xt754746qf0c https://nyx.uky.edu/dips/xt754746qf0c/data/mets.xml Butterworth, Hezekiah, 1839-1905. 1882  books b92-186-30607764 English Estes and Lauriat, : Boston : This digital resource may be freely searched and displayed.  Permission must be received for subsequent distribution in print or electronically.  Physical rights are retained by the owning repository.  Copyright is retained in accordance with U. S. copyright laws.  For information about permissions to reproduce or publish, contact the Special Collections Research Center. Balkan Peninsula Description and travel. Soviet Union Description and travel. Zigzag journeys in the Orient  : the Adriatic to the Baltic : a journey of the Zigzag club from Vienna to the Golden Horn, The Euxine, Moscow, and St. Petersburg / by Hezekiah Butterworth. text Zigzag journeys in the Orient  : the Adriatic to the Baltic : a journey of the Zigzag club from Vienna to the Golden Horn, The Euxine, Moscow, and St. Petersburg / by Hezekiah Butterworth. 1882 2002 true xt754746qf0c section xt754746qf0c 
 





























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THE ZIGZAG SERIES.



                 BY

     HEZEKIAH PUTTERWORTH,
OF THE EDITORIAL STAF  OF THE "YOUTH S COMPANION," AND
     CONTRIBUTOR TO "S5. NICHOLAS" MAGAZINE.





            NOW PUBLISHED.
ZIGZAG 70URNE YS IN EUROPE.

ZIGZA G 70 URPNE YS IN CLASSIC LANDS.

ZIGZAG 7OUR P'VEYS IN THE ORIENT.


          TO BE FOLLOWED BY
ZIGZAG 7OURNVE. SYS IV THE OCCIDENT.



I

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TOMMY IN THE BARBER SHOP.

 




Z IGZAG



IN



THE



ORI ENT.



  THE ADRIATIC TO THE BALTIC.



A 7OURNEY OF THE ZIGZAG CLUB FROM VIENNA TO THE GOLDEN
    HORNV, THE EUXI/E, MOSCOW, AND ST. PETERSBURG.


                      BY
          HEZEKIAH BUTTERWORTH,
   AUTHOR OF "ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN EUROPE," "ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN CLASSIC LANDS,"
            " YOUNG FOLKS' HISTORY OF AMERICA," ETC.



FULLY ILL USTRA TED.



      B O
ESTES A



STON:
ND LAURIAT.
1882.



JO UR NEY S

 





































      Copyrigzt, 1881,
BY ESTES AND LAURIAT.

      Aid Rig/its Reserved.

 











                       PRE F ACE.




                H IS volume seeks to make clear the so-called East-
                ern Question to young people.
                     It is fully supplied with stories and illustrations,
                 as it is the design that all of the Zigzag books
                 shall be. That this method is acceptable to the
young is proved by the sale of nearly fifty thousand volumes of " ZiGc-
ZAG JOURNEYS IN EUROPE " and  ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN ClASSic LANDS,"
and by the free use of these books in schools as collateral readings.
WVhile in this volume the writer seeks to amuse and entertain, his
better motive has been to leave in the mind a correct understanding
of the politics of Europe that depend on the Eastei-n Question, so
that the reader may take a more intelligent interest in foreign polit-
ical affairs.
   The writer is indebted to GEORGE M. TOWLE, Esq., for a number
of paragraphs that clearly explain the politics of the East, and to
Miss EDNA DEAN PROCTOR, author of "A Russian Journey," for the
last part of the chapter on St. Petersburg.



H. It.

 This page in the original text is blank.


 
















CON T ENT S.



CHAPTER
   I. A CURIOUS JOURNEY PROPOSED

   II. STORIES ABOUT CONSTANTINOPLE

 III. THE EASTERN QUESTION.

 IV. MOHAMIMEDAN WORSHIP .

 V. VIENNA AND THE DANUBE

 VI. THE CRUSADES .

 VII. THE STORY OF MONTENEGRO

VIII. BULGARIA AND THE DARDANELLES .

IX. CONSTANTINOPLE

  X. THE BLACK SEA

  XI. SEBASTOPOL.

XII. THE COSSACKS ..

XIII. Moscow .........

XIV. NIJNi NOVGOROD

XV. S1. PETERSBURG

XVI. THE ASSASSINATION OF THE CZAR.



                ;3AR
                1 5

                3 1

                43

                67

.I

                115

                137

                153

                [ 73

                [90

                221

                '.42



                5 78I
. . ... .  . . .  . 7   



.. . ... . . .  . .  . .  .  3 I1



. . . . .





. . . . .










. . . . .

. . . . .



. . . . .

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ILLUST RAT IONS.



                                     PAGE
Tommy in th' Barber Shop  . Frontispiece.  Gate at Erzeroum .
Alexander's Column . . . . . . .      14  Mosque at Hoogly
Nijni Novgorod  . . . . . . . .       17  The two Bears broughlt into Court
Women of Mlitau . . . . . . . .       19   The Bears recognizing the Goldsmith
Women of Novgorod . . . . .      .    20   Sultan Bajazet's Mosque at Broussa
Calmuck Tartars . . . . . . . .       21   An Eastern Scene .
Kirg uis Tartars. . . . . . . .       23  The Prater .
A Tunguzian Dance at the Fair . . .   25  St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna
\Wallacchian. . . . . . . . . .       27  The Belvedere, Vienna .
I)ervish. . . . . . . . . . .         28   Church of St. Charles Borronleo, Vienna
Interior of St. Isaac's Catlhcdral, St.   Viewv of Lintz
  Petersburg ...     ..    ..   . .   29   Monastery of M     ..lk.
Turkislh Mlosque. . . . . . . .       33   Xiew of I'assau
Fail in the Orient .37 Dancing Do,s.
A Mohammedan    . . . . . . . .       40   Little Violinist .
General View of the Kremlin . . . .   41   The Danube at Lintz .
Statue of Peter the Great .   . . . .44    The Ouan and Castle at l'resl)urL_1
Russian Soldiers. . . . . . . .       45   " Mforiamur pro rege nostro) "
Russian Veterans. . . . . . . .            B Bridge at Pesth .
Map of the Overland Route to the East  49  Tlhe Danube at Buda .
Ma1) of the Suez Canal. . . . . .     5     uav at Pesth .
Constantine. . . . . . . . . .        55   Citadel at Pest  .
Huns on a Foray . . . . . . . .       56   Viewv in Vienna.
I'ilgrims to Mecca . . . . . . .      57   " The Mfaid had changed her Minil
Ancient Gate of an Eastern Town  . .  59   The I)octor "ci ekshal/ii.'e.  .
Mohammedan Street Scene    . . . .    6o   The I)octor followed by the Bear
Travellers and Palm-Trees . . . . .   62   The Doctor clhased b)y tlhe Bear
An Eastern Entertainment . . . . .    63 1 " I have left myself all along the \\ay
Arabian Travellers . . . . . . .      64     and have flllen all to Pieces'.
Mosque of Omar, Jerusalem  . . . .    6;   Castle on the Danube
Interior Court of a Persian 'Mosque . .  68  City of IBelgracle
Door of Mosque of 13ou-Medina . .     69   Fortress of lleigrade .
Minaret of Semnoon . . . . . . .      71   Crusaders on thieir Way .



i' .\1;- E
_,
75
77
7y
79
.So
S-
83

87
89
90
(I
93
(4
95
96
(7
100
I0 1
103
104

107
100




110
III

I 12
113

117
0S

 






1  ILL US 7' Y1 YOA'



Allegorical Picture of Charlemagne
Crusaders perishing by the Way .
Wayside Shrine in the East  .
The Victorious Crusade . . . . .
Servian Peasants . . . .
Servian Head-Dresses  . .     . .
Priest of the Greek Church
George II .
'-Thou art betraved! "
Proclaiming the Crusades
Montenegrins          . ..
Among the Peaks ..
Montenegrin Cavalry
Montenegrin Boy .
Senator of Montenegro .      . .
Black Mountains .
A Montenegrin Soldier .
Montenegrin Girl ..  .   . . . . .
Bulgarian Trampss.
A Garden of Beauty .
Hedjadj passing the Palace
Naam's Palace .
The Sorceress .
Naam's Garden
House of the Governor .
House of Numan's Father .
Constantinople.
Golden Horn, from  a Kiosque in the
  Seraglio.
Parlor in the Seraglio
Dervishes
H orizontorium.
Fountain in the Seraglio
National Enmblem of Russia
Great Seal of Ancient Russia .
The Winter Palace
View of Plevna
Trebizond Seashore .
Erzeroumr
Fortifications of Trebizond   ...  .
Armenian Martyrs
Russian Marriage Ceremony   .
A Garden Scene.



PAGEI
119I Charge of the Light Brigade
120 Voltaire.
r21  Diderot and Catherine II. .
122  Capture of the Malakoff
123  The Young Soldier
125! Russian Worship.
i26  " A  Dutch Skipper told it me many,



128
129
134
135
138
'39
142
143
145 1
147
149
151  
I -r 7
1()1
163
i64
t65
i66
167
171



t73
179
183
184
187
191
193
197
201
205
2r,9
211
213
217
220



  many Year ago "
Mlazeppa .
IJ'unerai of a poor Russian .
M'vilitary Evolutions of the Russian Army
Krassnaya Square.   . . . . . .
lalace of Petrowsky.
St. Nicholas Church and Gate
Czar Kolokol .........
IVassili-Blagennoy (Church of thre Pro-
  tection of Mary)
Granovitayal Palata  .......
The Red Gate .
Russian Sledges
A Cossack.
A Droslhky Doy
Nijni Novgorod during the Fair
Inhabitant of Niini Novgorod .
A Russian Gypsy .
Card-play ing in Bar es on the Volga
The three Witches in the Cave
Bulgarian Begar . . . . . .
Bears in a Siberian Village .
A Baba Yaga.
Convicts on their Way to Siberia
Village on the Route to St. Petersburg .
The Cottage of Peter the Great
William Ill., Prince of Orange
A Monastery in Northern Russii
St. Isaac's Cathedral .
The Exchange .
Nevski Prospekt . . . . .
Nicholas Bridge
Assassination of the Czar
Alexander II. lying in State  .
Inauouration of Alexander Ill.
Cran.stadt



PAGE
223
227
231
235
238
239

244
245
249
253
258
259
261
262

263
265
267
272
273
275
277
279
280
281
282
283
284
2S7
291
293
295
296
298
302
303
305
307
309
313
317
320



I
I


I



I 2

 

















ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN THE ORIENT.


 



















































































ALEXANDER'S COLUMN.


 












   ZIGZAG JOURNEYS IN THE ORIENT.




                       CHAPTER I.

                 A CURIOUS JOURNEY 1PROPOSED.

TOMMY TOBY PROPOSES A CURIOUS JOURNEY. -THE GREAT EASTERN QUESTION. -- IE
                 WONDERFUL FAIR AT NIJNI NOVGOROD.

             N the first volume of the Zigzag Series of books,
                  we gave an account of the travels of an American
            __   teacher and a class of boys in England, Scotland,
                  Belgium, and France. The book was called " Zig,-
                  zag, Journeys in Europe," the teacher's name Mas-
                  ter Lewis, and two of the boys were Tommy Toby
                  and Wyllys Winn. In the second volume of thie
                  series, called "Zigzag Journeys in Classic Lands,"
                  the same class visited the scenes of their classical
                  studies, -the provinces of the old Roman Emnpire,
                2 Greece, Sicily, and Rome, ascending Mt. Parnassus,
                  and crossing the waters passed over by Ulysses,
                  i/neas, and the Apostle Paul. This party of va-
cation excursionists were joined at Maarseilles by another teacher of the
school and three other boys. The teacher was Mr. Beal, and one of
the boys, who had a very inquiring mind, we called Charlie Leland.
We left these tourists at Rome.

 



ZIGZAG 7OURNEYS IN THE ORIENT.



    It was midsummer. Nothing could exceed in beauty the deep,
 glowing splendors of the Italian sky. The evenings were delicious,
 and the boys wished to spend them in the public places.
    "Where shall we go on leaving Rome" asked Tommy Toby of
 Master Lewis, on the last evening the party spent at Rome.
    " I shall take the Class to Florence to-morrow."
    In former volumes, we have used the word CLASS to designate Mas-
ter Lewis and his pupils, and we will do the same in this. The teacher
was accustomed to speak of his pupils who made journeys with him as
THE CLASS.
    " But why need we so soon leave Rome " asked Tommy. " It is
nearly two months before the beginning of the school year."
   " The air at Rome in the evening is malarious at this time of year,
and the Class is so impatient of restraint, I do not longer dare to ex-
pose them to danger."
   " But where shall we go from Florence 
   " We will consider that question when we arrive at that healthful
city. W\here would you like to go"
   " To Russia."
   " To Russia  What has turned your curiosity in that direction "
   " I should then learn all about the great Eastern Question.'
   The boys, who overheard the conversation, clapped their hands at
this unexpected answer. Of all the members of the Class, Tommy
Toby was the least likely to desire to mnaster political problems.
     T he great Eastern Question!'" repeated Master Lewis slowly.
"Thank you for the suggestion. The whole Class ought to understand
the question, and all of its bearings on European politics. When we
are, in Florence, I will explain this question clearly to you all. This
is, in, part, an educational journey, you know. But, Tommy, the
boys seem rather to doubt the truth of your smart answer, and I myself
think that such an uncommon thirst for knowledge on your part is almost
too good to be true. What has interested you in the Eastern Question  "



I 6


 













































C,

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A CURIOUS 7OURNEY PROPOSED.



   " Perhaps he wishes
Sick Man of Turkey"



to go to St. Petersburg
said Mr. Beal.



to inquire after the



WOMEN OF AITTAU.



   'Xho is the Sick Man of Turkey" asked Charlie Leland. " I
have heard of him ever since I could read. Has n't he recovered vet  "



I g


 





ZIGZAG 70 UR NE YS IN THE ORIENT.



" No," said Mr. Beal; " lie is worse."
"' Incurable  " asked Charlie.



WOMEN OF NOVGOROD.



' I think he is sure to lie," said Mr. Beal.
"What ails him" asked Charlie.



20


 






















































































CALMUCK TARTARS.

 This page in the original text is blank.


 





A CURIOUS 7OURNEI' PROPOSED.



   ",The European climate don't
needs a change of air."



agree with



his constitution.



KIRGUIS TARTARS.



   " Russia and Greece would help him to a change of air very speed-
ily, were it not for Engh-,ind." said Master Lewis.



He



23



'P

 




ZIGZA G 70 URNLE Y'S IYV THE OR IENT 7.



    This conversation excited the curiosity of the boys, who gathered
closely around Master Lewis, saying,
    " Please tell us about the Eastern Question."
    " When we are settled in a cool hotel in Florence, I will do so,"
said Master Lewis. " Bult, Tommy, you have not yet answered my
question, -' What turned your curiosity towards Russia '"
    "I once heard father read to mother, when she was ill, a book called
 A Russian Journey."
   " Well, was it interesting
   " It was goorgeous. Father said it was 'a masterpiece of the pictur-
esque Latin style.' I like a part of it."
   " What part of it  " asked Master Lewis.
   " The part of it that told about a great fair. This part begins with
some poetry, and I have always remembered it."
   i The poetry 
   " Yes."
   " What is it"
   " It commences,-
                      "'Now, by the Tower of Babel,
                         Was ever such a crowd 
                         Here Turks and 7ews and gypsi s.
                         There -'

'There' I 'there'- There, I forget the rest. But I always remem-
bered 'The Turks and Jews and gypsies;' and I used to think, if I
ever travelled, That would be the place to which I would go."
   The Class laughed.
   "Now we have light indeed," said Mr. Beal. "He would like to
go to the Fair of Nijni Novgorod."
   " Tha 's the place," said Tommy. " A very poetic name."
   " The Fair begins about this time of year," said Mr. Beal,-" a lit-
tle later."



24


 





















































































A TUNGUZIAN DANCE AT THE FAIR.

 This page in the original text is blank.


 




A1 CURIOUS _7o0RNEY PROPOSED.



   iHow long does
it last" asked Mas-
ter Lewis.
   "Nearly     two
months," said Mr.
Beal. "Tommy's
idea is not a bad one:
if a traveller wished to
see all of Europe and
Asia represented in
one place, why, the
place of all others
would be Nijni Nov-
gorod in August. It
is the most remar-ka-
ble fair the world ever
saw.   Russians,
French, English, Per-
siaris, Chinese, Cos-
sacks, 'I'artars, noble-
men, fine ladies, fab-
ric - makers, peasant
girls, all gather here,
and -"
   "And the Turks
and gypsies," interpo-
lated Tommy. " You
forgot thenm. I think
they must be very
interesting."
   "And engage iII
a traffic on the banks



W'Al.1. LAC'H IAN.



27



I
i    I -      I



WrT


 




28ZIGZAG 70URNE YS IiV THE ORIENT.



of the Volga, that amounts to 25,000,000 annually," finished Mr.
Beal.
    "And they have puppet-shows every evening," added Tommy.
                                     "And the gypsies dance, and
                                     the dervishes howl, and the j u-
                                     glers swallow their heads, and
                                     the Arabs tell stories; and what
                                     a boy cannot learn there is n't
                                     worth knowing."
                                         I think Iwould like to go,
                                     said Charlie Leland.
                                         "Charlie is becoming inter-
                                     ested in the great Eastern
                                     Question," said Master Lewvis
                                     dryly. " Perhaps hie, too, would
                                     like to hear the dervishes howl,
                                   I though I think that would not
                                     be very likely to happen at thie
                                     Fair of Nijiii Novgorod."
              DERVISH.                  Here thc conver-sation end-
ed; but the boys had becdme curious to understand the Eastern Ques-
tion, and to learn more about the great fair of the Russias.



28


 





















































































INTERIOR OF ST. ISAAC'S CATHEDRAL., ST. PETERSBURG.

 This page in the original text is blank.


 












CHAPTER II.



                STORIES ABOUT CONSTANTINOPLE.

AIR. BEAL TELLS SOME REMARKABLE STORIES ABOUT CONSTAN'TINOPLE AND THE STRANGE
                           FAIR AT NIJmT.

                LORENCE, beautiful Florence, the Fiesole of the
                  poets, on the Arno! Here Savonarola preached
   F  9    i      and perished; here lived Galileo, Dante, Michael
                  Angelo; here art piles itself on art, until its very
                  loftiness is gloomy; the travelled foreigner hastens
 ________________ to it with gladness, and is slow to depart. Its air is
 balm, the sky is enchantment, and the society abounds in the wvinnilng
 graces of simple but elegant refinement.
   We do not intend to describe Florence here. A part of our tour-
ists made it the starting-point of a journey to Ober-Ammergau and
Switzerland, as you shall presently be told, and should we prepare a
volume of Zigzag Journeys in Switzerland, Germany, and on the Rhine,
we should wish to give a chapter to Florence in that, in connection with
the history of this part of the Class, and so omit the description of the
city in this. Suffice it to say, the Class went to Florence, and in its
salubrious air Master Lewis was relieved of all fear of Roman fever.
   No sooner wvas the Class settled in Florence for a few days, than
Tommy Toby renewed his suggestion of a journey to the East.
   "I have been studying the map in my guide-book," he said to Alas-
ter Lewis.
   " Well, what have you found"

 



ZIGZAG 70UR,\EYS IN THE ORIENT.



    " This," said Tommy, pointing to a pencil-mark route he had made
 on a piece of paper.
    Master Lewis read slowly,-
    "'Vienna - the Danube-Belgrade- Rtstchuc -Constantino-
 ple - Sebastopol - Poltova - Kiev -Moscow, and -'"
    " Niijii-Novgorod," said Tommy helpfully.
    " Then St. Petersbur-," continued Master Lewis.
    " Then home," finished Tommy. " That makes a fine zigzag on
the map."
    " Very," said Master Lewis.
    " And would be a really fine midsummer journey," said Mr. Beal.
"You would go down the Danube amid some of the most beautiful
scenery in Europe."
   "It would be a rather expensive journey," said Master Lewis, " and
there are but three boys whose parents gave me permission to act
according to my judgment in the matter of routes and expenses. I had
intended to return to England by the way of Switzerland and the
Rhine. I would like to go down the Danube, make an excursion
trlloug  the Turkish principalities, and then visit Russia, if it were
practicable."
   i I will return by the way of Switzerland with a part of the Class,"
said Mr. Beal, " and you can go East with the others."
   "Of course I had thought before of these plans that Tommy has
popped upon us, but I hardly deemed it prudent to mention it then. I
will consider the subject."
   " I)id you think of Nijni before I spoke of it " asked Tommy.
   " Well, no, not exactly that; but the general plan - Constantino-
ple - Sebastopol - Moscow - St. Petersburg."
   " You have visited Constantinople,. I believe," said Master Lewis to
Mr. Beal.
   " Yes, fifteen years ago, before the Sultan was shorn of his glory.
The Sultan hardly dares to appear in the street now, and he worships



32


 











































































TURKISH MOSQUE.

 This page in the original text is blank.

 




STORIES A BOUT COA'STANTINOPLE.



in a private mosque. Then he went to the mosque in triumphal pro-
cession, and all the city bowed down before him.
    " I well remember a scene I once saw there on a certain Friday,
which day is the Turkish Sabbath. The Sultan, who is believed to be
the representative of Mohammed on earth, was to go in state to the
mosque. Crowds filled the streets. The road through which his au-
gust majesty was to pass was lined with soldiers. A great booming of
cannon was heard on the Bosphorus, for the Sultan was crossing the
Bosphorus from one of his summer palaces. From the time that he
stepped into his royal cafque, until he reached the European shore, a
continuous salute was fired from the Turklish men-of-war lying at anchor
in the channel.
   " Flags fluttered from all the shipping.
   " He landed amid a flourish of trumpets, mounted a splendid black
horse, and followed a procession of officers of state, who walked, lead-
ing their horses by the bridle, so as to make him the one prominent
figure of the pageant. He was dressed in red fez, and wore a glit-
tering uniform. He dismounted at the mosque on a piece of embroid-
ered velvet, and entered the edifice amid the salaams of the officers.
Such a going to church as that I never saw, nor such an exhibition of
vanity. He seemed to think himself a god.
   iI will tell you one or two odd adventures I had on my arrival at
the city. If you should go East, they may be of service to you."
   The Class gathered closely around Mr. Beal, while he related the
story of

                   MY ANCIENT FRIEND "1 OSIP."
   When I arrived at Constantinople, I expected to find myself a stranger in
a strange city. I was no sooner free from the health officer than I was greatly
surprised at the number of people who came on board the ship, gathered about
me, and found in me a long-expected friend.
   "I knew you were coming," said one of the most affectionate of these. "I
have been looking for you several weeks."



35

 





ZIGZAG 70URNE YS LV THE ORIENT.



    " You Who are you  I never heard of you before."
    "I Don't you know me I am 'Osip.' Want a dragoman, sir"
    "'Osip' I have no friends in Constantinople. I never heard that name
 before. 'Osip'"
     ;'Osip '-old 'Osip.' I knew you as soon as I saw you. I am 'Osip.'"
     Then my Sunday-school training came to my assistance, and I understood
 the meaning,-" I am Joseph," - and this was perhaps a long-lost brother, who
 had been watching for me at the harbor, and who had now come in his caYque to
 meet me.
    I should, however, have dismissed Joseph at once, without stopping for fur-
ther explanation, had not such a crowd of liars and vagabonds surrounded me
that I hardly dared to move.
    "English consul sent me, sir."
    "American consul sent me, sir."
    "I met you before, sir, - England."
    "Backshish ! Backshish ! "
    "Joseph," said I, "take me to the custom-house."
    My other long-forgotten acquaintances at once deserted me, and I wvas
taken by old " Osip " to the place of inspection.
    "Are you sure you ever met me before  " asked I, on parting.
    "Are you not GaptVain Victor, of the Royal Hussars  "
    How grand that sounded! One would be almost tempted to let the matter
pass after such a flattering question.
   " No; I am an American," said I.
   " An Amterican ! I beg pardon!  What a mistake!  I thought you were
Captain Victor; you look like him. A noble man is Captain Victor, and a true
gentleman. Always employs me. Liberal-souled man. Beg pardon, sir. Hope
you will forgive me, sir. Pay, sir."
   I say it with shame, but there was something so friendly in the flattery of
this old liar that I paid him uncommonly well. I understood the trick perfectly,
yet his friendliness so met the wants of my lonely situation that I wvas generously
inclined towards him, though, when I came to consider the matter, my conduct
did look to me like rewarding deception. I parted with my long-lost brother at
the American consulate, and never saw him again ; but I never hear the words,
"I am Joseph," repeated, that I do not recall this unexpected meeting with " Osip."

   "Have any of your friends ever visited the Fair at Nijni  " asked
Master Lewis of Mr. Beal, after the bols had retired for the night.



36


 







































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STORIES ABOUT CONSTANTINOPLE.



    " Yes, - Senator D      . I think it was just before he was a candi-
date for President of the United States, but am not certain as to the
exact time.   He had a fearful experience, and I thought I would not
tell it before the boys; all such dangers seem to be past now.  He re-
lated a part of it to me once, as we were walking through Pennsylvania
Avenue in WMashington, towards the Capitol, and he stopped under the
Senate wing for some minutes to finish it.   I shall never forget that
narrative.


    THE AMERICAN SENATOR'S FLIGHT FROM            NIJNI NOVGOROD.

    Many years ago, the senator of whom I was speaking resolved to increase
his knowledge of foreign affairs, political and commercial, by visiting Russia in
midsummer.
   Immediately on his arrival in Russia, his ears were filled with the news of
the wonderful Fair at Nijni Novgorod, and he resolved to attend. He received
every polite attention from the officers of the Russian government, and a carriage
and courier were provided him to make the journey to the Fair. As he approached
the fantastic summer town on the Volga, he was surprised to meet people of all
neighboring nations, hurrying in different directions, -iEnglish, French, Jewvs,
Tartars, Cossacks, gypsies, clad in every conceivable costume, speaking unknown
dialects, but all wearing a common look of terror and anxiety.
   He entered the town. Such a sight he never beheld. In the thousands of
shops, the tea marts, the bazaars of silks and jewels, the yards of iron, amid the
caravans of Asia and in booths of the Jews and camps of the gypsies, all was
terror. He knew not what it meant. As greatly as the people and costumes
differed, there was no difference in the aspect of anxiety on every face. The
tradespeople stood guard by their goods, but the visitors seemed everywhere
leaving the city.
   Sick people were everywhere to be seen. They lay by the wayside, their
fever fanned by the cool breezes of the Volga.
   The courier drove past the church.
   The senator saw that the ground around the church was full of people,-
motionless people, shunned people. There were other people staggering towards
the church.
   The senator called to the courier,-



39


 





ZIGZAG 70URNE YS lI THE ORIENT.



40



    " What does this mean  "
    "Don't you know  -the plague!"
    "And those people "
    "They are dying of the plague. They have crept up to the shadow of the
holy church to die."
    "This is dreadful !"
    "Your honor"
    "What  "
    "What would become of you, if I should die"
    " Courier  "
    " What, your honor "
    " Drive to Moscow. Fly!"
    The road leading to Moscow was bestrewn with the sick and dying. Every-
where crowds were flying in terror. There were carriages of nobles and people of
wealth, that were furnished with pictures of crosses and the Virgin, on which the
eyes of the affrighted occupants might rest should death overtake them.
   The senator at last saw with relief the towers of the Kremlin rising in the
blue distance. He reached Moscow in safety, beyond the reach of the pestilen-
tial air. He declared that he could never forget the scenes of woe, horror, and
despair that he witnessed'during that ride.


 































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CHAPTER III.



                     THE EASTERN QUESTION.

  MASTER LEWIS EXPLAINS THE EASTERN QUESTION, AND MR. BEAL RELATES SOME
                        MOSLEM STORIES.

               NE   delicious evening at Florence, Wyllys Winn

                    " I have been reading what our books of travel
                 say about the Eastern Question, and I confess I do
                 not understand it at all."
                    "Perhaps Tommy can explain it," said Master
Lewis.
    I do not wish to understand it nzow. I am going to find out all
about it when we reach the East."
   " If Wyllys would like the secret history of the Eastern Question,
I can give it in a very few words," said Mr. Beal. " Peter the Great,
who founded the Russian empire, left it as a mission to his successors
to conquer Constantinople, and to make that city the capital of the
Greek church. This the Russian Government desires to do."
   " But why does it not do it " asked Wyllys.
   " Because Europe will not permit it."
   " The subject now appears to me more dark and mysterious than
ever," said Wyllys. " I do not understand
   "What " asked Mr. Beal.
   "Firsl, why Russia should be ambitious, with all of her great terri-
tory, to possess Constantinople.


 




ZIGZAG 70URNE  L LV THE ORIENT.



44



   "Second, why England and other Christian countries should side
with the Turks against Russia."
   "Your points are xvell made," said Master Lewis. " Let me try to
make the subject more clear.



                     STATUE OF PETER TCHE GREAT.
   "In the first place, let us recall three facts. One is, that Constan-
tinople, the present capital of Turkey, was the seat of the Greek Church,
of which the Czar of Russia is now the head, before the Turks invaded
Europe.
   "The second is, that a large portion of the inhabitants of Turkey
are not only Christians, but are Sciaves; that is, of the same race and
blood as the great body of the Russians themselves.


 














































































RUSSIAN SOLDIERS.

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THE EASTERN QUESTION.



47



    ",The third fact to be kept in mind is, that for two centuries
Russia has coveted Constantinople, not only because of her ambition
that that city should once more be the capital of the Greek Church,
but because she desires to be a great naval power. Now, the pos-
session of Constantinople would give her the conmmand not only of
the Black Sea, but also of the Eastern Mediterranean.
   " The Crimean War was the result of an attempt to make this con-
quest on the part of the Czar Nicholas; but En-land and France came
to the Sultan's rescue, and Russian ambition was checked by the fall
of Sebastopol.
   " Russia still covets Constantinople, and is believed to be at this
moment taking advantage of Turkey's difficulties with that end in view.
She encouraged the rebellions in Bosnia and Bulgaria, and undoubtedly
urged Servia to declare war against Turkey."
   "But what concern has England, so far distant, in this trouble
between Russia and Turkey"