xt74xg9f600b https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt74xg9f600b/data/mets.xml   Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. 1945 journals 2_12 English Lexington, Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station. This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station Kentucky fruit notes v.2 n.12. text Kentucky fruit notes v.2 n.12. 1945 2014 true xt74xg9f600b section xt74xg9f600b lelps  
the Vol. 2 NOVEMBER, 1945 No. 12
)NS W. D. Armstrong, Horticulturist, Editor
i the POST MORTEM ON 1945 striking success in controlling cod-
Lex- INSECT AND DISEASE ling moth with DDT spray pro-
nples grams. One orchard often called
Stcrs TROUBLES "main headquarters for codling moth
QW Fruit grower experiences in 1945 Soul}; Ogllhe Ohio giver? Prlggucig
, ac- indicates that t · t d prac ICH y a worm- ree crop. an
num diseases did hor Yégih tiflgfctlie 3,Iar to DDT. Less than half a mile away,
FEL`}? was over. Many diseases were worse On the Sami? PY0P€FtYi Wh€1‘€ DDT
jrgrrr than usual and fruit insects got was oottuserolr there were 20 to 30
more than their share of the peach “’0l`m$ 0 9 3PP €·
‘rll“’ and apple crop. Now that these All indications are that we will
r ml pests are lying low for a while, it have another large carry-over of
‘ of should be a ood time to take codling-moth worms this fall to
ums stock of 1945’s gbattles and prepare cause serious trouble again next
rein {Oi- i945_ year. This fact will make scraping
were of trees, removal of broken and ex-
right C d I _ INISEQTSC f tra high limbs, filling cavities, and
rees. 0 1 n g 0 . arry-over 0 orchard clean-up very important
rpof Forms frpm l94£1]r;*as érealvy with this winter and spring,
{fee l 9 Wm EY mor 6 I Y· H" Y “'3l`¥“ There will certainly be serious
L Weathfr caused Toth? to beam discussion of ways and means to
t_ emerging unusually early but cool rmorore spray programs and man)·
ions weather the latter part of April and wm waht to try DDT_ Thls year
were tjrrgtgintrlfrgf Mor sigéitly Cororloitacg srss again aemensgstea the faet
I _ e ence _per1 an eaye tl t ·_ i._t. t k
0;;; hatching. All this combined to make gggweg     u§2:;$ti—%] gigs?
dances the first bI`OOd lHtG Gnd HS Z1 I`€SUl.t urcs until hayvgst   ggrhgfhgr
, Yellow Transparents were unusual- - ,· ~ V - 1 i s_ The
mers. _ growing earl_ or ate appe
rrry- ly “’0l`mY at h8l`V€$'t Um€· producer of late apples, of course,
ap- The lateness of the first brood has the longest fight.
  attack meant thattl eixtra first broord San Jose Scale. Due to the hot.
rrsr sprays were nee e , sprays w nc dry season of 1944, scale multiplied
oraa. Xl manly] cases 1y;ve1?t{rot1app§icdr enormously and by itlhe winterulof
wr r s ano er resu o ie a e 1l`S 1944-45 there was a eavy pop a-
brood, second brood emergence was tion in man Kentuck a le and
, also late, not becoming heavy until peach orchards. The mild very wet
late ·l]¤gY· lift dl`? \\’§ltll01`1dllg1¤Q winter and unusually early spgring .
· · H9 ¤Y» USUS all CHYY CD- of 1945 kept many growers rom ‘
Dan; . tember was very favorable for cod- getting on their dormant sprays and
,d it ‘ ling moth and the cffcctiveocss of others got them on late or did not ‘
)utHt Q HI`S€Il1C8l d€pOSllS VVHS l`CCll1C€d. IAS ggt gggd (ggvgyggg All thgsg fac-
ro or  L a result, in_western Kentucky, scc- tors resulted in much live scale
owor i ond and thrrd brood worms really in 1945 and this muitipiisd Cgngid-
pray "we¤t to t0W¤” Oil the tlDDl€ CYOD erably during the growing season.
; Old s {md the only \;01`gl·fl`€*€ 9l`0P$idW€l`€ causing much damage to fruit and
., ‘ rn young orc ar s or rn o or- t· es alike.
    chards where effective spraying was Ii; number of oeaeh growers
rpple . contmlwd UP to S€Pt€mb€l` 1- Evoo alarmed at the spread of scale, ap-
 _ eastern Ktmlucky 0l`€`h€ll`d$ had plied summer oil sprays, either just
_  more worms than usual aud §.’1`0\\· after- harvest or both before and
  Us will ¤€€d to ml0¤$l[Y illCll` €f‘ after harvest, irr an attempt to kill
 r forts rn 1946 rf they are to keep thc ··eraw]ers_~ lh any case ah
  heavy l¤0P¤l3tl0¤$ from d€"€`lOl9m9· effective dormant spray program
a- Several Henderson growers had this winter is an absolute "must"

   * in most Kentucky orchards if per- satisfactory spray or dust control.
‘~ manent injury is to be avoided. Spray tests _with DDT in Kentucky
- Curculio. Unusually warm weath· $1150 ¥3eli,l§?/Eoullfglahiilrzlgl g*i;¤Q,,;g¤
c er late in March and in early_ April isis ‘CSt `Dcmiis of the tests wig
caused overwintering curculros to bc sgiwéd in the next number of l
* appear quite early but theyt did th0rFl_u“it Notes ‘ cgi
not appear in numbers excep on ' . _ 1
· the outside rows of a few problem 'Cot Péoco $or`§.o°mg oai p°o°tr;o’ fui
r orchards. This early, spotty appear- o'oS_ og mtueitnod o. pro Veo';1 (FS are
i ance of adults. plus early peach riee1_n_ eugiret (fr ie mtiie els r` BV
development along with cold weath- om; 5 ro leo e ess on per' be
er during much of April was cori- wo omdge no
fusing to growers and made e- U
fective timing of sprays difficult. All _ IHDEEAIEES ’ _ qu
1-sis ¤¤1‘¤¤1i<· 1¤1¤i‘>’ t¤ 1‘1¤<=¤i¤g pr·0bri>i'§ ethic Iifa-St driiiicén $23; it
Y peaches oeveropoo ro o few prob' within the memory of most Ken- Of
. lem orchards. In one Henderson iuciv fl.ungl.Owc1.s Of the major st
orchard, for example, the Elberta n.ui`{ diseases apnic scan peach C0
· Crop rem about ro percent wormy scab cherryeleaf spot brown rot dr
- while a small block of Hales near On émchss and piumS’ fire biighi W
a ravine was 50_ D€1`€€¤t \‘·’01`mY· On pggys and ;;pples—ail were gen- ti·
Jorrmg ooo roorrog reeoroe. eug` erally serious and caused verv
gest that much of this late rniury Severe dsmagc to the i9_i5 {mi, ·
was due to delayed first-brood at- Cm Biiicr mt ususiiy imoihmi ,
teek rsthsr theo o true Seemed serious apple disease in Kentucky.
brood In generer growers who for did not develop to the degree that
lowsd e fom spray program emoe other diseases did Black rot of
through with very good Cureuho grapes caused some serious local
_ control. This season adds more iosscs mit was not igenersny as ·
evidence to the belief that western mvaigm Or as destructive as the
Kentucky Peach grewere in geoereh other diseases mentioned Peach ‘
need to include the mOoth`befOre` leaf curl ewaseserious in a Ifew un-
. harvest dust or spray 1n the control sprayed Orchards Whiie appic Cedar
1 program' rust and quince rust caused un-
Much 31`$€¤i€31 injury to Dcéloh usually heavy losses in apple or-
foliage T€$U1r€d this YQQY fmm thi? chards that were near large growths
€3T1Y lead 3Y$€‘Yl3t€ SDYZIYS f0I` €U1`· of red cedar and in sections where V
culio control. Defoliation was so thsgg djssascs me pl-Gv;;1.gm_
· serious rn some orchards that many Discsscs in gcncisi were cnccni,
growers are considering the use of used by thc, Very Wet, Qsriy spring
moro door opprroorrorrs m Amo ro“ and summer which combined con-
turon Whlch Seom to ooose much ditions favorable for their develop-
ross mJurY· ment and unfavorable for effective
Oriental Fruit Moth. Twig injury $ProYmg· Toror ross or o ¤¤mb~1`  Z
on peaches was hard to find early or _oPPro Crops from mb, rotor or" i
in the Season but   the   Of iiO1lE]tlOI`1 of 'HYHUY SOUP Ch€l`l`y p1Hni‘ K
June, when twig collections were mgs from Chewy roar $Por» Commoro L
made for parasite studiesywilted ross Of Some peach CYOPS {rom F
twigs were rather abundant in broom rot amd rho loo poroom i
many Wcsicin Kcnincks, ci.cnai.cis_ speckrng or frecklrng of other peach g
Harvest counts indicate that orien- orooo rrom pooorrooob brought our i
ini mOth cininiicc Wns nnnsnciiy just how destructive these diseases
severe this past season, running as can be and wamcd CVQYY €l`0“’°r`  ;
high as a fourth of the Elbepta cl-Op that 111 Such years none but the Q
inini.cd_ in cnc ci.chcn.ci7 hciwcvcn best control measures can be ex- ,
Wncrc inc bcncficini ncncsiicy pec_ted to succeed. In spite of these I
Malcroccntrus ancvlivrous Rcnwci. serious disease conditions, a num-
is well established, only 3-percent bor or groofors were omo te Pro'
damage was found. Unfortunately dues, oxooprromrrry ororm amd mgrr _.
most attempts to colonize this para- ooorrrY crops or rrmro rroooroso to s
site in our orchards have failed. Sgiicigr v<;;1;l1sg&ii1;;$t1i*Os   {
MON? damage f1`01T1 0Y1€¤'¤€1l 1110th did not pay off, qand these men are  
has increased the demand for some due a great deal of credit.  
. I
2 I

 uml WHAT ABOUT 4. Groweire; are aclrilised to _give
· ., more a en ion an previous-
gmxg RECONVERSIOPL ly to the selection of the site
whl A_ J_ Olney and soil for any new tree
will _ _ planting and to the best land
_r_ Or Everybody is talking about "re- use on their own farm.
‘ conversion" and the great changes 5. No varieties should be com-
1 h _ that are to take place in the near mercially planted without a
°th‘?* future. Exactly what these changes searching investigation by the
[ IS are to be, no one is able to say. How- grower of their merits from
Or' ever, the fruit interests have always the standpoint of both tree
P"' been alert and can be depended on and fruit qualities and parti-
now to make such changes in their cularly with respect to their
business as the circumstances re- adaptability to the locality
quire. Perhaps no better illustra- where they are to be planted.
“’¤$ tion of this fact could be given than 6. Better varieties are needed
Yoo? the report of the action of a group in most districts.
Koo of horticulturists in the Eastern 7. Plant well-grown, vigorous,
JoJo? States, who met to consider the re- healthy, virus-free trees with
each conversion problems on fruit pro- uniformly strong, congenial
{Tot duction for that area. The group rootstocks.
llight was composed of eminent authori- 8. An increase in the yield per
gon- ties and included the following: acre of a good grade of fruit
very is imperative.
fruit Dr. W. W. Aldrich, U. S. Dept. 9. Every effort should be made
other of Agriculture in cooperation with public
icky. Dr_ R_ D_ Anthony, permsyl_ and private agencies to re-
that Varlla duce the complexity and cost
{   Prof. J. S. Bailey, Massachusetts of Production and morkoll-oS·
Ocue Pref M_ Ar Blake, New Jersey 10. The growers need to assume
Y ab Prof. C. H. Blasberg, Vermont mol`? Iospooolbility fof tho
l the PrOf_ A_ J_ Farley, New Jersey condition of fruits as deliv-
Yeach Dr_ _l_ l.l_ Clarke, Vermerlt ered to the consumer.
_ Enf Dr. O. W. Davidson, New Jersey .
.e ai Dr_ W_ S_ Flery Vlrglnla These recommendations were
un- Mr_ F_ A_ Gllberit New Jersey made specifically for the Eastern
F O1`- Dr_ J_ Hr Geurley ’ Ohio States, but we, in the midwest, may
iwths Dr. A_ _l_ Helnlekey New York well give them careful study.
'yhem Prof. A. L. Kenworthy, Dela- It is evident that these men were
ware concerned about the possibility of
Cool" Dr. S. A. Pieniazek, Rhode over-production if an expansion of
mmg Island the fruit industry should occur dur-
°O“‘ Mr. C. H. Steelman, Jr., New ing the next few years. The recent
dol? . Jersey price level tended to encourage ex-
ch`? Y Here are their recommendations: pansion and considerable planting
mbm ]_ Remove Orchards yvhich are would have taken place if nursery
lraii; 4 unprofitablg either becausg ef stock and labor had been available.
lere age, unfavorable $011 or C11- Of course, some planting will be
gr m matic conditions, Oy unda- 1`€qUll`€d to l°I'l3IIlt3lH pI`OduCtlOH.
regal sirable varieties. _The individual grower must de- ‘
leach 2. No increase in the present cide whether new plantings are
r Our total commercial production needed to maintain his program or
ease; of tree fruits seems desirable would _contr1bute to expans1on._ If
Owe;. under the apparent market- expansion and over-production
the mg conditions. New plantings should develop, profits will become
[ eX_ should be made only to main- low and those who are situated
these tam Prosont P¥`odu€Uo¤ and best will suffer least. It will be
aum_ to secure a_ proper succes- noted that some of the recommenda-
pr0_ sion of plantings. tions are designed to prepare grow-
lllell_ 3. More thought and study ers to _overcome hard times, if a
SS te ° should be g1ven by many depression should come. Whatever
l re_ _ fruit growers to the possibili- the times, it is always good busi- .
eusee   ties of some d1V€l`§1f1C8t1OI'l ness to eliminate factors that tend
1 are _ in their revenue aside from to reduce profits. _ _
  one kind of fruit. In the future more attention will
, 3

   be given to the quality of the pro- ORCHARD MOUSE CONTROL
» ducts that reach the consumer than U I · fi
has been customary heretofore. This bulletin has published much p
Fruit growers should not overlook material from time to time on the y
_ the trend in this·directi0n. damage caused _by orchard mice tI
_ The weirere of the mit industry <¤?e¤<1ew ¤¤d_ we _¤¤ee> end ¤n- ¤
depends on the action Of all the in_ StlLlCT.1OIlS;` fol _ their control. _ This v
dividuals that comprise it. What can “*‘1m“8 1* {lb nnperient and timely 5
_ we do_to help? The recommenda- HOW Us WC1- :1
UQUS 11519d g1V€ 115 S0m€th1¤2 te The accepted and effective poi- E
think 3b0¤t· sons for orchard mice are (ll  
..1-; strychninc-treated grain baits and .
(2) zinc phosphide-fruit or vcge- ti
RABBIT·REPELLENT PAINT table baits. The first of these baits 1
Seve¤‘e1 Stetee 1¤e1¤d1¤¤ Miehi- E13 lLi,£““i$}f£?é13 i°§1`“S$eiX`Qi§2§ ¤‘
. gan, Ohio, Virginia and Illinois, are Ymd to EU ngiwd wm? the Cm I
using and recommending the fol- _“. y     _ ;
· . · _ fruit. These materials can be pur-
lowmg r0Sm`a1cOhO1 ¥abb1t`1€p€1` chased and detailed instructions ob- Y
lent paint for young fruit trees. The gained ‘if mjqdcd from the Colle 8 1
material is easily made at home   `_ ’ _- g (
and the needed ingredients are gen- ef Agu°u1tu1°’ L°)‘mgtOn' Kee
Emmy available tuckyI§>rStheDRode1;t IControl lggivi- . E
' sion, . . cpt. o nterior, est `
Materials and mixing: Dissolve 7 Lafayette, Indiana. -
lbs. of crude, pulverized rosin in 1 {
gal. of ethyl alcohol. A cheap grade t
of denatured ethyl alcohol is satis- PRINCETON STRAWBERRY {
factory. However, wood (methyl) YIELDS 1945 (
alcohol islnot satisfactory for it will j
not disso ve the rosin. (Ohio sug- . j
glesits 1 lb. of rosin to I pt. of alco- R g'   irzlstrong h 2
o .) _epeate pri rosts were t e ·
V Mix the alcohol and rosin in 3 main drawback to the strawberry ‘
ee¤tei¤er with e tight tee Se ee te §f§€$1$$¤1th§ubXEiiS£“ at{°$$F$$2¥ I
Pr.°"€“t €"aPP1·1'°1°¤· If the °°¤‘ ton Kentucky in 1945 A11 varieties
tamu IS Set Ht a Warm mom eee suffered considerable lblossom kill-
shaken occasionally, the rosin in . .- · ·
. . g at taiious times with the late
should dissolve in 24 hours. Warn- blooming Varieties mbabl Suf_
ings are issued not to use heat to fem, . the reatcst logs y
hurry the process because of the g g '
dense: eft hre- Stgawbefrry Fgigds inF?4 Qzart Caates F;cr
App ica ion: Apply the paint with °*‘*`= °' as use °¤*‘ ¤*'V°$
a small paint brush and only when Md *,e;*e,x;r,§,;;;<;,~eg,,;;e;;,,*;g~=e*
the bark is dry. Paint the trunk and ‘
small limbs up as far as a rabbit ,
can reach above the expected snow- _ i Q _¢ nipen- F,,.,,,_
line (about 2 ft,). One application V““°*1' ig >e.,. fj., S35) ness ·
virlillfgive protection all winter. With ,2.2 271 E E3 " " ·
t e irst snow or wetting, the cover- _ "‘f“ if Y" N _ _   1
ing turns white. This change is to Eitliiigwlé ti let I5?   Liilrlfl »
be expected and does not change Tennessee _ __ .
the effectiveness of the treatment.   4 93 118 1-Me ***1*1
The size of the trees and the height sn1ppei—' 4 sc ss M,1z;ir1y v, 1>ii—iii .
og treatment determines the amount Tegngesaee 4 H1 101 T I {__ `_
0 materia used. One gallon gen- ‘ ‘·}“`1’ g!‘f'“
erally treats 125 to 200 2-year-old     25   i?'}Yj,m, éyf?
trees, ¥aytimc I 159 76 V, Early M, Firm
. at €IlIl€.'.‘ ,
* * _ _ Siiprscsigiie 1 142 101 Early M, Firin
11:1 pigepared rabfgt-repellent paint Tzggessee 1 9H 51 Emy W Film
ma e y a specia ormula is avail- _ , ‘ QE , *   `
able by purchase from the District   l 90 57 Lmly Film if
Agent, Rodent Control Section, U. S. 381 1 53 75 lgurly Ifirm .
Dept. of Interior, West Lafayette, 1[}T;S1’b.7!§`¢t1 1 114 76 karly aoft  
Ihdlalla. Blakemore 1 224 150 Early Firm  
‘ l

 LOL '1'he yields here given for 1945 and this variety were shipped to market
for the second crop yea1· in this under commercial refrigeration in
iuch p1ant1ng.1For comparison, the 1944 1945 and they were entirely satis-
the yields, when the plots produced factory as a shipping berry. Massey,
Dice theirdhrst lctrop, are also shown. It is   dark, red high quality, late berry
lh- note wit interest that the only as consistantly been a low pro-
This varieties showing a 1945 increase as ducer. Morgan, a variety received
heh' second year plots over 1944 yields for trial from Tennessee, has had
as first year plots are Tennessee $’1Yt¤3UY 2} CYOD faihlfe both Years
pOi_ Beauty, Tennessee 381 and Morgan. it has frulted here.
(1) This is the second time that Ten- In the testing of yel1ows-resist-
and ¤eS$ee Beauty has shown the teh- ant Blakemore strains, the McUm-
egg gegcyhgosfceosdhgaoxgy producer dur- bers dygllowswesistant stock re-
gaits ’ F Year- ceive irect in 1939 showed one
·h11e   Sgg§0ngFS0h\€g _0f 0};H’lY_ i0B$el;ly sméill spot of yellow plants in 1944
aged 1 - D1_1'l,‘Z,’ erries a e— an no more in 1945. The U. S. D. A.
Cut more herde €0h$1deF¤b1e lead 0YeF strain of yellows-resistant plants
pur- eu Others ihehldmg Te¤¤0SSe€ Ship- obtained also in 1939 has shown no
, Ob. Def- Yea? ih ehd YCHF Out, Blake- yellow plants, to date. Both strains
uege mofelss h_ard to_beat as a commer- seem very_ satisfactory but need
{En- C18 S 1PP1¤g, belly- Te¤¤€SSee Shlp- close watching so that any yellows
)gvi- Def 15 §h0W1¤g_ great D1`0m1Se HS _8 infected plants can be removed as
west Cempalhieh vagety Hhd lgfld igeftglh soon as they show up.
years as roun y outyie e a e-
more. However, the opposite is al-
so true on nligmerous occasions. Ex- STRAWBERRY GROWERS,
perience at rinceton and in com- FALL M L H 1
RY mercial fields near Paducah has U C ING PAYS`
shown that Blakemore suffers heav- W- D- Armstrong
lest from _early frosts while Ten- Since the fall of 1938, strawberry
nessee Shipper suffers more from mulching trials have been under
the late frosts, because of their early way in western Kentucky. Harvest
, and later blossoming time respect- records have shown a consistant
my ively Aise s · tra 1 g‘ ‘ r ffll lh`
k _. , e 'p€1`l€I`lCC a a ucai ain in avor o a mu c mg over
igcg during the summers of 1943 and spring mulching each year, except
Bties 1944 gavestrong evidence that Ten- in the 1939 harvest. This is ex-
km_ nessee Shipper will_not standasum- plained by the fact that the winter
late _ mer drought following its first har- of 1938-39 was one of the mildest
suf- vest, worked out or not worked out, on record and mulching protection
. as well as Blakemore. The variety was not needed by the berry plants
has_a place, however, and further through the winter. During most
S Per limited trial commercial plantings winters, however, weather can be
:5* are encguragiad. Tennessee 393, an egpected that approaches 15°({to 20°_
unname se ection, continues to a ove zero by Christmas an tem-
_ produce well and show promise. peratures that go to zero or below
_   aifkrm, highlquallity brgrry siometinie during the remainder of
~. _ y ar er in co or ian en- e wm er. ,
ESL ‘_ giiizeli 1ie;luty_théat hgstlgiveri you- The average yearly increase for
` Yle 5 3 US $e10h· early December mulching over .
.m Torigesseil Surreihe €0htrh¤e$ to spring mulching or no mulching has
rr ; Yao We » 35 does Meylhher but been 30 crates per acre. When one
_m ;   eso two are darker berries Suit' considers the price that berries have
= gggiilggvstly for home use O1` eeld brought for the past 3 seasons, this
Firm ’ · increase amounts to a handsome
_ ° Of the late berries, Tennessee profit. The greatest increase re-
  , Beauty is by_far the best. During corded was following the sub-zero
rt` roost years smce 1939 and under weather of 1940. During that period
]4[· . . .
"“ Identical conditions, it has doubled temperatures went to 10-l5° below
Fm., fhg yield of Aroma, the now stand- zero with no snow on the gronmd
_ _ ar a e commercial s ipping berry and fall mulched plots averaged 80
,.£,h"‘ ' of Kentugky. Tennessee Beauty is crates per acre more than non-
_ aso muc irmer, more attractive, mulched plots. This same contrast
Q? ,' of better quality than Aroma and held for mulched and non-mulched
i also produces a better row of plants, fields over the district. In addition
rm __ generally. A number of crates of to heavier yields through winter
l 5
· .," :`.  

. 3
li protection of the plants, the mulch the plants to harden up and devel-
that spreads to the middles also op as much as possible before the I
helps prevent soil loss through mulch is applied. $
. erosion. The main objection to fall Old, second year fields generally I
= mulching among growers is the do not benefit from mulch as much (
. fact that they often get a stand of as new, first year plantings. T
wheat, cheat or rye over their fields 5
r from mulch spread in the fall. This T_”T I
i §Z‘§dlf¤1aE?°€i¥€°¤Y2tE?§f by ""°‘°"" THAT 1945 KENTUCKY ‘
SUGGESTIONS The 1945 season was a real prob-
Where possible, cleanly threshed 1¤{¤.>’¤¤r fer Kentucky fruit mc? l
straw, free of seeds, should be used.   dlscascs , WCW the WOTST In ·
Where chaffy or seed infested straw letus me msccts had_, to Ps 1
l ls used, the bales should be Spread watched carefully. The spring was l
J over the fields on their sides with One ef the wettcst On Tcqmd and ;
one or both wires clipped so as to Eh? label Shmtsgc mad'? lt. “°c€S‘ (
» absorb the fall rains and germinate smy fel esch man to Solve his pTOb‘ 1
` all seeds before spreading time. lemsrm hls OWTT Way- Most QT lhclll 4
Straw used from a stack can also dld { Supwh Job Of TV PT`TC€$·,m (
be spread about so as to be wet by genelah _“'€*C gO9d but Pmducllon l
the fall rains; or be forked over so C°,srlri0“§_‘r$ti;lFOOgTT§§r4 A5 were gen Q
that most of the seeds drop out. erally rwld but not Considered l
ADIOUNT TO APPLY severe in Kentucky, wlth the result l
_ that there was very little dormant ·
I1'1 thi? Padufiah section t€$tS haw? winter injury to fruit buds. A warm
ShOW1’1 that lll; to 2 tons of St1'3\V rainy ]\[3rCh, hggvgvgyr brought
PGY HCFB give 3b0¤t thi? b€$t 1`€$ull$ about one of the earliest blossom
on ordinary years. In the _Greenville pgyigdg in years and much Of the 1
Bild BOWIIHS G1`€€T1 SGCUOH 2 WHS fruit in the state was in bloom by
, sh0uld_be about fight while 8f0\1¤d late March or early April. This was
L0l11SV1ll€ Hlld COV1¤gtQY1, 2 to 2*/2 followed by a series of serious frosts
tons should be about right. anal cle/ld sgells durllig April and
t ear y ay. ome of t ese frosts and
TIME T() APPLY freezes caused light to heavy fruit
No set date for mulching can be gig? mcggrllugagragtg gfqghde stag; ’ .
· stated. The plants should be al- A rlly5g6 arid 7 ang Snggll del eq
` lowed to harden up by fall frosts algjut A rll l7_i9 and rl am Kelli
anrl lilght frleiesrl Hgvxgzver, las 3 27_May{) g pf
rue,temuc soul eon an _ ' . .·
and available by late November or 5 rgeflrlfileggisllinnerarimgts lz; Aclyrig
early Deeemheh BY that time the aiids caches gin I'10l`}{hCl;l`)1 edhtral
¤¤¤¤= Stats f¤=¤¤€¤*>1y has wld and egstern_Kentuck in mi broom 1
spells with temperatures as low as · · y u . ·  »
0 and virtually wiped out the crop in ;
10`15 above sem" The best sue' many orchards and low loc tins
gestion seems to be to spread straw- lrl Some Orchards ,rS ln the E; Lérli .
berry mulch ih Kentucky Wheh ment Station orchard at Lexinpton —
temperatures threaten te ge as IOW fruit was borne in the to s of geach A
as 15-20°; for it has been established and apple trees but ngrrc lr? lhc {
that considerable damage to the lOW€r 2/3 or the trees `
‘ strawberry crown is caused by those ln most Soutllcrrr 'rmd Western E
temperatures especially in late No- . . ”
Kentucky peach oichai ds a full l
Vemher er early December befere cro of fruit was set on virtuall all `
the plants have become fully hard- p .· · y
erred peach vaueties, and the apple set
‘ _ _ _ varied from orchard to orchard.
So, 1n general, it seems the time However, the apple crop as a whole
to spread strawberry mulch in Ken- was heavier than in 1944, and that
tucky varies from late November favored Kentucky, due to the gen-  
on through mid-December, depend- erally short national apple crop- ig 
mg 011 the weather. _ the shortest in 20 years. 3
Very early fall mulching is not Strawberry blossoms were also in- g
adv1sable because it 1S desired for jured over the state by the repeated rg
6 éé
r Fi

hc frosts in April. However, enough were: strawberries $7.80 and $8.80
survived to _produce a good crop per crate, peaches $3.66 per bushel
uy in most sections, as a whole. Also, and apples $3.85 per bushel. There
ch due to the long blooming season and were numerous local market gluts
the c0ol_ moist picking season, and breaks, however that were
strawberries were picked and ship- brought about in many cases by
ped over_ a longer period than on local labor shortages. poor distribu-
any prevrous year. tion of local surpluses and, an abun-
dance of low-quality home-orchard
LABQR products.
gx lLabor was the most critically ——————
.· srort item in t e production, har-
lan vesting, and marketing of the 1945 1945 STATE FAIR
Ja'; Kentucky fruit crop. ln general, FRUIT EXHIBITS
rnd lifok ag ijoncegncd "{1"a’ld,,§°““g The amount and the qualit o‘
are,an ong ours oge e`ob _. ‘·.. Y L
gg; done. D_ue to the slow, cool strz£w— flmt Qilhlblted by Kentucky. gum"
em my ¤¤¤¤mg,,S€¥,;>¤ post of this Etiténibir-Kfttiiktfiiii—5"‘i§;,““d
. cro was save . e ar . .' 1 '*V¤$r
ig: crog in western Kentgclrby pgréecski ;mi{afd1§U.¤°t Credit to. the Kem
entcd a tremendous thinning prob- ug. y ml? mdustryr °°n$1d€1`mg the
En- lem that surely would not have S€;1O‘,?S d1?,3§S€¤ Insect, a“d_1&bOI`
red been worked out without the gen- iinugggnét the .g€n€r?1_pubh° Wa?
at gg; U5;. Of. the   germs. Of Br are airrb?r?ZB’r-°°¤°*§“$r§{i?;‘§Z
am. The h,bQ,’Q";Q§,n;“fC8,i,‘f?€S 0§p§’,QfQ§ or the University or Kentuekv,
IIIQ new thinning practices caused them k*F*g€d_ the Mult. exhlblts- and W· D-
im to gain wide use this year and made Slmsjf-long` Princeton Served as
the   large contribution to me pX_OduC_ mrépxerrntendent of the Fruit Depart-
by ron program. F_ `· ‘_ _
.vas The peach harvest labor rob- . ust ?¤.Z¢1¤th·a.f¤¤t¤r¤ 2O`t"3Y
gsts lem was spotted. A number of gow- `lmiic .C¥-hlblg gommmg of 3 Or
and ers solved these problems by their iimlé `E§1QU§°j “ mt t°_J‘ W‘ F€g€n'
and own initiative with the benefit of   LiCctCt` g€f1g€1§\On Cwmy:
rnit certain local situations. In the Hen- ir  ..-“iGn O . ‘· ‘ .l Iccouom-Of
ate. derson section the large crop was C,.Cn$O59?’   hun fiom ·h1S Hin`
on · harvested and packed chief] bv CS .1C`mi. aastmgls m Umon
- Y - Countv. Third went to Mr S C
age pr1soner·of-war labor and the crop HOHO\g.3V d F .th t M' ' '
pril wassaved. ln the Paducah-Mayfield HOHOW,,*,‘ 8% H Gulf N? ,f?‘1§I‘ M·
sec_t1on, where an earlier local de- G,.q\.GS(&` tO I O ‘ 3} IQ ’ m
pril $_1s}1on Iliad bleen made not to estab- {U U (Lung}; d, 1 t h
gars ISI a ranc prisoner-of-war cam , , *9 O0 ISP BY, OD 01101`S
tral needed harvest labor was not avail)- {mam went to the Fégénbush Oi`-
mm able and a Considerable portion Of chards, Buechel. while second went
, in _ the crop was lost for want or pick- t0 M1`, H· M- Heilewasn Ma:~*fie1d, ,
OnS_ mg and packing C,-CwS_ prisoncl-_ and third to S. C. Holloway. May-
rgri- 0f—war labor also harvested a major fl°1d· Th? HOIIOYWYS were. Welceme
ton, Dart of the large Henderson county mr Gxhlbllms m. the fruit depart' n
gach Hpple crop. Other sections solved men? .Th@“` exhibits “Y€}`€ put up
the th€1I` less pressing apple harvest bY th@U` two YOUUS f1`U1'C-gl‘0\\’i¤g
_ proplems and saved their crops i/‘E“SH1?1Ob€l`t Auzlbcfhe SGH Of H-
tern   Witt the exception of some Yellow · O O“’¤Y· an 3XO¤» HTG SON
full ` Transparent crops that had to be ¤fS-C·H=·11¤w=w·
z all harvested in a cornparativel short The Lester Harris orchard of
set i time. y Kevil, McCracken County. again .
ard. sent up some high quality apple ex-
hole PRICES hibits for the bushel, tray and plate
that 1 Au __ _ _ entries. In addition to winning a
gen- tuck pgrces received for 1945 Ken- number of first and second place
yp- ‘ ne _}2hYu1E$_ WCW ECUGYHUY at 01` ribbons, this orchard won Sweeps-
· , Coal ecerlrng for good, Hrst grade, takes honors for the best bushel Of
,m-   mmmézrerally packed products that apples, with Golden Delicious, and
ated g T}$g’€g1`$§)§_ i;1gli§§;€1`€ll1nH1‘lge% gr {he best plate of apples, with
  - w ro esa e ar ring,
 ’ 7
_ ` ..° :-

 · Top honors in grapes and Sweeps- HINTS AND OBSERVATIONS
takes for the best basket and best w_ w_ Mggill
plate went to Joe Bray and Sons
_ Orchards of Bedford, in Trimble Hlfngry world
, County, v The War_1s over but the world
V Mr_ Jgg Bray and Song glgg won lS tstlll fruit lltlflgfy. FI‘CSl't fruit
tgp honors with their fine peach prices are likely to_ hold their own
` exhibits and Sweepstakes honors with SUIDIC food DF1€0S·
Y for the best basket and best plate _
of peaches. Second in the peach ex- Big Bild Wolf
hibit WGINQ to M1`. F1`€d J· W11`Th Apple Scab. As usual this was
\Vltl1 8 IIICG €Xlilblt. H9 also \\’OH pygdugtigri pi·Ob]gm N()_ 1 in Keri.
Sweepstakes honors in pears. lucky apple orchards in 1945. Yet
Mrs. D. C. \Vlth€1`$P00U of AH- some growers had less than l per-
€h01`3E€, J€ff€Y$0¤ County, WOTI 'LOD cent of scab at harvest time.
· honors with her collection of 5 pear
` varieties, and several first prizes Ceiling Prices
On her Separate Variety plateg Three dollars and cighty—fivt·
i "  cents September a le ceilinr with
` DDT NOTICE an tinusual demangpfor applgs was
DDT, the valuable new insgcti- not profitable_te the grower who let
cicle, has received such sensational scab end €`0dl1¤§ m0lh t¤k€ his CYOP-
publicity that many people have V _ _
been led to believe that it will solve }\€€€$$¤i}’ V5- I¤v¢¤i¤¤¤
all insect problems. This, of course. The short pole with a l2" sprar
is not the case, however. for while hose method of thinning peaches
it is very effective against a num- was really a "find." One Kentucky
ber of common and harmful house- commercial peach grower covered
hold pests, including flies, fleas, the subject when he remarked
lice, bedbugs and termites and such "necessity is the mother of inven—
orchard pests as the Codling moth, tion." lt reduced thinning labor
it is known to be harmful to certain 75 pereenr
I vegetable crops, such as beans and
. melons, and to kitl certain pida- Split Nitrogen Aplieations
tor or eneficia) insects. lso, · · · · · _
orchard tests have shown that the ..Ogégmgi.ti5ggi.aggiiiiiagmxc Ogniiig,.
material has to be used about as nnd Cniiv Snnnnci. nnid intgc dividi
frequently as other control meas- Gnds   Kentucky ncncn 0i.cntn.dn
‘ ures if success is to be had. Doubt- in 1945
tes; tDD'I` xviii maken aflarge cont `
ri u ion to t e goo o mankin , ·
but we need to know more about it. D D_'D`T` E""°.'““iQ“‘s k .
In this connection, much work was D T °:"p°1_1m€m$ m cntucf Y gl
done in Kentucky and over the na- i945# t°i°°m1O1 SQYGYQ icasesho 9°_`
tion in mis, and much more will ies m¤~*z,¤¤;2t¤ mow wei
be undertaken in 1946· a.most `a_ knockout. You will ytani
In 1945 DDT tests, carried on in tO hem lt d}SCuSS°d at Om .Wm;?1li
commercial orchards, by the Ken- Frult ,M€€tmg·_ _(Th€r€ li  
tucky Experiment Station, GXC€1_ plenty to be learned about it ye .
lent control was obtained with the . _
Oriental fruit moth in peaches and Lcad Immy t° Pcachcs
the codling moth in apples. These A¥‘$€¤¤t€ Of lsed SDYQYS C%lu$€d
results will be reported in the next l00 f1`€€lU€¤l damage te Pcach leaves
issue of this bulletin, as well as the and twigs this year. More than two
summaries of some other work. Be €_¤1`€Uh0 SD1`€lYS_1D CUNY SP