world as much
in darknefs as beJore. Many are the mi/lakes, re-
fpeding the fubjefl of this work, in all other maps
'which I have yet teen; whereas I can truly fay, I
know of none in that wbich I here prefent to the
world either from my own particular knowledge, or
from the inlormation of thofe gentlemen with whojf
a/lance I have been javoured, and who have been
well acquainted with the countryfiqce the hfifr/fettle-
tnent. When I v/ifted Kentucke, I found it lo far to
exceed my expelations, although great, that I con-
cluded it was a pity; that the world had not adequate
information of it. I conceived that a proper de/crip
tion, and map of it, 'were objeels highly interelling to
the United States; and therefore, incredible as it may
appear to fome, I mu/I declare, that this perform.
ance is not publij/ed from lacrative motives, but
fiokly to iAfiorm the world of the happy climate, and


pkendft foil of this favoured region. Aid I ima-
gine the redtr wifi believe me the more eafilv when I
injormn him, that I am not an inhabitant of Kentuc-.
ke, but having been there fome time, by mv acquain..
tance in it, am fufficiently able to publifh the trutb,
and from principle, have cautiouJlv endeavoured to
avoid every Jpecies ot /alfehood. The confcioufinefs of
tbij encourages me to hope fJr the public candour,
where errors may pqo/ibly be found.  The three
gentlemen honouring this work with their recommen-
dation, Col Boon, Col. Todd, and Col. Harrod, were
among the fir/I fettlers, and perfiedly well acquaint-
ed 'with the country. To them I acknowledge mv/elf
much indebted /or their friendly a/iftance in this work,
'which they chearfully contributed with a di/intere/led
'w;:ew of being lerviceable to the public. My thanks
at e more efpecially due to Col. Boon, who was earli_
er acquainted with the fiebjed of this performance
than any ofher now living, as appears by the ac-
count of his adventures, which I efleimed curious
and interelling, and therefore have pzblib/Jed them
from his own mouth.  Much advantage may poi'-
bly arife to the pofeJor of this book, as thofe who
wi:ijh to travel in Kentucke will utndoubtedlv find it
a Compleat Guide. To fuch I affirm, that there is
nothing mentioned or defcribed but what they will
find true. Con/cious that it would be of general utility,
I have omitted nothing, and been exceeding particu-
lar in every part. That it may have the degred
j'ed. is tbefincere wioJf FILSON



         T H E

         A N D

  S E T TL E M4 E N T.

         O F


   H E firfi white man we have certain ac.
   counts of, who discovered this province,
was one James McBride, who, in company with
fome others, in the year 1754, paffing down the
Ohio in Canoes, landed at the mouth of Ken.
tucke river, and there marked a tree, with the
firft letters of his name, and the date, which
remain to this day. Thele men reconnoitred
the country, and returned home with the pleaf.
ing news of their difcovery of the beft track of
land in North-America, and probably in the



world. From this period it remained concealed
till about the year 1767, when one John Finley,
and fome others, trading with the Indians, for-
tunately travelled over the fertile region, now
called Kentucke, then but known to the Indi-
ans, by the name of the Dark and Bloody
Ground, and fometimes the Middle Ground.
This country greatly engaged Mr. Finley's
attention. Some time after, difputes arifing
between the Indians and traders, he was obliged
to decamp; and returned to his place of refi-
dence in North-Carolina, where he communi-
cated his difcovery to Col. Daniel Boon, and
a few more, who conceiving it to be an inter-
dIling object, agreed in the year 1769 to un-
dertake a journey in order to explore it. After
a long fatiguing march, over a mountainous
wildernefs, in a wefward direciion, they at
length arrived upon its borders; and from the
top of an eminence,- with joy and wonder, de-
fcried the beautiful landscape of Kentucke.
Here they encamped, and fonie went to hunt
provifions, which were readily procured, there
being plenty of game, while Col. Boon and
Jolhn Finley made a tour through the country,
which they found far exceeding their expec-
tations, and returning to camp, informed
their companions of their difcoveries: But in
fpite of this promifing beginning, this company,
meeting with nothing but hardlhips and adver-



fity, grew exceedingly ditheartened, and was
plundered, difperfed, and killed by the Indians,
except Col. Boon, who continued an inhabitant
of the wildernefs until the year 1771,' when
he returned home.

 About this time Kentucke had drawn the at.
tention of feveral gentlemen. Do loL Walk-
er of Virginia, with a number more, made a
tour weftward for discoveries, endeavouring to
find the Ohio river; and afterwards he and Gene-
ral Lewis, at Fort Stanwix, purchafed from the
Five Nations of Indians the lands lying on tbt
north fide of Kentucke. Col. Donaldfon, of
Virginia, being employed by the State to run
a line from fix miles above the Long Ifland, oa
Hoiflein, to the mouth of the great Kenhava,
and finding thereby that an extenfive tract of
excellent country would be cut off to the Indi-
ans, was folicited, by the inhabitants of Clench
and Holitein, to purchafe the lands lying on the
north fide of Kentucke river from the Five Na.
tions. This purchafe he compleated for five
hundred pounds, fpecie. It was then agreed,
to fix a boundary line, running from the long
Ifland on Holftein to the head of Kentucke ri-
ver; thence down the fame to the mouth ;
thence up the Ohio, to the mouth of Great
Kenhawa; but this valuable purchafe the State
refuted to confirm.





         ( 10 )
 Col. Henderfon, of North-Carolina, being
informed of this country by Col. Boon, he, and
iorne other gentlemen, held a treaty with the
Cherokee Indians at Wataga, in March 1775,
and then purchafed fiom them the lands Iying
on the fouth fide of Kentucke river for goods,
at valuable rates, to the amount of fix thoufand
pounds, fpecie.

 Soon after this puichafe, the State of Virginia
took the alarm, agreed to pay the money Col.
Donaldfon had contraaed for, and then dif-
puted Col. Henderfon's right of purchafe, as a
private gentlemen of another flate, in behalf of
himfelf: However, for his eminent fervices to
this country, and for having been inftrumental
in making fo valuable an acquifition to Virginia
that flate was pleafed to reward him with a traft
of land, at the mouth of Green River, to the
amount of two hundred thoufand acres; and
the flate of North-Carolina gave him the like
quantity in Powel's Valley. This region was
formerly claimed by various tribes of Indians;
whofe title, if they had any, originated in fuch
a manner, as to render it doubtful which ought
to poffefs it: Hence this fertile fpot became an
object of contention, a theatre of war, from
which it was properly denominated the Bloody-
Grounds.  Their contentions not being likely
to decide the Right to any particular tribe, as



         ( 11 )
loon as Mr. Henderfon and his friends propofea
to purchafe, the Indians agreed to fell; and
notwithftanding the valuable Confideration they
received, have continued ever fince troubleforne
neighbours to the new fettlers.

 K E N T U C K E is fituated, in its central
part, near the latitude of 38 " north, and 8s 0
weft longitude, and lying within the fifth cli-
mate, its longeft day is 14 hours 40 minutes. It
is bounded on the north by great Sandy-creek;
by the Ohio on the N. W. by North-Carolina
on the fouth; and by the Cumberland mourn-
tain on the eafi, being upwards of 250 miles
in length, and two hundred in breadth; and is
at prefent divided into three counties, Lincoln,
Fayetteand Jefferfon; of which Fayette and Jeffer.
fon are bounded by the Ohio, and the river Ken.
tucke feparates Fayette on its north fide from
the other two. There are at prefent eight towns
laid off, and building; and more are propofed.

 LouifYville, at the Falls of Ohio, and Beards..
town, are in Jefferfon county; Harrodfburg,
Danville, and Boons-burrow, in Lincoln coun-
ty; Lexington, Lees-town, and Greenville, in
Fayette county; the two laft being on Kentuc.
ke river. At thefe and many other places, on


          12   )
this and other rivers, infpeiing-boufes are ella.
bliffied for Tobacco, which may be cultivated
to great advantage; although not altogether the
flaple commodity of the country.

      R I V E R S.
 THE beautiful river Ohio, bounds Kentucke in
its whole length, being a mile and fometimes Iefs
in breadth, and is fufficient to carry boats of great
burthen. Its general courfe is fouth 6o degrees
well; and in its courfe it receives numbers of large
atid fanall rivers, which pay tribute to its glo-
ry. The only difadvantage this fine river has,
is- a rapid, one mile and an half long, and one
mile and a quarter broad, called the Falls of
Ohio.. In this place the river runs over a rocky
bottom, and the defcent is fo gradual, that the
fall does -not probably in the whole exceed
twenty feet. In fome places we may obferve it
to fall a feAw feet. When the ftream is low,
empty boats only can pafs and repafs this ra-
pid;- their lading mull be tranfported by land ;
but when high, boats of any burthen may pafs
in fafety. Excepting this place, there is not a
finer river in the world for navigation by boats.
Befides this, Kentucke is watered by eight fmal.
ler rivers, and many large and fmall creeks,
as may be eafily feen in the map.



         ( 13 )
 Licking River heading in the mountains -with
Cumberland River, and the North Branch of
Kentucke, runs in a N. W. direstion for up-.
wards of a hundred miles, colleffing its filver
ftreams from many branches, and is about one
hundred yards broad at its mouth.

 Red River heads and -interlocks with tbe maim
branch of Licking, and flows in a S. Weft
courfe into Kentucke River. being about fixty
miles long, and fixty yards wide at its mouth,

 The Kentucke River rifes with three beads
from a mountainous part- of the Country. its
northern branch interlocks with Cumberland;
runs half way in a weftern direftion, and the
other half N. wefierly. It is amazingly crook.
ed, upwards of two hundred miles in length,
and about one hundred and fifty yards broad.

 Elkhorn is ap(mall river which empties itreIf
into Kentucke in. a N. W. by W. couwre; is
about fifty miles long,, and fifty yards broad at
the mouth.

 Dick's River joins the Kentucke in a N.
Weft direffion; is about forty-five miles long,
and forty-five yards wide at its mouth. This
river curioufly heads and interlocks its branches
with Salt River, Green River, and the waters



          ( 14. )
of Rock-caflle River.-.-Salt River rifes at four
different places near each other. The windings of
this river are curious, rolling its ftreams round
a fpacious tract of fine land, and uniting almoft
fifteen miles before they approach the Ohio, and
twenty miles below the Falls. It is amazingly
crooked, runs a weftern courfe near ninety
miles, and is about eighty yards wide at the

 Green River interlocking with the heads of
Dick's River, as mentioned above, is alfo a.
mazingly crooked, keeps a weftern courfe for
upwards of one hundred and fifty miles, and is
about eighty yards wide at its mouth, which is
about two hundred and twenty miles below the

 Cumberland River, interlocks with the north-
ern branch of Kentucke, -is aforefaid, and rol-
ling round the other arms of Kentucke, among
the mountains, in a fouthein courfe for one
hundred miles; then in a fouth wefern courfe
for above one hundred miles; then in a fouth-
ern and S. weftern courfe for about two hun-
dred and fifty more, finds the Ohio, four hun-
dred and thirteen miles below the Falls. At
the fettlements it is two hundred yards broad;
and at its mouth three hundred, having paf-



         ( 15 )
fed through North-Carolina in about half its

 The Great Kenhawa, or New River, rifes in
North-Carolina, runs a northern, and N. Weft
courfe for upwards of four hundred miles, and
finds the Ohio four hundred miles above the
Falls. It is about five hundred yards wide at
its mouth. Thefe two rivers are juat mentioned,
being beyond our limits, They run contrary
courfes, are exceeding large, and it is worth
notice, that Clench, Holftein, Nolachuckey, and
French-Broad rivers, take their rife between
thefe two, or rather weftward of New River,
fome of them rifing and interlocking with it;
and when they meet, form what is called the
Tenefe, or Cherokee River, which runs a weft..
em courfe, and finds the Ohio twelve miles
below Cumberland River. It is very large, and
has fpacious traas of fine land.

 Thefe rivers are navigable for boats almoft
to their fources, without rapids, for the great-
eft part of the year. This country is ge-
nerally level, and abounding with limeftcone,
which ufually lies about fix feet deep, except in
hollows, where ftreams run, where we find the
rock in the bottom of the channel.

 The fprings and ftreams leffen in June, and



          ( i6 )
continue low, hindering navigationi, until No.
vember, when the autum nal rains foon pre.
pare the rivers for boats, and replenifh the
whole country with water; but although the
firears, decreare, yet there is always fufficient
for dorneftic ufes. There are many fine fprings-
that never fail; every farmer has a good one at
leaft; and excellent wells may eafily be di;,.

     N A T U R E of the S 0 I Lb
 T H E country, in fome parts, is nearly level;
in others not fo much fo-; in others again hilly,
bat moderately, and in fuch places there is
moft water, The levels are not like a carpet,
but mterfperfed with imall rifings, and declivi..
ties, wbich form a beautiful profpet. A great
part of the foil is amazingly fertile; fome not
fo good, and fome poor. The inhabitants dif.
tinguifh its quality by firif, fecond, and third
rate lands; and Icarcely any fuch thing as a
marfh or fwamp is to be found. There is a
ridge, where Kentucke rifes, nearly of the fize
of a mountain, which in the map we have
reprefented as fuchs

 All the land below the Great Kenhawa un..
til we come near the waters. of Licking River
is broken, hilly, and generally poor; except
an fome valleys, and on Little and, Big Sandy



         ( 17 )
creeks, where there is fome firft rate land, but
moftly fecond and third rate. It is faid, that
near this water is found a pure falt rock. Up-
on the north branch of Licking, we find a great
body of firfl rate land. This :fream runs near-
ly parallel to the Ohio for a confiderable di-
fiance, and is about feven miles from the mouth
of Limeftone Creek, where is a fine harbour
fdr boats coming down the Ohio, and now a
common landing. It is fixty-five miles from
Lexington, to which there is a large waggon
road. The main branch of Licking, is about
twenty-two miles from Limeftone. On this
fiream we find fome firft, but moffly fecond
and third rate lands, and, towards its head
fomething hilly. There we find the Blue Licks,
two fine falt fprings, where great -plenty of falt
may be made.  Round thefe licks, the foil is
poor for fome diftance, being much impregnat-
ed with falt.

  The fouthernm branch of Licking, and all its
 otber arms, as appears in the map, fpread
 through a great body of iroft, and forne fecond
 rate land, where there is abundance of cane,
 and fome falt licks, and fipings. On thefe feve.
 ral branches of Licking, are good mill-feats, and
 navigation to the Ohio, front the fork down to
 its mouth. The land is hilly, and generally
           C          poor,



          ( 18 )
poor, yet along the fireams and in valleys we
find fiome excellent land.

 The Elkhorn lands are much efteemed, bemg
fituated in a bend of Kcntucke River, of great
extent, in which this little river, or rather large
creek, rifes. Here we find mofily firft rate
land, and near the Kentucke River fecond and
third rate. This great tract is beautifully fitu.
ated, covered with cane, wild rye, and clover;
and many of the ftreams afford fine mill

 The lands below  the mouth of Elkhorn,
up Eagle Creek, and towards the Ohio, are hilly
and poor, except thofe contained in a great
bend of the Ohio, oppofite Great Miami, cut
off, as appears in the map, by the Big-bone
and Bank-lick creeks, interlocking, and run-
ning feparate courfes. Here we find a great deal
of good land, but fomething hilly.

 On Kentucke River we find many fertile
valleys, or bottoms along the river, efpecially
towards its rife.. There is good land alfo on
Red River, but towards the heads of this, and
Kentucke, the foil is broken; but even here,
we find in valleys, and along ftreams, a great
deal of fruitful land. Generally the foil within
a mile or two of Kentucke River is of the third



          ( 19 )
and fourth rates; from about that diftance, as
we leave it on either fide, we approach good
lands. The country through which it winds its
courfe, for the moft part, may be confidered as
level to its banks, or rather precipices; trom the
brow of which, we behold the river, three and
fometimes four hundred feet deep, like a great
canal. For a more particular account of this,
we refer the reader to where we'treat of the cu-
riofities of Kentucke.

 Dick's River runs through a great body of
filrft rate land, abounding every where with
cane, and affords many excellent mill feats.
Many mills are already built on this fiream,
fome of which are reprefented in the map, and
will have a plentiful fupply of water in the dry.
eft feafons. The banks of this river, near its
mouth, are fimilar to the banks of Kentucke.
The feveral ftreams and branches of Salt River
afford excellent mill feats. Thefe roll them.
felves through a great tract of excellent land,
but the country from the junaion of thefe
waters, and fome miles above towards the Ohio,
which may be about twenty-five miles, is level
and poor, and has abundance of ponds. For a
confiderable diftance from the head of this
river, the land is of the firf quality, well fitu-
ated, and abounds with fine cane, Upon thuis,


         ( 20 )
and Dick's River, the inhabitants are chiefly fet..
tied, it being -the fafeft part of the country from
the incurfions of the Indians.

 Green River, affords excellent mill feats, and
a conftant ftream. This is allowed to be the
beft watered part of Kentucke. On its banks we
find many fine bottoms, fome firft rate, but
moftly fecond and third rate lands; and at Come
diifance, many knobs, ridges, and broken poor
land. Below a creek, called Sinking Creek, on
this river, within fifty miles of Ohio, towards
Salt River, a great territory begins, called
Green River Barrens, extending to the Ohio.
Moft of this is very good land, and level. It
has no timber, and little water, but affords
excellent pafturage for cattle. On fome parts
of this river, we find abundance of cane, fome
falt licks, and fulphureous and bituminous
fprings. South of Green River, in the lands
referved for the continental, and ftate troops of
Virginia, an exceeding valuable lead mine has
lately been discovered. Iron ore is found on
Rough Creek, a ftream running into this river.
That part of Cumberland River which is in the
Kentucke country, traverfes a hilly poor land,
though in Come parts we find good foil along its
fides. Thesother rivers I mentioned (viz. Great
Kenhawa, and Tenefe) are not in the Kentucke
country, and therefore do not come properly
within my plan.              The



         ( 21 )
 The reader, bycaftinghis eye upon the map, and
viewinground theheads of Licking, fromthe Ohio,
and round the heads of Kentucke, Dick's River,
and down Green River to the Ohio,, may view,
in that great compals of above one hundred
miles fquare, the moft extraordinary country
that the fun enlightens with his celeftial beams.

 The Ohio River, the great reservoir of all
the numerous rivers that flow into it from -both
fides, has many fine valleys along its fides; and
we obferve that oppofite to each of them there is
a hill; thefe hills and bottoms changing fides al.
ternately. It only remains under this head to
inform the reader, that there is a great body of
firft rate land near the Falls, or Rapids, called
Bare-grafs; and it will be fufficient juft to men.
tion that the country on the N. Weft fide of the
Ohio, fome of the waters of which I have repre.
fented in the map, is allowed by all travellers to
be a moft fertile, level country, and well wa.

 T HI S country is more temperate and healthy
than the other fettled parts of America. In
Summer it wants the fandy heats which Virginia
and Carolina experience, and receives a fine air


         ( 22 )
from its rivers. In Winter, whichat moftonlylafls
three months, commonly two, and is but fieldomn
fevere, the people are fafe in bad hou res; and the
beafts have a good fupply without fodder. The
Winter begins about Chriftmas, and ends about
the firfd of March, at fartheit does not exceed
the middle of that month. Snow feldom falls
deep or lies long. The weft winds often bring
dlorms, and the eaft winds clear the fky; but
there is no fteady rule of weather in that refpect
as in the northern ftates. The weft winds are
fometimes cold and nitrous. The Ohio running
in that direCtion, and there being mountains on
that quarter, the wefterly winds by fweeping
along their tops, in the cold regions of the air,
and over a long tradt of frozen water, colleat cold
in their courfe, and convey it over the Kentuc.
ke country; but the weather is not fo intenfely
fevere as thefe winds bring with them in Pennfyl.
vania. The air and (eafons depend very much
on the winds, as to heat and cold, drynefs and

 THE foil of Kentucke is of a loofe, deep black
mould, without fand, in the firft rate lands
about two or three beet deep, and exceeding lux-
urious in all its produtions. In Iome places the
mould inclines to brown. In Come the wood, as



          ( 23 )
the natural confequence of too rich a roil, is of
little value, appearing like dead timber and large
ftumps in a field lately cleared. Thefe parts are
not confiderable. The country in general may be
confidered as well timbered, producing large trees
of many kinds, and to be exceeded by no country
in variety. Thofe which are peculiar to Kentucke
are thefugar-tree, which growsin all parts in great
plenty, and furnifhes every family with plenty of
excellent fugar. The honey-locuft is curioufly
furrounded with large thorny fpikes, bearing
broad and long pods in form of peas, has a
tweet tafte, and makes excellent beer.

 The coffee-tree greatly refemrbles the black
oak, grows large, and alfo bears a pod, in which
is enclofed good coffee. The pappa-tree does
not grow to a great fize, is a foft wood, bears
a fine fruit much like a cucumber in fhape and
fize, and taftes lweet. The cucumber-tree is
fmall and foft, with remarkable leaves, bears a
fruit much refembling that from which it is nam-
ed. Black mulberry-trees are in abundance. The
wild cherry-tree is here frequent, of a large fize;
and fupplies the inhabitants with boards for all
their buildings. Here alfo is the buck-eye, an
exceeding foft wood, bearing a remarkable black
fruit, and fome other kinds of trees not common
elfewhere. Here is great plenty of fine cane, on
which the cattle feed, and grow fat. This plant



          ( 24 )
in general grows from three to twelve feet high, of
a hard fubftance, with joints at eight or ten inches
diftance along theftalk, from which proceed leaves
refembling thofe of the willow. There are many
cane brakes fothick and tall that itis difficulttoppafs
through them. Where no cane grows there is a-
bundance of wild-rye, clover, and buffalo-grafs,
covering vaflt trats of country, and affording ex-
cellent food for cattle. The fields are covered
with abundance of 'wild herbage not common to
other countries. The Shawanefe fallad, wild let-
tuce, and pepper-grafs, and many more, as yet
unknown to the inhabitants, but which, no
doubt, have excellent virtues. Here are feen
the fineft crown-imperial in the world, the car-
dinal flower, fo much extolled for its fcarlet co-
lour; and all the year, excepting the three Winter
months, the plains and.valleys are adorned with
variety of flowers of the moft admirable beauty.
Here is alfo found the tulip-bearing laurel-tree, or
magnolia, which has an exquifite fmell, and con-
tinues tot bloffom and feed for feveral months

 This country is richeft on the higher lands,
exceeding the fineft low grounds in the fettled
parts ot the continent. When cultivated it pro-
duces in common fifty and fixty bufhels per a-
cre; and I have heard it affirmed by credible
perfons, that above one hundred bufhels of good



          ( 25 )
corn were produced from an acre in one feaion.
The firft rate land is too rich for wheat till it has
been reduced by- four or five years cultivation.
 Col. Harrod, a gentleman of veracity in Ken-
tucke, has lately experienced the production of
fmallgraia, and affirms that he had thirty-five
bu(hels of wheat, and fifty bufhels Of rye per a-
 I think in. common the land will produce a.
bout thirty bufbels of wheat, and rye, upon a
moderate computation, per acre; and this is the
general opidion of the inhabitants. We may
fuppofe that barley and oats will increafe abun-
dantly; as yet they have not been fufficiently
tried. The foil is very favourable to flax and
hemp, turnips, potatoes and cotton, which
grow in abundance; and the fecond, third and
fourth rate lands, are as proper for fmall grain.
Thefe accounts of fuch amazing fertility may,
to fome, appear incredible, but are certainly
true. Every hufbandman may have a good gar-
den, or meadow, without water or manure,
where he pleafes. The foil, which is not of a thir.
fty nature, is commonly well fupplied with plen.
tiful fhowers.
 Iron ore and lead are foundin abundance, but we
do not hear of any filver or gold mine as yet dif-
covered4                 The



         ( 26 )
 The weftern waters produce plenty of fith
and fowl. The fifh common to thewaters of the
Ohio are the buffalo-fifh, of a large fize, and
the cat-fifh fometimes exceeding one hundred
weight. Salmons have been taken in Kentucke
weighing thirty weight. The mullet, rock,
perch, gar.fifh, and eel, are here in plenty. It
is faid that there are no trouts in the weftern wa-
ters. Suckers, fun-fifh, and other hook-fifh, are
abundant; but no ihad, or herrings. We may
fuppofe with a degree of certainty, that there
are large fubterraneous aqueduas ftored with fifh,
from whence fine fprings arife in many parts proe
ducing fine hook-hfh in variety. On thefe was
ters, and efpecially on the Ohio, the geefe and
ducks are amazingly numerous.
 The land fowls are turkeys, which are very
frequent, pheafants, partridges, and ravens: The
perraquet, a bird every way refembling a parrot,
but much fmaller; the ivory-bill wood-cock, of
a whitifh colour with a white plume, flies fcream.
ing exceeding fharp. It is afferted, that the bill of
this bird is pure ivory, a circumftnance very fin-
gular i-n the plumy tribe. The great owl re-
fembles its fpecies in other parts, but is remark-
ably different in its vociferation, fometimes mak-
ing a firange, furprifing noife, like a man in the
moft extreme danger and difficulty.




          ( 27 )
 Serpents are not numerous, and are tuch as are
to be found in other parts of the continent, ex-t
cept the bull, the horned and the mockalon
fnakes. Swamps are rare, and confequently
frogs and othei reptiles, common to ruch places.
There are no fwarms of bees, except luch as
have been introduced by the prefent inhabitants.

     Q U A D R U P E D S.
 AMONG the native animals are the urus, or
Zorax, defcribed by Cefar, which we call a buffa-
lo, much refembling a large bull, of a great fize,
with a large head, thick fhort crooked horns,
and broader in his forepart than behind. Upon
his fhoulder is a large lump of flefh, covered with
a thick bofs of long wool and curly hair, of a
dark brown colour. They do not rife from the
ground as our cattle, but fpring up at once up-
on their feet - are of a broad make and diumiy
appearance, with Ihort legs, but ran faft, and
tutn not afide for any thing when chafed, except
a ltanding tree. They weigh from five to ten
hundred weight, are excellent meat, (upplying
the inhabitants in many parts with beef, and
their hides make good leather. I have heard
a hunter affert, he faw ahove one thoufand
buffaloes at the Blue Licks at once, fo nume-
rous were they before the firft fettlers had wan-
tonly iported away their lives. There Rill re-


         ( 28 )
mains a great number in the exterior parts of
the fettlement. They feed upon cane and grafs,
as other cattle, and are innocent harmlefs crea-

 There are ftill to be found many deer, elks and
bears, within the fettlement, and many more. on
the borders of it. There are alfo panthers, wild.
cats, and wolves.

The watershaveplenty of beavers, otters, minks,
and muk-rats: Nor are the animals common to
other parts wanting, fuch as foxes, rabbits, Iquir-
rels, racoons, ground-hogs, pole-cats, and op..
pofiums. Moff of the fpecies of the domeffic
quadrupeds have been introduced fince the fettle-n
ment, fuch as horfes, cows, (heep and hogs,
which are prodigioufly multiplied, fuffered
to run i